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Capjright, Tpof 
By Dam a Estu tt Comfakt 

SKItrtdat Statkiwi Hail 

Coloniil PrcM ; Elcctroiypcd and Printed by 
C. H, Siinonds& Co., Boston, Muj., U. S. A. 



Pabt tbk First 3 

Part thi Sicokd 290 



The Complbtb Works or 







by Google 


-ilABtArA BTABTM VP" (p. ^ . • • FiwUupiM 

Ft«m Painttnffbvt- O. FdMvmak. 
The Jokt • 48 

Frmn FolnHiv *» *■ O- P^fmak. 
VlBtTiHO Dat at the Pribok 209 

AVM Pulntffv &V £- O- P>IM»nUtk. 

jy«M f^UaHtw Ay £. O. Patfmak. 




Parts I. and II. 


by Google 


"nien oune Fetw to him, vid said, Loid.haw often AtU 
m; brother bjd agaitut me, and 1 torgive nim t till eeren 

"Jesus sallh OQta him, I aaj not unto tbee, UotU seTen 
dmea ; but UutU seventr times sevsn." (Uatt. xviiL 31^23.) 

" And why beholdest tbon tha mote that is in thy brother's 
ne, but coDsidBTest not Uke beam that Is in thine own ^e i " 
(Matt. Til 3.) 

"He that la nithont sin among yoo, let him first oast a 
Mone at her. " (John tUL 7.) 

"The disciple fa not above his master: bat erery one tlutt 
ii perfect aSim be as liis master." (Luke rt 40.) 


Ko m&tter bow people, coDgr^fatii^ in one small sppt 
to the number of several hundred thousand, tried to 
deform tiie earth on which thej were jostling ; how thej 
paved &e earth with stones, that nothing might grow 
upon it ; how they weeded out every spronting hlade ; how 
they smoked up the air with coal and naphtha; how tJiey 
. lopped the trees and expelled all animals and birds ; — 
spring was spring, even in the dty. The snn gave 
warmth ; the grass, reviving, grew strong and lash wher- 
ever it had not been scraped away, not only on the 
gieenswaids of the boulevards, but also between the Sag- 



stones ; and the birches, the poplars, and the bird-oherriea 
had unfolded their viscid, fragrant leaves, and the lindens 
had swelled tJieir bursting buds ; the jackdaws, the 
sparrows, and the pigeons were cheerfully building their 
vernal nests, and the flies, warmed by the sun, were 
buzzing along the walls. Happy were the plants, and the 
birds, and the insects, and the children. But the people 

— the big, the grown people — did not stop cheating and 
tormenting themselves and each other. People regarded 
as sacred and important not this spring morning, nor this 
beauty of God's world, given to all creatorea to enjoy, 

— a beauty which disposes to peace, concord, and love, — 
but that which they themselves had invented, in order to 
mle over each other. 

Thus, in the ofBce of the provincial prison, what they 
r^rded as sacred and important was not that the blissf ul- 
ness and joy of spring had been given to all animals and 
to all people, but that on the previous day a numbered 
document, bearing a seal and a superscription, had been 
received, which Eoid that at nine o'clock in the morning, 
of this, the twenty-e^hth of April, three ptiaonera, two 
women and one man, who were kept in the prison subject 
to a judicial inquest, should be brought to the court-house. 
One of these women, being the most important criminal, 
was to be delivered separately. 

. To carry out this instruction, the chief warden entered, 
at ei^t o'clock of the twenty-eighth of April, the malo- 
dorous corridor of the women's department. He was 
followed by a woman with a care-worn face and curling 
gray hair, wearing a jersey, with sleeves bordered by 
galloons, and girded with a blue-edged belt. This was 
the matron. 

"Do you want MdeHova?" she asked, going up with 
the warden of the day to one of the cell doors which 
opened into the corridor. 

The warden, rattling his keys, turned the lock, and open- 



iDg the door of the ceU, from vhich burst forth an even 
r Btench than there was in the corridor, called out : 

" Mfelova, to court 1 " and again dosed the door, while 
waiting for her to come. 

Even in the prison yard there was the briak, vivifying 
air of the fields, wafted to the city by the wind. But in 
tiiB corridor there was a distreeeing, jail-fever atmosphere, 
aatorated by the odour of excrements, tar, and decay, 
which immediately cast a gloom of sadness on every new- 
comer. The same feehng was now experienced by the 
matron, who had just arrived from the outside, notwith- 
standing the fact that she was accustomed to this foul 
air. The moment she entered the corridor she waa over- 
come by fatigue, and felt sleepy. 

A bustle, caused by feminine voices and by the steps 
of bare feet, was heard within the celL 

" livelier there, hurry up, M&lova, I aay 1 " shouted 
the chief warden through the door of the cell 

About two minutes later, a short, full-breasted young 
woman, in^'gray cloak, thrown over a white vest and a 
white skiper^Riilked briskly out of the door, swiftly turned 
around, 'and stopped neat the warden. The woman's feet 
were clad in linen stockings, and over them she wore the 
jnison shoes ; her head was wrapped in a white kerchief, 
nndemeath which, apparently with des^, protruded ring- 
lets of curling black hair. The woman's whole counte- 
nance was of that peculiar whiteness which is found on 
the faces of persons who have passed a long time indoors, 
and which reminds one of potato sprouts in a cellar. Of 
the same colour were her small, broad hands, and her 
white, fall neck, which was visible from behind the la^ 
collar of the cloak. In this countenance, especially 
•gainst the dull pallor of the face, stood oat strikingly a 
pair of jet-black, sparkling, sl^tly swollen, bat very 
lively eyes, one of which was a bit awry. She carried 
herself very erect, extending her swelling bosom. 



ITpon arriving in the corridor, she threw h«r head back 
a little, looked ^e warden straight in the eyes, and stood 
ready . to execute anything that might be demanded of 
her. The warden was on the point of -locking the door, 
when from it emerged the pale, austere, wrinkled face of 
a stiaight-baired old woman. The old woman began to 
tell M&lora something ; but the warden preesed the door 
against her head, and eo it disappeared. Is the cell a 
feminine Toice burst out laughing. Mielova hrawlf 
smiled, and turned toward the barred little window of the 
door. The old woman pressed her face to it, and said in 
a hoarse voice : 

" Above all, don't say a superfluous word ; stick to the 
same story, and let that be the end of it I " 

" That's all one, it can't be any worse," said M^ova, 
sfaakiiigher head. 

"Of course, it's one, and not two," said the ctoBt 
warden, with an of&cial coDsdousness of his wit. " After 
me, march ! " 

The eye of the old woman, visible through the window, 
disappeared, and Mdslova stepped into the middle of the 
corridor, and with rapid, mincing steps walked behind 
the chief warden. They descended the stone staircase, 
passed by the men's cells, which were even more mal- 
odorous and noisy than the women's, and from which 
they were everywliere watched by eyes at the loopholes 
in the doors : they entered the office, where two soldien 
of the guard, with their guns, were waiting for them. 

The clerk, who waa sitting there, handed to one of the 
soldiers a document, which was saturated by tobacco 
smoke, and, pointing to the prisoner, said, " Take her ! " 
The soldier, a Nfzhni-JT6vgorod peasant, with a red, pock- 
marked face, stuck the paper into the rolled-ap sleeve of 
his overcoat, and, smiling, winked to his companion, a 
broad-cheeked GhuvtUh, in order to direct his attention 
to the prisfHier. The soldiers, with the prisoner between 



them, deecended the staircase, and walked over to the 
main entrance. 

A small gate was opened in tbB door of the niain 
enhance, and, stepjong across the threshold of the gate 
into the yard, the soldiers, with the prisoner, walked out 
of the enclosure, and proceeded through the city, keeping 
in the middle of the paved streets. 

Cabmen, shopkeepers, cooks, workmen, and officials, 
atopped to look with curiosity at the prisoner; some 
'shook their heads, and thought, "This is what a bad 
behaviour, not such as ouis, leads to." Children looked 
in terror at the murderees, being reassnred only becanse 
she was accompanied by soldiers, and conld no longer do 
any harm. A village peasant, who had sold coal and had 
drunk some tea in the tavern, went up to her, made the 
sign of the cross, and gave her a kopek. The prisoner 
bhiahed. bent her head, and muttered something. 

Being conscious of the looks which were directed 
toward her, she imperceptibly, without turning her head, 
cast side glances at those who were gazing at her, and 
the attention which she attracted cheered her. She was 
also cheered by the vernal air, which was pure in com- 
parison with that in the jail ; but it was painful for her 
to walk on the cobblestones, for her feet vexe now 
nnaccnstomed to walking, and were clad in clumsy prison 
shoee ; and so she looked down at them, and tried to step 
OS lightly as possible. As she passed near a flour shop, 
in front of which pigeons waddled, unmolested by any- 
body, she almost stepped on one: the pigeon fluttered 
ap, and flapping its wings, flew past the prisoner's ear. 
Canning the air against her. She smiled, and dnw a deep 
Bigh, as she recalled her situation. 



Thi Btory of prisoner M^lora's life was nothing out of 
the ordinary. Mttslovs was the daughter of an unmarried 
manwial aervant-gifl, who had been living with her 
mother in the capocitj of dairymaid, on the estate of 
two maiden sisters. This unmarried woman bore a child 
every year ; as always happens in the country, the baby 
was baptized, but afterward the mother did not suckle 
the undesired child, and it died of starvation. 

Thus five children had died. They had all been bap- 
tized, then they were not fed, and died. The sixth, 
b^otten by an itinerant gipsy, was a girl, and her fate 
would have been the same, if it had not happened that 
one of the old maids had gone into the stable to upbraid 
the milkers on account of the cream, which smeUed of 
the cows. In the stable lay the mother with her pretty, 
healthy, new-bom baby. The old maid upbraided them 
on account of the cream and for having allowed a lying-in 
woman in the stable, and was about to leave, when, having 
espied the child, she took pity upon her, and offered to 
become her godmother. She had her baptized, and, 
pitying her godchild, gave the mother milk and money, 
and thus the girl remained alive. The old maids even 
called her the " saved " girL 

The child was three years old when her mother fell ill 
and died. The old stable-woman, her grandmother, was 
harassed by her grandchild, and so the ladies took her to 
the house. The black-eyed girl grew to be exceedii^ly 
vivacious and charming, and t^e old maids took deHg^t 
in her. 



The younger, S($fya Ivtboyna, vho h&d had the child 
bajAized, vaa the kutder (tf the two, and the elder, Mirji 
Ivtaavna, was the moie austere. 36ty& IviaavuH dressed 
her, taught her to read, and wanted to educate her. Mirja 
Iv^ovna, however, said that she ought to be brought up 
as a woikiiig girl, — a good chambermaid, — and conse- 
qnently was exacting, and punished and even struck her, 
when not in a good humour. Thus, between these two 
infloencee, the girl grew up to be partly educated and 
partly a t^mbermaid. She was even called by a dimin- 
utive, expressive neither of endearment, nor of command, 
but (A something intermediate, namely, not Edtka or K^ 
tenka, but Eatyilsha. She did the sewing, tidied up the 
rooms, cleaned the pictures with chalk, cooked, ground, 
served the cofTee, washed the small linen, and often sat 
vith the Ladies and read to thecL 

Several men sued for her hand, but she did not wish to 
marry, feeling that a life with those working people, her 
suitors, would be hard for her, who had been spoiled by 
the comforts of the manor. 

Thus she lived until her sixteenth year. She had just 
passed her sixteenth birthday, when Uie ladies received a 
visit from their atudent-nephew, a rich [oince, and Kat- 
yusha, not daring to acknowledge the fact to him or even 
to herself, fell in love with him. Two years later, this 
same nephew of theirs called on his aunts, on his way to 
the war, and passed four days with them ; on the day 
preceding his departure, he seduced Katyiiaha, and press- 
ing a hundred-rouble biU into her hand, he left her. Five 
months after his visit she knew for sure that she was 

After that she grew tired of everything, and thought of 
nothing else but of a means for freeing herself from the 
shame which awaited her ; she not only began to serve 
the ladies reluctantly and badly, but once, not knowing 
herself how it came about, her patience gave way : she said 



some rude tbisga to them, which ehe herself ngietted 
Uter, and asked toi her difimlBsaL 

The ladies, who had been very much diaaaCufied with 
hei, let her go. She then accepted the poaition of cham- 
bermaid at the house of a coantry judge, but she could, 
stand it there no longer than three months, because the 
judge, a man fifty years of age, began to annoy her ; onc«, 
when he had become unusually persistent in his attentions, 
she grew excited, called him a fool and an old devil, and 
dealt him such a blow in the chest that he feU down. 
She was sent away for her rudeness. It was useless to 
take another place, for the child was soon to be bom, and 
80 she went to Uve with a widow, who was a country 
midwife and trafficked in liquor. She had an easy child- 
birth, but the midwife, who had delivered a sick woman 
in the village, infected Katyiisha with puerperal fever, and 
the child, a boy, was taken to the foundling house, where, 
according to the story of tbe old woman who had carried 
him there, he died soon after his arrival 

When Katyiisha took up her residence at the midwife's, 
she had in all 127 roubles, twenty-seven of which she had 
earned, and one hundred roubles which her seducer had 
given her. When she came avray from that house, all she 
had left was six roubles. She did not know how to take 
care of money, and spent it on herself, and gave it away 
to all who asked for some. The midwife took for her 
two months' board — for the food and the tea — forty 
roubles ; twenty-five roubles went for despatching the 
child ; forty roubles the midwife borrowed of her to buy 
a cow with ; and twenty roubles were spent for dothes 
and for presents, so that there was no money left, when 
Katytbha got well again, and had to look for a place. 
She found one at a forest^a 

The fwester was a married man, bat> just Uke the judge 
before him, he b^an the very first day to annoy Eatyd- 
iba with his attentions. He was hatful to her, and she 



taied to evade him. Bat he vbb more experienced and 
conning than she; above all, he was her master, who 
could send her wherever he pleaaed, and, waiting for ao 
opportune moment, he conquered her. Hia wife foond 
it oat, and, diacovering her huabaiid alone in a loom wi^ 
Katy^ha, she assaulted her. £atyiisha defended her- 
self, and a fight ensued, in consequence of which she was 
expelled from the house, without getting her wages. 
Then Katyiisha journeyed to the cat; and stopped with 
her aunt. Hei aunt's husband was a bookbinder, who 
used to make a good living, but now had lost all his 
customers, and was given to drinking, spending every- 
thing that came into his hands. Her aunt had a small 
laundry establishment, and thus supported herself with 
her children and her good-for^nothlng husband She 
offered to M^lova a place in her laundry; but, seeing 
the hard life which the laundresses at her aunt's were 
leading, M^ova besite^ed, and went to the employment 
offices to look for a place as a domestic 

She found such a place with a lady who was living 
vrith her two sons, students at the gymnasium. A week 
after entering upon her service, the elder boy, with sprout- 
ing moustaches, a gymnasiast of the sixth form, quit 
working and gave Mlslova no rest, importuning her with 
his attentions. The mother accused M^ova of every- 
thing and discharged her. 

She could not find another situation ; but it so hap- 
pened that when M^lova once went to an employment 
office, she th^B met a lady with rings and bracelets on 
her plump bare hands. Having learned of Mtlslova's 
search for a place, the lady gave her her address, and 
invited her to her house. MMova went there. The 
lady i«cdved her kindly, treated her to pastry and sweet 
wine, and sent her chambermaid somewhere with a note. 

In the evening a tall man, with loi^ grayish hair and 
gray beard, entered the room ; the old man at once sat 



down near MtCalova, and began, -with gleaming eyes, and 
smiling, to survey her, and to jest with her. The land- 
lady called him out into another room, and MfbloTa 
hesord her say : " She is fteeh, steught from the country I " 
Then Uie landlady caUed out Mdslova and told her that 
this man was an author, who had much money, and who 
would not be stingy with it, if he took a liking to her. 
She pleased the author, who gave her twenty-five rouUes, 
promising to see her often. The money was soon intent 
in paying her aunt for board, and on a new dress, a hat, 
and ribbons. A few days later the author sent for her 
again. She went. He again gave her twenty-five roubles, 
and proposed that she t^e rooms for herself somewhere. 

While living in the apartments which the author had 
rented for her, Mttelova fell in love with a merry clerk, 
who was living in the same yard. She herself told the 
author about it, and took up other, smaller quarters. 
The clerk, who had promised to marry her, sudd^y left - 
for Nfzhni-NiSvgorod, without saying a word to her, with 
the evident intention of abandoning her, and she was left 
alone. She wanted to ke^ the rooms by herself, but 
was not permitted to do ea The inspector of police t^dd 
her that she could continue to live t^ere only by getting 
a yellow certificate and subjecting herself to examination. 

So she went back to her aunt's. Her aunt, seeing her 
fashionable dress, her mantle, and her bat, received her 
respectfully, and did not dare to offer her a laundress's - 
place, since she considered her as having risen to a higher 
sphere of life. For M&lova the question whether she 
had better become a laundress or not, no longer existed. 
She now looked with compassion at that life of enforced 
labour, down in the basement, which the pale laundresses, 
with their lean arms, — some of them were consumptive, 
— were leading, washing and ironing in an atmosphere of 
thirty degrees R^umur, filled with steam from the soap- 
suds, the windows remaining open, winter and summer, — 



and she shaddeied at the thought that ahe, too, might be 
bnmght to such a life. And joat at this time, whidi waa 
exceedingly haid for M^ova, as she could not find a 
ain^ protector, afae was approached by a procutess, who 
fonished houses of prostitutioD with girls. 

Htialora had started smoking long before, and had be- 
come Bccostomed to drinking during tlie end of her con- 
nection with the clerk, and still more so after be bad 
abandoned her. Wine attracted her, not only becaose it 
tasted good, but more especially because it made her 
forget all the heavy ezperiencea in Uie past, and because 
it gave her ease and ccmfidence in her own worth, whidi 
she did not have without it Without wine she always 
felt sad and ashamed. The piocnress treated her aunt to 
dainties, and having given wine to Mdslova, proposed 
that she should enter Uie best establishment in the dty, 
le^esenting to her aU the advantages and privileges of 
such a podtum. 

iUslova had the chtnce : either the humiliating position 
ti a servant, where there would certainly be persecution on 
tiie side of the men, and secret, temporary adultery, or a 
■ecore quiet, legalized condition, and open, legitimate, and 
wdl-paid constant adultery, — and she diose the latter. 
Besides, she thought in t^is manner to be able to avenge 
'the wrcmg dona her by her seducer, tiie clerk, and all 
other peofde who had treated her shamefully. She was 
also enticed by the words of the procuress, — and this 
was one of the causes that led to her final decision, — 
Uiat she could order any dresses she wished, of velvet, of 
ganse, ot mlk, en* ball-dresses vrith bare shoulders and 
anna And when M&lova imagined herself in a bright- 
yellow silk garment, with black velvet trimmings, — 
d^collet^, — ^ could not withstaiid the temptation, and 
Bonendered her passport On t^t same evening the pro- 
CDieaa called a cab and took her to £itfava's well-known 



From Uiat tame began for M&lova that life of chronio 
tranagresaion of divine and human laws, which is led by 
haodiedB and thousands of thousandB of vomen, not only 
by permisBUHi, but under the protection of the government 
caring for the well-being of its citizens : that life which ends 
tor nine out of every ten women in agonizing disease, pre- 
mature old age, and death. 

In the morning and in the daytime — alumbet after the 
orgies of the night. At three or four o'clock — a tired 
wsJdng in an unclean bed, seltzer to counteract the effects 
of immoderate drinking, coffee, indolent strolling throi^h 
the rooms in dresaing-gowns, vests or cloaks, looki^ behind 
the curtain through the windows, a lazy exchange of angry 
words ; then ablutions, pomading, perfuming of the body 
and the hair, the trying on of dresses, quarrels with the 
landlady on account of these garments, surveying oneself 
in the mirror, painting the face, dyeing the eyebrows, eat- 
ing pastry and fat food ; then putting on a bright silk dress, 
which exposed the body ; then coming out into a bright, 
gaily illuminated parlour: the arrival of guests; music, 
dances, sweetmeats, wine, smoking, and adultery with 
youths, half-grown men, half-chilcben, and desperate old 
men ; with bachelors, married men, merchants, clerks, Ar- 
menians, Jews, Tartars ; with men who were rich, poor, 
healthy, sick, drunk, sober, coarse, tender; with officers, 
private citizens, students, gymnaaiaste, — of all condi- 
tions, ages and characters. And cries, and jokes, and 
quarrels, and music, and tobacco and wine, and wine 
and tobacco, and music, from evening to daybreak. And 
only in the morning liberation and heavy slumber. And 
the same thing every day, the whole week. At the end of 
the week — a drive to a government institution, the police 
station, where ofBcers in government service, the doctors, 
men who sometimes seriously and austerely, and some- 
times with playful mirthfulness, examined Uiese women, - 
annihilating that very sense of shame which has been 



given t^ Kataie not only to men, but &1bo to amnuls, in 
order to pat a check to transgresaions ; then they handed 
them a patent for the contiouatioa of these tnuisgreBsions, 
of whi(ji they and their partners had heeai guilty daring 
the past week. And again eadi a week. And thas every 
day, — in sanunor and winter, on week-days and on holi- 

M&lova had passed seven years in &is manner. Dui^ 
ing that tame she had changed honses twice, and bad been 
once in a hoepitaL In the seventh year of her sojoam 
in a house of proatitation, and in tiie eighth since her first 
fall, when she was twenty-eix years old, there had bap< 
pened to her that for which she had been imprisoned, and 
now was being led to the court-honse, after six months in 
jail, wiUi mardeiers and thievaa. 



At Oie same time that Mislova, worn oat hj the Itmg 
m&rch, reached, vitb the soldiers (^ the goard, the build- 
ing oF the circuit court, that very nephew of her educators, 
Praice Dmitri iT^ovich NekUyiidov, who had seduced 
her, was Ijiiig on his high, crumpled spaing bed, wiUi its 
feather mattress, and, unhuttoning the collar of his clean 
linen night-shiit, with its ironed gussetn, was smoking a 
cigarette. He was gazing in front of him with his motiOB- 
less eyes, and thinlaug of what he would have to do that 
day, and of what had happened the day before. 

_, As he recalled the previous eveniDg, which he had 

passed at the house of the Eorcb^lgine, rich and dis- 
tingnifibed people, whose daughter, so all were convinced, he 
was going to marry, he drew a sigh, and, throwing away 
his finished cigarette, was on the point of takii^ another 
oat of his silver dguette-holder ; but he diauged his 
mind, and, letting down from the bed his smooth white 
feet, found his way into his slippers ; he threw over his 
full shoulders a siLk morning-gown, and, etridii^ rapidly 
and heavily, walked into the adjoining dressing-room, 
which was saturated with the artificial odonre of elixirs, 
eau de Goitre, pomatum, and perfumes. There, with a 
special powder, he cleaned his teeth, which were filled in 
many places, washed them with fragrant tooth-water, and 
then began to wash his body all over, and to dry himself 
with oil kinds of towels. He washed his hands witji 
scented soap, oarefuUy cleaned his long nails with a brash, 
and rinsed bis face and fat neck in the large marble wash- 



stand i then he walked into a thitd room, sear the cham- 
ber, where a douche was waiting for him. He there 
washed his mnscalar, plump, white body with cold water, 
and rubbed himself off wi^ a rough sheet ; then he put 
on clean, freshly ironed linen, and his shoes, which shone 
like mirrors, and sat down in front of the toilet-table to 
brash his short, black, curly beard, and the curling hair 
on his head, wluch was rather scanty in front 

All the thii^ which he used, all the appurtenances of 
his toilet, the linen, the garments, the shoes, the ties, the 
pins, the cuff-buttons, — were of the best, of the most ex- 
pensive kind ; they were usobtraaive, simple, durable, and 

Having selected from a dozen ties and pins those which 
he happened to pick up Srst, — at one time, it had been 
new and amusing, but now it made no difference to him, 
— NekhlyddoT put on his well-brashed clothes, which 
were lying on a chair, and, clean and perfumed, though 
not feding very fresh, proceeded to the long dining-room, 
the parquetry of which had been waxed on the previous 
day hy three peasants ; hero stood an immense oak buffet, 
and an equally lar^ extension table, which had a certain 
solemn appearance on account of its broadly outstretched 
carved legs in the shape of lion-clawe. On this table, 
covered with a fine starched cloth with large monograms, 
stood a silver coffee-pot with fragrant coffee, a sugar-bowl 
of similar design, a cream-pitcher vrith boiling cream, and 
a bread-basket with fresh rolls, toast, and biscuits. Near 
the service lay the last mail, the papers, end a new num- 
ber of the Seiiue de Deax Mondes. 

Kekhlyddov was on the point of taking up his letters, 
when the door from the corridor opened and a plump, 
elderly woman in mourning and wiUi a lace head-dress, 
which covered the widened parting of her hair, glided into 
the room. . This was Agraf^na FetnSvna, the chambermaid 
<A Nekblyddov's mother, who had but lately died in this 



veiy house ; she was now atATing with the son in ihe cs- 
padt; of hoasekeeper. 

A^raf^na FetnSTns had at various times been abroad 
with Kekhlyiidov's mother, and had the looks and manner 
of B lady. She had lived in NekhylildoVa house since 
het childhood, and had known Dmitri Iv^ovich when he 
was a boy and when they called him Mitenka. 

" Qood moming, Dmftri Ivinovich," 

"Gktod moming, Agraf^oa Fetnivna. What is the 
news ? " asked Nekhlyiidov, jeatingly. 

" A letter from the princess, or from her dat^hter. The 
chambermaid bronght it long ago ; she is waiting in my 
room," said Agraf^ Petr6vna, handii^ him the letter, 
and smiling significantly. 

" Very well, in a minute," said Nekhlyiidov, taking the 
letter and frowning, as he noticed Agraf&ia Fetnivna's 

Agraf&ia Petrdvna's smite meant that the letter was 
from the yoong Princess Eorcbf^^, whom, according to 
A^raf^na PetnSvna's opinion, Nekhlyildov was going to 

" Then I will tell her to wait," and Agraf^na FetnSvna, 
jockiiig np the cnimb-bmsh, wHch was oat of place, and 
patting it away, glided out of the dining-room. 

Kekhlyiidov broke the seal of the perfumed letter, 
which A^raf^na FetnSvna had given him, and began to 

" In fulfilment of my self-aeeumed duty to act as your 
memory," eo ran the letter on a sheet of ^ck gray paper 
witii uneven mai^fins, in a sharp, broad hand, " I remmd 
you that to-day, the twenty-eighth of April, yon are to 
serve on a jury, and consequently can by no means drive 
out with Eoloflttv and us to look at the pictures, as you 
yesterday, with your characteristic thoughtlessness, prom- 
iBed OS yon would ; A moint que voue ne aoyez diapoti A 
pager A la eonr d^atsitet let 300 TovHea tCcmende que vou* 



T^fiigtg pov/r voire chevaJ for not haTing appeared in 
time. I thought of it yesterday, the moment yon left. 
So don't forget it. 

"Pbincsbs M. EobchXoik.'' 

On the other page was the following addition : 

" Maman voua /ait dire ^ue votre aywoert voua attendra 
jittqu'H la nmt. Vmez ahsolwneni h, quelie hewn gwe 
cda soit. 

"M. K." 

Nekhlyiidov frowned. The note was a continaation of 
that artifice which the yoong Princess Korchigin had 
been {ffactdsing on him for the last two monttiB, and 
which consisted in drawing him evermore to herself by 
invifflble thread& On the other hand, Nekhlyildov had, 
in addition to the nsual indecision before marriage, which 
all people have who are past their first youth and are not 
pas^onately in lore, another important reason, which kept 
him from proposing at once, even if he had made up his 
mind to do sa This reason was not that he had ten 
years before seduced and abandoned Katyilsfaa, — this 
he had entirely foi^otten, and did not regard aa an im- 
pediment to his marriage ; the real cause was that at that 
time he had a liaison with a nuuried woman, which, 
though broken by him, had not yet been acknowledged 
as broken by her. 

Kekhlyiidor was very shy with women, and it was 
Uiia very timidity whidi had prov(died a desire in that 
married woman to subdue him. She was the wife of the 
marshal of the nobility of the coonty whither Kekhlyiidor 
used to go for the election& This woman had drawn him 
into a liaison, which from day to day became more bind- 
ing on him and at the same time more repnlsiva At 
first, Nekhlyddor coold not withstand her sednctiTe 



charms ; thsn, feeling himself guilty tomid her, he waa 
Dot ahle widioat her consent to tear asunder this union. 
Tina was the reason vhy Nekhljiidov felt that be had no ' 
rif^t to propose to Princess Eorch^giii, even if he wished 
to do so. 

On the table happened to lie a letter from that woman's 
hasband. Upon noticing the handwriting and postmark, 
Nekhlyildov blushed, and immediately e^erienced an 
oninsh of enetgy, which always came over him at the 
approach of daiiger. But his t^tatiou was vain: her 
huebend, the maighal of the nobility in the county where 
the more important estates of NeUtlyiidor were located, 
informed him that at the end of May there would be an 
extra session of the Ooun^ Coondl, and asked him to ba 
sure and come in order to down«r u» coup tTipanU in 
tiie important questions concerning s(^ools and roads 
which were to be brought up before the coming meeting 
of the Coan^ Council, when it was expected that the 
reactionary party would pat up a strong opposition. 

The marshal was a hberal, and with several pat^ 
friends was engaged in straggling against the reaction 
which had set in daring the reign d Alexander TIL ; be 
was busily occupied with this struggle, and knew nothing 
<tf his unfortanate family life. 

Kehblyddov recalled all the painful minutes which he 
had passed in the presence of Uiis man ; ha recalled how 
aacB he had thought that her husband had found out 
everything, and how he had prepared himself to fight a 
duel at wtdoh he had intended to shoot into the air ; and 
he recalled tliat terrible scene with her, when iu despsir 
she had roshed out into the garden ready to drown 
herself iu its pond, and how he had ran after her to 
find her. 

"I cannot go there, or undertake anything, unless I 
first bear from her," thought Nekhlyildov. The week 
before he had written her a decisive letter in -wbiah he 



had 'confessed bis giult, and hod declared himself teadj 
tea any atonement ; bnt, Devertheless, for her own good, 
he re^trded their relationB as for ever ended. Ha was 
expecting an answer to this very letter, but none had yet 
been received. The delay in rc^yii^ he considered a 
good sign. If she had not ^leed to the dismption of 
Hm union, she would have written him long t^, oi would 
have come to see him, as she had done on previous occa^ 
sions. Nekhlyddov had heenl that there was a certain 
ofBcet in the country, who was paying her attentions, and 
this gave him a twinge of jealousy, and at the same time 
filled him with hope that he should be treed from the he 
which waa harassing him. 

Another letter was from the superintendent of his 
estates. The superintendent wrote Nekhlyildov that he 
would have to come down himself, in order to be con- 
firmed in the rights of inheritance, and besides, to decide 
the question of how the estates were to be managed 
henc^orth ; whether as in the days of the deceased prin- 
cees, or, as he had proposed to the defunct, and now was 
again proporang to the yonng prince, by increasing the 
inventory and himself working the land, which had been 
parcelled out tolthe peasants. The superintendent wrote 
that snch an ezploitaticoi would be much more profitable. 
At the same time he excused himself for having some- 
what delayed the transmission of the three thousand 
roubles which, by order, had been dne on the first. The 
mcmey would be sent by the next post. The reason for 
this delay was that he had been absolutely unable to col- 
lect from the peasants, who had gcme so far in their dis- 
honesty that it became necessary to invoke the authorities 
to compel them to pay their debts. 

Ihis letter was both pleasant and anpleasant to Kekh- 
lyildoT. It was pleasant for him to feel his power 
over his extenmve possessions, and unpleasant, because in 
his first youth he had been an enthusiastic follower of 


Herbert Spencer, and, being himself a large landed propri- 
etor, had been particalarly struck by his statement in bis 
Social Statics that justice did not permit the private 
ownership of land. With the diiectoess and detenninar 
tion of youth be then maintained that land could Qot 
form the object of private ownership, and he not only 
wrote a thesis on the subject while at the university, but 
at that tame really distributed to the peasants a small 
part of the land, which did not belong to his nK^er, but 
which by inheritance from his father belonged to him 
personally, bo as not to be possessed of land, contrary 
to his convictions. Having now become a large landed 
proprietor by inheritance, he had to do one of the two 
things : either to renounce bis poasessionB, as he had done 
ten years before in connection with the two hundred 
desyattnas of his paternal estate, or by his silent consent 
to acknowledge all his former ideas faulty and false. 

He could not do the former, because he had no otlier 
means of subsistence but the land. He did not wish to 
serve in a government capacity, and in the meantinie had 
acquired luxurious habits of life, from which he consid- 
ered it impossible ever to depart. Nor was there any 
reason why he should, since he no longer had that force 
of conviction, nor that determination, nor that ambition 
and desire to surprise people, which had actuated him in 
his youth. Similarly he was quite incapable of . doing 
the latter, — to recant those clear and undeniable proofs 
of the illegality of private ownership of land, which he 
had then found in Spencer's Social Statics, and the 
brilliant confirmation of which he had found later, much 
later, in t^e vrorks of Henry (George. 

For this reason the superintendent's letter did not 
please him. 



HAvma finished his coffee, Nekhlyiidov went into hia 
cabinet, to find oat from the sunimons at what time he 
vna to be at court, and to write the princess an answer. 
The cabinet was reached through the studio. Here stood 
an easel with a covered, unfinished picture, and studies 
were hanging on tiie wall. The sight of this picture, on 
which he had vainly worked for two years, and of the 
studies, and of the whole studio, reminded him of his 
feeling of impotence to advance farther in painting, a 
feeling which of late had overcome him with unusual 
"force. He explained to himself this sensation as atising 
from a too h^ly developed Ksthetic feeling, but still 
the consciousness of it was exceedingly disa^eeable to 

Seven years before, be had given up his government 
position, having decided that he had a talent for painting, 
and from the height of his artistic activity he looked 
down somewhat contemptuouely on all other activities. 
Now it appeared that he had no ground for such an 
assum|dion, and thus every reminder of it was extremely 
distasteful to him. He looked with a heavy heart at all 
these luxuriooB arraDgements of his studio, and in an 
unhappy frame of mind entered his cabinet. The cabinet 
was a very large and high room, with all kinds of adom- 
ments, appliances, and comforts. 

He immediately found in the drawer of the immense 
table, under the division of memoranda, the summons, 
which said that he had to be at court at eleven o'clock. 
He sat down and wrote a note to the princess, thanking 


24 BBsuRfiBcnoir 

ha tof the invitatioQ, and promising to oome to dinner, if 
he could. But after he had written this note, he tore it 
up : it was too familiar ; he wrote another, — and it was 
cold, almost offenaive. He again tore it up, and pressed 
a button on the wall. On the threshold appeared an 
elderly, morose, cleanly shaven, whiak^^d hu^ej, in a 
gray calico apron. 

" Please send for a cab." 

" Yes, sir." 

"And tell her — there is somebody here from the 
Korditigins wuting for an answer — tell her that I am 
much obliged, and that I shall try to be thete." 

" Yes, sir." 

" It is impolite, but I cannot write. I shall see her 
to-day, anyway," thought Kekhlyddov, and went away to 
dress himself. 

When, all dressed, he appeared on the porch, bis 
famiHar cab with the rubber tirea was already waiting 
for him. 

" Yesterday, the moment yon had left Prince Kcrch^- 
ffn," said the cabman, half turning around his powerful, 
sunburnt neck, in a white shirt collar, "I came back, 
bat the porter told me, <He has just left.'" 

"Even the cabmen know of my relations with the 
Xorohdgins," thought Kekhlyildov, and the unsolved 
question, which had of late constantly preoccufded bim, 
— whether he should marry Princess Kord^igin or not, — 
rose before him, and, as happened with him in the 
majority of questions which presented themselves to him 
at- Jhat time, be was unable to solve it one way or the 

In favour of the marriage spoke the fact that marriage, 
in addition to supplying him with a domestic hear^, 
would remove the irregularities of sexual life, and would 
make it possible for him to lead a moral existence ; and, 
in the second place, and this was most important, Kekb- 



lyifdov hoped that & family end children would give a 
meaning to his empty life. So much for marriage in 
goieraL Against marriage in general was, in the first 
I^ace, the fear of losing his liberty, a fear vhich is 
common to all old bachelors, and in the second, an nn- 
coDsdous dread before the mysterious being of a woman. 

In favoor of his marrying Missy in particular (Frincesa 
Eorchigin'B name waa Mflriya, bat, as in all families of a 
certain chicle, she was nicknamed Miasy) was, in the 
firat place, her breedii^, for in everything, from her weat^ 
ing-apparel to her manner of speaking, walking, aod 
laagbiog, she stood oat from among common people, not 
by any special featares, but by her general "decency," — 
he could not think of any otlieT expression for this 
quality, which he esteemed highly; and in the second, 
because she respected him above dl other men, conse- 
qneotly, according to his conceptions, she understood 
him. And it vras this compmhensioii, that is, the 
ecknowledgmeot of bis high wtHtb, which testified in 
Kekh]y;!dov's ofdnion to her good mind and Correct 

Against his marrying Missy in particular was, first, 
that it was quite possible that he should find a girl who 
would possess an even greater number of desirable qual- 
ities tluut Misay had, and who consequently 
worUiier of him ; and, secondly, the fact that she waa 
twenty-seven years old and, therefore, must have be^i in 
love before, — and this thou^t tormented Kekhlyildov. 
His pride could not make peace with the thought ttiat at 
any time, even though it be in the past, she could have 
loved anybody but him. Of course, she could not have 
foreseen that she would meet him, but the very idea that 
aha could have been in love with some one else offended 

Thus there were as many a^uments in favour of 
marrying as against it ; at least these two classes of aigu- 



ments were eqaaUy urgent, and Nekhljiidov, longhiog at 
himself, called himBelf " Butidan's aas." And he remained 
(me, for he could not make up his mind to which bundle 
to tarn. 

" However, since I have received no answer from M£rya 
Yaaflevoa (the marshal's wife), and have not completely 
setUed ^t affair, I cannot b^n aDjiJung," he said to 

The consciousness that he could and should delay his 
decision was agreeable to bim. 

" Still, I will consider all this later," he said to himself 
when his vehicle inaudibly drove over the asphalt drive- 
way of the court-house. 

" Kow I must act conscientiously, as I always execute, 
and always should execute my pubUc duties. Besides, 
they are frequently interesting," he said to himself, pass- 
ing by the doorkeeper, into the vestibule of the court* 



Ih the corridors of tJie court-house there waa already 
animated motion, when Nekhlyddov entered it. 

The janitors were either walking rapidly, or even tod- 
nii^, without lifting their feet from the floor, but ahufBlng 
them, and out of braatb, carrying ordetB and documents 
up and down. The bailiffs, the lawyers, and the judges 
passed from one place to another, while the plaintifra and 
the defendanta who were not nndor surveillance morosely 
walked up and down near Uie walls, or were sitting, wait- 
ing for tJieir tnmsL 

" Where is the circuit court ? " ITekhfyiidoT asked one 
of Uie janitors. 

" Which ? There is a civil division, there is a supreme 

" I am a juryman." 

*■ Criming division. Ton ought to have said so. Here, 
to the right, then to the left, second door." 

Nekhlyiidov followed his directions. 

At the door indicated two men stood waiting tot some- 
thing. The one was a tall, fat merchant, a good-hearted 
man, who had evidently had something to drink and to 
eat, and was in a happy frame of mind ; the other was a 
derk, of Jewish extraction. They were talking abont the 
price of wool, when Nekhlyddov walked over to them and 
asked them whether this me the jary-room. 

"Here, sir, here. Are you one of our kin, a jury- 
man?" the merchant asked good-naturedly, willing 

" Well, we shall all work together," be continued, upon 



NekhljtEdov's affinoative answer. " Baklaab^r, of the 
sectMid guild," he said, extending his adft, broad, open 
hand. "We shall have to work. With whom have I 
the boDoui ? " 

Nekhljildov mraitioned his name, and went into the 

In the room there were some ten men of all descrip- 
tiona. They had all just arrived, and some were seated, 
while others walked about, eyeing one another and getting 
Rcqaainted. There was an ex-officer in his uniform ; the 
others wore lot^ or short coata, and one was clad in a 
sleeveless peasant coat. 

Thoi^h many of those present had been taken away 
from their work, and complained that this was a tiresome 
affair, they all bore the imprint of a certain pleasure, as 
though they were conscious of performing an important 
public duty. 

The jurors, having become acquainted with each other, 
or merely guessing who was who, were talking about the 
weather, about the early spring, and about the work before 
them. Those who did not know Nekhlyiidov hastened 
to become acquainted with him, obviously regarding /bia 
as a special honour. Nekhlyiidov received their advances 
as something dne him, as he always did when among 
strangers. U he had been asked why he regarded him- 
self higher than the majority of mankind, he would not 
have been able to answer the question, because no part of 
his life was distinguished for any particular qualities. The 
tact that he spoke English, Frendi, and German correctly, 
and that his linen, his attue, his ties, and his cuff-buttons 
came from the first purveyors of these articles, could not 
have served at all, so he knew himself, as a reason for 
supposing any superiority in himself. And yet, he un- 
questioningly assumed this superiority, and received Uie 
expressions of respect as something due him, and felt 
offended whenever they were not forthcoming. In t^e 

:,.;,l,ZDdbyG00f^le " 


jnron' room he bad occasion to experience the disagie&- 
able sensation arising from an expression of disre^tect. 
Among the jniymen was an acqoaintance of l^'ekhlyd- 
doy's. This was Peter GeriaimoTich (Nekhlyddov never 
had known his family name, and even boasted of this 
fact), who had formerly been a teacher of his sister's 
children. This Peter Ger^movich had finished his course 
at the university, and now was a teacher at a gymnasiam. 
Nekhlyttdov never coidd bear him on account of his 
familiarity, and his self-satisfied laughter, — in general, on 
account of bis " vulgarity," as Nekblyddor's sister used 
to express bersdf. 

"Ah, yon are caught, too," Peter Geribimovicb met 
Nekblyiidov, with a gufiaw. " You could not tear your- 
self away?" 

" I did not even have any mtention of tearing myself 
away," Nekhlyiidov said, austerely and gloomily. 

" WeQ, this is a dtiien's virtue. Just wait, when you 
get hungry, and don't have any sleep, you will sing a 
different song I " Peter GehUimovich shouted, laugli^ig 
louder stall 

" This protopope's sou will soon be saying ' thou ' to 
me," thought Kekhlyiidov, and with a face expressive of 
a sadness which would have been natural only if he had 
suddenly received the news of the death of ail his rela- 
tives, he went away from him, and joined the group which 
had formed itself around a tall, cleanly shaven, stately 
gentleman, who was relating something with animation. 
The gentleman was telling of the lawsuit which was 
being tried in the civil dqnrtment, as of an affair which 
he well knew ; be called all the judges and femous law- 
yers by their Chrifltian names and patronymics. He was 
ej^iatiating on the wonderful turn which a famous lawyer 
had ^ven to it, so tiiat one of the contesting parties, an 
old lady, though entirely in the right, would have to pay 
■n immense stun to the other party. 



"A briHiaut lawyer I " be said. 

He yraa listened to with respect, and some teied to pat 
in a word of their own, bat he intorupted them all, as 
thoQgh he were the only one who could know anything 

Although NebhlyildoT had arriTed laCe, he had to wait 
for a, long time. The case was delayed by one of tbo 
members of the court, who had not yet airived. 

:,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle , 


Ths pteriding jadge had come early. He was a tall, 
stoat man, yntii long, grsTieh side-whiBkeis. He was 
married, bat led a very dissolate life, and so did his vife. 
They did not interfere with each otber. On tiiat morning 
he had received a note from the Swiss governess, who lived 
in their house in the sammer and now was on her way to 
St. Petersbni^, that she wonld wait for him in town, in 
" Hotel Italy," between three and six o'clock. And ao he 
was anxious to begin and end the sitting of the court as 
early as possible, in order to get a chance of visiting this 
red-haired Kl^ra Vasflevna, with whom he had begun a 
lore-afTair the summer before, in the country. 

Upon enteriiiig the cabinet, he bolted the door, took out 
a pair of dumb-beUs from the lowest shelf of the safe with 
the documents, and twenty times moved them up, for- 
ward, sidewiae, and downward, and then three times 
squatted lightly, holding the dumb-bells above his head. 

" Notliing keeps up a man's physique so well aa water 
and gymnastic exercises," he thought, feelii^ with his left 
hand, with a gold ring oa its ring-finger, the swelling 
biceps of his right arm. He had st^ to make two wind- 
mill motions, which he always practised befcve a long 
session, whm the door was shaken. Somebody was try- 
ing to come in. The presiding judge immediately put the 
dnmb-bells away, and opoaed the door, 

* 1 beg your pardon," he said. 

Into the room stepped one of the members of the court, 
in gold spectacles ; he was short, with raised shoulders 
and frow^ng faos. 



« iiatvyij Kikftjch is again abaeDt," eaid the member 
with displeaauTe. 

"He ia not jet here," replied t^e presidiBg jtidge, 
doDniag hia uniform. " He is eternally late." 

" I wonder he is not ashamed of himself,'' said tite 
member, and angrily sat down and took the cigarettes 
out of his pocket. 

This member, who was a very precise man, had had an 
unpleasant encotmter with his wife on that moraing, 
be)»nse she bad spent the money which was to have lasted 
her a whole month. She had asked for some more in 
advance, but he insisted that he would not depart from 
his rules. A scene ensued. His wife said that if he 
insisted upon this, there would be no dinner, — and that 
he had better not expect any. Thereupon he left, fearing 
that she would keep her word, for she was capable of 
anything. " So this is what you get for living a good, 
moral life," he thought, looking at the shining, healthy, 
gay, and good-hearted presiding judge, who, spreading 
wide his elbows, was with his beautiful white hands 
clawing his thick and long grayish side-whiskers on both 
sides of his embroidered collar. " He is always happy 
and content, and I euETer." 

The secretary entered, bringing some papers. 

"Yeiy mudi obhged to you," said the preending 
judge, Hghting a cigar. " Whidi case shall we launch 

"I suppose the poisoning case," the secretary said, 
apparently with indifference. 

" Very well, let it be the poisoning case," said the 
presiding jndge, r^ecting that it was a case that might 
be ended by four o'do^, whereupon he toold leave. 
" Has Matvy^y Nikfticb not yet come T " 

« Kot yet" 

" And is Br^ve here ! " 

" He is," answered the secretary. 



" Tell bim, tbeo, if 70Q see him, tiiat we Bhall begin 
with Uie poisoning case." 

Br^e was the assistant prosecutaog attorney who was 
to [ovBecnte at the present sitting. 

Upon reaching the. corridor, ^e secretary met Brdre. 
Baini^ high his shoulders, he was almost ranning along 
the corridor ; his uniform was unbuttoned, and he carried 
his portfolio under one arm ; be continually struck his 
heels together, and swung bis free arm in such a manner 
that the palm of bis hand was perpendicul&r to the 
direction of his walk. 

" Mikhafl Fetr6vich wants to know whether 700 are 
ready 1 " the secretary asked him. 

" Of course I am," said the assistant [sveecntiDg attor- 
ney. " Which case comes first ? " 

" The poisoning case." 

"Very well," said the assistant proaecnting attorney; 
but he did not think it well at all, for he had not slept 
the whole night. There had been a farewell party, where 
they had drank and played cards until two o'clock in the 
morning ; then they all called on the women in the very 
house where M&slova bad been six months ago, so Hat 
be had not had any time whatsoever to read up the brief ; 
be hoped to be able to do bo now. The secretary, who 
knew that he bad not yet read up the poisoning case, had 
purposely advised the presiding judge to start with it. 
The secretary was a man of liberal, nay, even radical 
views. Br^ve, on the contrary, was a conservative, and, 
like all Germaus in Bussian service, a devout Greek* 
Catholic ; the secretary did not like him, and envied him 
his place. 

" Well, how about the Castrate Sectarians ? " ac^ed the 

" I said, I could not," said the assistant prosecuting 
attoroey. " For want of witnesses, — I diall so repent to 
the court." 



" But, all the samo — " 

" I cannot," said the assistant proBecating attorney, 
and, swaying his arm as before, entered his ca^et 

He d^yed the case of the Bectarians on account of the 
absence of an unimportant witness, who was not at all 
needed, and his reason for doing this was just because the 
case was to be heard in a court where the jury were an 
intelligent set, and where it might easily end in their 
favour. By agreement with the presiding judge, this case 
was to be transferred to the session in a county seat, 
where there would be more peasants on the jury, and a 
better chance to end the case unfavourably for the 

The crowd in the corridor was getting more animated. 
Most people were gathered near the hall of the civil divi- 
sion, where the case was being tried, of which the stately 
gentleman, the lover of lawsuits, had been telling the 
jniOTS. During an intermission, from the hall emerged 
the same old woman from whom the brilliant lawyer bad 
succeeded in wrenching away her whole property is 
favour of a pettifogger, who did not have the slightest 
right to it Hie judges knew that, and the plaintiff and 
his attorney knew it even better ; but the c^se had been 
ccmducted in such a manner that there was no other issue 
possible hut Qiak the property should be taken away from 
the old woman, and given over to the pettifogger. The 
old woman waa a stout lady in her hoUday dothes, and 
wi& enormous flowers on her hat. Upon coming out o( 
the door, she stopped in the corridor, sod, swaying her 
plump short arms, kept repeating, as she turned to her 
lawyer : " How will that be ? I beg you. How will tJiat 
be?" The lawyer vras looking at the flowers on her 
hat, and, without listening to her, was considering some- 

Immediatedy after the old woman, Uiere hurried out of 
the haU of the civil division, resplendent in his wide-open 



vest, that same famoos attorney, who had fixed matteta ■ 
in such a way t^t the old woman with the flowers was 
left petmitess, while the pettifogger, who gave him a fee 
of ten t^onfiand roubles, received more than one hundred 
thousand roubles. All eyes were directed upon the 
lawyer, and he was constaons of it, so that his whole 
coiiDteDOQCe seemed to be saying, "Please, no special 
expressions of respect," as he rapidly passed by the group 
coDgr^jated there. 



FnriUiT Uatvy^y Nikitich arriTed, and a bailiff, a spare 
man, with a long neck and sidling gait, and also a lower 
lip that protradijd sidewise, entered ihe juty>room. 

Thia bailiEF wu an honest man, who had received a 
onivenity education, but was not able to keep a place 
any length of time, becaase he was a confimi^ tippler. 
Three mondis before, a cotmtess, a protectress of his wife, 
bad got this place for him, and he had so far been able to 
hold it, which made him feel happy. 

" Well, gentlemen, are yon all here f " he said, putting 
on his eye-glasses, and looking over them. 

" It seems, all," said the merry merchant. 

" Let oa see," said the bailiff, and drawing a list from 
his pocket, he began to call oat the names, looking now 
throngh his glasses, and now over them.- 

" Councillor of State I. M. Niklforov." 

"Here," said the stately gentlemaii, who knew about 
all the cases at law. 

" Ez-Colonel Ivia Sem<5vich Ivinov." 

"Here," said tlie haggard man in the aniform of an 
officer out of service. 

" The Merchant of the second guild, Fetr Baklash^v." 

" Here he is," said the good-heart«d merchant, smiling 
with his mouth wide open. " Beady ! " 

" lieutenant of the Guard Prince Dmitri Nekhlyrfdov." 

" Here," answered Nekhlyiidov. 

The bailiff, looking with an ezpreesion of pleasurable 
politeness above his glasses, made a bow, as if to honour 
him above the rest. 



" Captain Yt(ri Drnftrievich Danch&iko, UerchaBt Gri- 
gSii Effmovich Kulesh6y," asd so on. 

All but two were preeent. 

" yow, gentlemen, please proceed to the ball," said the 
b«iliff, pointing to the door with a polite gestore. 

They started, and, letting one after another pass thtottgli _ 
the door into the corridor, went from the corridor into t^e 

The conrt-Toom was a large, long hall One end of it 
wu occupied by a platform, which was reached by three 
■tepe. In the middle of this elevation atood a table 
which was covered with a green cloth, bordered by a 
green fringe of a darker 6had& Behind the table stood 
Uiree chairs, with very high carved oak backs, and behind 
the diairs hung a bright lifengized picture of the emperor 
in the uniform of a general, with a sash ; he was repre- 
sented in the act of stepping forward, and resting his 
hand on his sabre. In the rightr-hand comer hung a 
shrine with the image of Christ in his crown of thorns, 
and stood a pulpit, while on the right was the desk of the 
prosecuting attorney. On the left, o[f>osite the desk, was 
the secretary's table, set back against the wall ; and 
nearer to Ute andience was a screen of oak rounds, ' 
and back of it the nnoccn|ned bench of the defendants. 

Oo the right on the platform stood two rows of chairs, - 
also with tu^ backs, for the jurors, and beneath them 
were the tables for the lawyers. All this was in the fore 
part of the hall, which was divided by the screen into 
two parts. The back half was occupied by benches, 
which, rising one behind the other, went as far as the 
back wall ta the front benches sat foor women, either 
factory girls or diambermaids, and two men, also laboarers, 
evidently oppressed by the splendour of the room's inte- 
rior, and therefore spiking to each other in a whisper. 

SooD after the jnrors had entered, the bailiff went with 
hii sidling gait to (he middle of the room, and shouted in 



a load voice, as thou^ he wished to frigbtea some- 

" The cooit is coming 1 " 

Everybody tose, and the judges walked oat on tho 
platfonn. Fiist came the {ffesiding jadge, witti his yrtSi- 
developed muscles and beantaM whiskers. Then came 
the gloomy member of the court, in gold spectacles, who 
now was even more gloomy, because just before the ses- 
sion began he bad seen his brotiier-in-law, a candidate tar 
a judi(^ poeitioD, who had informed him that he had 
joat been at his sister's, and that she had told him that 
there would be no dinner. 

" Well, I suppose we shall have to go to an inn," said 
the brother-in-law,' smiling. 

" There is nothing funny in this," replied the gloomy 
member c^ the court, and grew gloomier stilL 

And, finally, the third member of the court, that same 
Matvy^ Nildtich, who was always late. He was a 
bearded man, with large, drooping, kindly eyes. This 
member suffered from a gastral catarrh ; with tJie doctor's 
advice he bad begun that morning a new regimen, and it 
was this new regimen which had detained him at home 
longer ihsa usual Now, as he was asoenduig the plat- 
form, he had a concentrated lo<&, because he was in the 
habit of using all kinds of gaeaees, in order to anive at a 
solution of such questions as he proponnded to himself. 
Just now, he had made up his mind liiat if the number of 
steps from the door of the cabinet to the chair should be 
divisible by three, without a remainder, the new regimen 
would cure him of the catarrh, but if it did not divide 
exactly, the regimen would be a failure. There were in 
all twenty-six steps, but he doubled me, and thus reached 
the chair with h^ twenty-eeventH^step. 

The figures of the presiding judge and of the members, 
as they ascended the platform in their uniforms with the 
ooQan embroidered in gold lace, were very impressive. 



They wete tbemselTes cooacioiiB of this, and all thiee, as 
though embamused hj their grandeur, erwiftly and mod- 
estly lowering their eyee, aat down on their cajred chaiiB, 
back of the table with the green cloUi, on whidi tovered a 
triangular Mirror of I^w with an eagle, and a glass vase 
Bach aa is used on eddeboaids for confectionery ; tiieie also 
stood an inkstand, and lay pens, clean paper, and newly 
sharpened pencils of all dimensions. The assodate prose- 
cnling attorney had come in at the same time as the judges. 
He at once walked ap to his place near the window just 
aa hairiedly,^with bis portfolio under his arm, and waving 
his hand in the same manner as before, and at once buried 
himself in the reading and examination of the papers, 
atilizing every minute in order to prepare himaelf for the 
case. This was the fourth time he had had a case to 
proaecnta He was very ambitious and had firmly deter- 
mined to make a career, therefore he regarded it as neces- 
sary that the cases should go i^ainst the defendant evray 
time he prosecuted. He was acquainted with the cMeS 
pcdnts in the poisoning case, and had even formed a plan 
of attack, bnt he needed a few more data, and was now 
hurriedly reading the briefs, and copying oat the necessary 

The secretary was seated at the opposite end of the 
platfram, and, having arranged all the documents that 
might be needed, was looking over a proscribed article, 
which be had obtained and read the day befota He 
was anxious to talk about this article to the member 
of the court with the long beard, who shared bis views, 
and was tiying to become familiar with its oontents befoca 
be spoke to hhn abont it. 



Tri prending judge looked tjirot^h the papers, pot a 
few (jueationfl \x> the bailiff and the secretary, and, having 
received affirmative aoswers, gave the order to bring in 
the defendants. The door back of the Bcreen was irnme* 
diately thrown open, and two gendarmes in caps, and 
with nnsheathed swords, entered, and were followed by 
the defendants, — by a red-haired, freckled man, and 
by two women. The man waa clad in a prison cloak, 
which was mnch too broad and too long for him. As he 
entered the court-room, he held his bands with their out- 
stretched fingers down his legs, thus keeping the long 
sleeves back in place. He did not glance upon the 
judges or npon the spectators, but gazed at the bench, 
aronnd which he was walking. Having got to the other 
end, he let the women sit down first, and himself took up 
a seat on the very edge ; gazing fixedly at the presiding 
judge, he began to move tiie muscles of his cheeks, as 
* though whispering something. After him came a young 
woman, also dressed in a prison cloak. Her head was 
wrapped in a prison kerchief ; her face was ashen-white, 
without eyebrows or lashes, hut with red eyes. This 
woman seemed to be very calm. As she was going up to 
her seat, her cloak caught on something, but she cturefolly, 
without any undue haste, freed it, and sat down. 
The third defendant was Milslova. 
The moment ^e entered, the eyes of all the men vrbo 
were in the court-room were directed upon her, and (or a 
long time were riveted upon her white face, with her 
Uack, sparkling eyes, and her swelling bosom underneath 



her cloak. Erea the gendarme, near whom she pUBsd, 
gazed at her uninteiruptodly, imtjl she bad gone beyond 
him; when ahe aat down, he rapidly turned away, as 
though consoioaa of his guilt, and, straightening himseU 
up, fixed his eyea upon the window in front of hhn. 

The presiding judge waited until the defendants hsd 
taken their seats, and the moment M^ova sat down, he 
turned to the secretary. 

Then began the usual procedure: the roU-call of the 
jurors, the discusaion about those who had failed to make 
their appearance, and the impoaition of fines up<m them, 
the decisoQ in regard to those who wished to be excused, 
and the completion of the required number from the 
reeerre jurors. Thaa the presiding judge folded some f^ 
sUps of paper, placed them in the glass vase, and, toUing 
up a little the embroidered sleeves of his uniform and 
baring his hirsute arms, b€f;an, with the gestures of a 
I»estidigitator, to take out one slip at a time ; these he 
unrolled and read. Then the presiding judge adjusted 
his sleeves, and ordered the priest to swear in the jurora 

The old priest, with a swollen, sallow face, in a cinoa- 
mcHi-coloored vestment, with a gold cross on his breast 
and a small decoration pinned to his vestment, slowly 
moving his swollen legs under his garment, went up to , 
the reading-desk which stood under Uie image. 

The jurymen arose and in s crowd moved up to tha 

" Please, come up," said the priest, touchii^ Ute cross 
on his chest with bis swollen baud, and waiting for the 
approach of all the jurors. 

This priest had taken orders forty-six years befcve, uid 
was preparing himself in three years to celelMmta his 
jabilee in the same manner in which the cathedral proto- 
pope had lately celebrated his. Ha had servBd in the 
circuit court since the opening of the courts, and was very 
jffoud of the fact that he had bwotu in seversl tens of 



titoasands of people, and ihat at his advanced age he ooo- 
Ijnoed to labour for the good of the Church, of hia country, 
and ot his family, to whom he woald leave a houee and 
a capital of not less than thirty thousand roubles in 
bondfi. It had never occurred to him that bis vork 
in the coart>room, which consisted in having people take 
an oath over the Gospel, in which swearing of oa^is is 
directly prohibited, was not good ; he was not in the least 
annoyed by his routine occupation, but, on the contrary, 
liked it very much, because it gave him an opportunity 
of gettii^ acquainted with nice gentlemen. He had just 
had ttie pleasure of meeting the famous lawyer, who 
inspired him with great respect because he 'had received 
a fee of ten ^oosand roubles for nothing more than the 
case of the old woman with the immense flowers. 

When the jarors had walked ap the steps of the plat-^ 
form, the priest, bending his bald, gray hqed to one side, 
stuck it through the greasy opening of theW»palaiy, and, 
arranging his scanty hair, addressed the jurois. 

" Baise your right hands and put your fingers togeUier 
like this," he said, in the deliberate voice of an old man, 
lifting his plump band, with dimples beneath every filler, 
and putting three fingers tc^ether. " Now repeat after 
me," he said, and began, " I promise and swear by Al- 
mighty God, before His Holy Gospel and before the Life- 
giving Rood of the Lord, that in the case, in which — " 
he said, making a pause after every sentence. " Don't drop 
your hand, but hold it like this," he addressed a young 
man, who had dropped his band, — " t^t in the case, in 
which — " 

The stately gentleman with the whiskers, the colonel, 
the merchant, and others held their fingers as the priest 
had ordered them to do ; soma of these held them high 
and distinctly formed, as though this gave them specjal 
pleasure ; others again held tiiem reluctantly and in an 
indefinite manner. Some repeated the words too loodlf. 



by Google 




u thon^ vith andue zeal and viith an expression wliich 
said, " There ia notJung to preTent m^ spealdiig aload ;" 
c^iiBzB again spoke in a whisper, and fell behind the words 
of the priest, and then, as if frightened, hastened to catch 
ap with ^'"1 ; some held their three fingers firmly folded, 
and flaunted them, as though they were afraid ot freeing 
something from tlieir hands ; others loosened theix fingers 
and again gathered them up. All felt awkward, and the 
old priest alone was firmly convinced that he was pet^ 
fomuDg a useful work. 

After the oath bad been administered, the presiding 
judge told the jurors to elect a foreman. The juiymen 
arose, and, crowding each other, went into the council- 
room, where they immediately took out their cigarettes, 
and began to smoke. Somebody pn^ioeed the stately 
gentleman for a foreman ; he was chosen by unanimous 
consent, and, throwing away and extinguishing the ciga- 
rette stumps, they returned to the court-room. The stately 
gentleman announced to the presiding judge that he had 
been chosen foreman, and, stepping over each others' feet, 
tiiey aat down in two rows, on the chairs with the high 

Eveiything went ?rithout a hitch, almost with solem- 
nity, and tlua regularity, this sequence and solemnity, 
afTorded all the participants pleasure, for it confirmed them 
in their conviction that they were performii^ a serious 
and important public duty. NekhlyiSdov, too, felt this. 

The moment the jurors had taken their seats, the pre- 
' siding judge made a speech to them about their ri^ts, 
tiieir duties, and their responsibilities. While delivering 
his speech, the judge kept changing his pose : he leaned 
now on his right arm, now on his left, now on the back, 
and now on the arm of his chair ; be smoothed out the 
edges of the papers, or be stroked the paper-knife, or 
fingered a pencil 

Their rights ccmsisted, according to his words, in being 



permitted to ask questions of tlie defendants through Uie | 

presidii^ judge, in having pencil and paper, and in being . 

allowed to inspect the exhibits. Their duty consisted in | 

judging justly, and not falsely. And their responsibility l 

vaa this : if they did not keep their consultations secret, j 

or if they established any communication with the out- 
side world, they would be subject to punishment. 

Everybody listened with respectful attention. The 
merchant, wafting around him the odour of liquor, and re- 
straining himself from loud belching, approvingly nodded 
his head at every sentenca | 



Hatikq finiflhfld his speeoh, the jadge tazned to the 

" Sim^ gftrtfaTrin, arise ! " he said. 

SiouJn got up Tith a jerk, and the moBclea of his 
cheeks moved more lapdly. 

" Your name 1 " 

" Sim6a PfltnSv KartiDkin," he answered rapidly, ia a 
ciackliDg voice, eTidootly having prepared his answer in 

" Your rank 1 " 

" Feasant." 

" What Groverument and county T " 

" From the Oovemment of Tdla, ErapfvenBk Oomity, 
Kupy^Qsk township, village of BtSi^" 

" How old are you ? " 

"Thirty-three; bom in one tJioiuand — * 

" What IB your religion ? " 

" I am 8 ^Bsian, an Orthodox." 


"No, sir." 

" What is your occupation ? " 

" I worked in the corridor of ' Hotel Hauritania.' " 

■ Have you been in court before ? " 

"I have never been sentenced, because I used to 
live — " 

" YoQ have not been tried before 7 " 

" So help me God, never." 

" Have yon received a copy of the indictment f " 

-I have." 




"Tiike youp seatl Evfimiya Ivdnovna Bicbkova," the 
presidiiig judge addiessed the next defendant. 

But SimiSn contiuaed standing, and Bdchkova coold 
not be seen behind hia back. 

" Eartlnkin, sit dowi^" 

Kardnkin ccmtinned to stand. 

" Kut&iMn, edt down ! " 

Bat Kartlnkin still stood np ; he sat down only wheo 
the bailiff ran np, and, bending his head down, and un* 
natUT&lly opening his mouth, said to him in a tragic 
whisper : " Sit down, sit down ! " 

Ksrdnkin dropped as fast into his seat as he had shot 
up before, and, wrapping himself in bis cloak, began once 
more silently to move his cheeks. 

" Your name 7 " the judge addressed the second defend- 
ant, witli a sigh of fatigae, without looking at her, and 
looking up something in the document which wee lying 
before him. The presiding judge was so used to his cases 
that, in order to expedite matters, he was able to attend 
to two things at the same time. 

Bdchkova was forty-three years old ; bei rank, burgess 
of KohSnma ; her occupation, corridor maid in tlie same 
" Hotel Mauritania." She had not been before under trial, 
and bad received the indictment She answered aU tiie 
questions very freely, and with such intonations as though 
^e meant to convey the idea : " Yes, I, Evffmiya B6cii- 
kova, have received the copy, and am proud of it, and 
allow nobody to laugh at me." She did not wait for the 
permission to be seated, but sat down tba moment the 
last question was answered. 

" Your name ? " the gallant preMding judge exceedingly 
politely addressed the third defendant. " You must stand 
up t " he added, softly and kindly, noticing that AjUsIova 
was sitting. 

M^lova started up with a swift motion, and with an 
expression of readiness, thrusting forward her swelling 



bosom, looked, without answering, at the face of the jndga 
with her smiling and alightly squinting black eyes. 

" What is your name ? " 

" Lynb6v," she quickly replied. 

In the meantime, Nekhlyildov, who had pat on hia 
eye-glasses, was watching the defendants while the ques- 
tions were being asked. " It can't be," he thought, rivet- 
ing his eyes on the defendant " But how is it LyubiSv ? " 
he thought, upon hearing her answer. 

The judge wanted to continue bis questions, but the 
member in the spectacles, saying somettung angrily under 
his breath, stopped him. The judge nodded consent, and 
again turned to the defendant. 

''Lyab6T7" he said. "A di£E»«nt name is given 

The defendant remained silent. 

" I ask what your real name is 7 " 

" By what name were you baptized ? " tiie member 
asked, angrily. 

" Formerly I was called Katerfna." 

" It is impossible," Nekhlyiidov kept saying to himself, 
and meanwhile he knew beyond any doubt that it was 
she, the same girl, half-educated, half-chambermaid, with 
whom he had once been in love, precisely, in love, but 
whom he had seduced daring an uncontrollable transport 
and then had abandoned, and whom 'he later never thought 
of, because that recollection would have been too painful 
to him and would have condemned him ; it would have 
proved that he, who was so proud of his " decency," not 
only was not decent, but had simply treated this woman 

Yes, it iras she. He now saw clearly tiiat exclusive 
and mysterious individuality which separates one person 
from another and makes him ezdosive, one, and unre- 
pealed. B^ieatb the unnatural pallor and plumpness 
d her face, this individuality, this sweet, exceptional 


48 racBUBiuEcnoN 

individuality, waa in hei fac6, her lipe, her sli^tly squint- 
ing eya, snid, above all else, in her naive, smiling glance, 
and in tiiat ezpreesion of readiness, not only in her face, 
bat in her whola fignre. 

" Yoa ought to luve said so," the jodge said, Btitl very 
aoitAj. " Your patronymic 1 " 

" I am of ill^timate hirth," said Id^lova. 

" How were yon called by yoor godfather ? " 

" Mikh^ylovna." 

" What could her crime be ? " Kekhlyddov continaed to 
think, breathing with difBcolty. 

" Your family name T " costumed the jodgei 

" Mlblova, by my motiiar." 


«0f Oie Orthodox faitlif" 


" Occupation 7 What was yonr oecnpation 1 ' 

M&lova was silent. 

" What was your occupation ? " repeated the jndge. 

" I lived in an establi^ment," she said. 

"lu what kind of an establiahment ? " angrily asked 
Uie member in Uie speotaclee. 

"You know yonieelf in what kind," said M&lova, 
smiling, and, immediately turning aronnd, she again fixed 
her eyes on the presidiog jadga 

There waa something so unusoal in the expression of 
her face, and something so terrible and pitiable in the 
meaning of the words which she had uttered, in her 
smile, and in that rapid glance which she then cast upon 
the whole court-room, that the presiding judge lost his 
composure, and for a moment ensued a complete silence 
in the halL The silence was broken by the laughter of 
somebody among the spectators. Somebody else cried, 
" Hush I " The presiding judge raised bis bead and con- 
tinaed Use questions. 



" Hbts 70U ever been tried or acder a judicial inqaest 

<■ No," aof tly said MtCslova, with a sigh. 

" Have you received the indictment } " 

" I have." 

" Take your seat," said the presiding judge. 

The defendant lifted her skirt with a motion with 
which dressed up women adjust their train, and sat down, 
foldii^ her small white hands in the sleeve of the cloak, 
without taking her eyes off the presiding judge. 

Then b^an the roU-call of the witnesses, and the re- 
moval of the witnesses, and the determination of the 
medical expert, and his call to the court-ioom. Then 
the secreto^ rose and b€f^ to read the indictment. He 
read with a clear and loud enunciation, hut so rapidly 
that his voice, with its incorrectly articulated r's and I's, 
mingled into one uninterrupted, soporific din. The judges 
leaned now on one arm of the chair, now on the other, 
now on the table, or against the back, and now closed 
their eyea or opened them and passed some words to each 
other in a whisper. One gendarme several times held 
back his incipient convulsive yawning. 

Of the defendants, Eartfnkm never stopped moving his 
cheeks. BiSchkova sat very quiet and erect, occasionally 
scratching her head nnderQeatti her kerchiel 

Mfslova sat motionless, listening to the reader and 
looking at him ; now and then she shuddered, as though 
wishing to contradict, blushed, and drew deep sighs ; she 
changed the position of her hands, looked around her, and 
again riveted her eyes on the reader. 

Nekhlyddov sat in the first row, on his high cbair, the 
second from the outer edge ; he did not take off his eye- 
glasses, and gazed at M^lova, while his soul was in a 
complicated and painful ferment 


Thb indictmect was as follows : On the sereateeoth of 
January, 188—, the police was informed by the proprietor 
of " Hotel Mauiitania," of that city, of the sudden death 
of the traneieut Siberian merchant of tbe second guild, 
FeiapaSnt SmyeU&Sv, who had been staying in his establiah- 
mcot. According to the testimony of the physician of the 
fourth ward, SmyelkiJv's deatii had been caused by a rupture 
of the heart, induced by an immoderate use of spirituous 
liquors, and 3myelk<iy's body was committed to Uie earth 
on the third day. la tbe meantime, on the fourth day 
after Smyelbi5v'B death, there returned from St. Petersburg 
his countryman and companion, the Siberian merchant 
Timdkhin, who, upon learning of the death of his friend 
Smyelkdv, and of the circumstances under which it had 
taken place, expressed his suspicion that Smyelk6v'B death 
was due to unnatural causes, and that he bad been p(u- 
Boned by evil-doers, who had seized his money and a gold 
ring, which were wanting from the inventory of his 
property. As a result of this, an inquest was instituted, 
and the following was ascertained : First, that it was known 
to the proprietor of " Hotel Mauritania " and to the clerk 
of Merchant Starik^v, with whom Smyelk^y had had busi- 
ness affairs after his arrival in the city, that Smyelkdv 
ought to have had 3,800 roubles, which he had received 
from the bank, whereas in the travelling-bag and pocket- 
book, which had been sealed up at his death, only 312 
roubles and sixteen kopeks were found. Secondly, that 
the day and night preceding his death, Smyelkdv had 



passed with the prostitate Lyab6v, who had been twice 
to hifi room. Thirdly, that said prostitute had sold a 
diamond ling, belonging to Smyelki5r, to the landlady. 
Fourthly, that the hoteJ maid Evffmiya BtScbkova had 
deposited eighteen hundred roubles in a hank on the day 
after Smyelk<Sv's d^th. And, fifthly, that, according to 
the declaration of the proBtitute LyuWv, the hotel servant 
Simtfn Eaitfnkin had handed a powder to said prostitute 
LynhiST, advising her to pour it into the wine of Merchant 
Smyelk6v, which she, according to her own confession, 
bad promptly don& 

At the inquest, the defendant, said prostitute, named 
LyulxSv, dep^ed that during the presence of Merchant 
SmyelkiSv in the house of prostitution, in which, according 
to her words, die had been working, she had really been 
sent by the said Merchant Smyelki^v to his room in the 
" Hotel Mauritania " to fetch him some money ; and that 
there she had opened his valise with the key which he had 
given her, and had taken from it forty roubles, as ordered 
to do, but that she had not taken any more money, to 
which Simdn Kartinkin and Evfimiya B6chkova could 
be her witnesses, for she had opened and closed the valise 
and had taken out the money in their presence. 

But as to the poisoning of Smyelk^v, prostitute Lynb6v 
- deposed that upon her third arrival at Merchant Smyel- 
k<5v's room, she had really, at the instigation of Simdn 
Kartinkin, given him some powders in lus cognac, think- 
ing them to be such as would induce sleep, for the purpose 
of being freed from him as soon as he fell asleep ; that she 
had taken no money ; and t^at the ring had been given 
her by Smyelk6v himself, when he had dealt her some 
blows, and she had intended to leave. 

At the inquisition, the defendants, Evffmiya Btfchkova 
and Simijn Eartiokin, deposed as follows : Evffmiya B<$ch- 
kova deposed that she Iniew nothing of the lost moo^ ; 
that she had not once entered the merchant's room ; and 



that Lyab<$T hsd been there by herself, end that, if any 
monej bad been stolen, it mast have been stolen by Lyu- 
h&r irtien abe had come with the merclia&t'B key for the 

At this point of the reading, Mflslova sfaoddered, nni^ 
opesiing her mouth, glanced at B<3chkova. 

When the eighteen-hundred-rouble bank-bill was pre- 
eented to Evffmiya B<5chkova, the secretaiy continued 
reading, and she was asked where she got such a sum 
of money, ahe deposed that it had been earned by her 
dnring twelve years in conjunction with Sini6n, whom 
she had intended to marry. 

At the inquest, the defendant Simi5n Ksrtlnkin in his 
first deposition confessed that he and 6)5chkoTa had 
tc^ethei Btolen the mcsiey, at the instigation of M^slova, 
who had come from the bonse of prostituticm with the 
key, and that he had divided it among himself, M^lova, 
and BtSchkova ; he had also confessed that he had given 
the powders to Mdslova, in order to induce sleep. But at 
the aecimd deposition he denied his participation in the 
stealing of the money, and his having handed any powders 
to M^lova, and accused M&lova alone. But in regard 
to the money which Bi5chkova had deposited in the Imnk, 
be deposed, similar to her statement, that she had earned 
that money in conjonctioQ with him daring the eighteen 
years of her seirifW at the hotel, from the gratuities of 
the gentlemen. 

To clear up the ciicamstances of the case, it was found 
necessary to hold an inquest over the body of Merchant 
SmyelkiJT, and consequently an order was given to ex- 
hume Smyelk^v'e body and to investigate both the con- 
tents of his entrails, and the changes that might have 
taken piece in his onanism. The investigation of his 
entrails showed that death had been occasioned by poison- 
ing. Then there followed in the indictment the descrip- 
tion of the croaa-ezamination, and the depositions of the 



The (HHidusioD of the indictmeiit wu as 
f ollowa : 

Siiiyelk6v, merchant (tf tfie eecond gaUd, having in a 
fit of intoxication and debauch entered into rdations 
¥rith a prostitate in Kit^va's hooae of prostitution, hj 
the name of Ljubdv, and having taken a special liking 
to her, had, cm the seventeenth of January, 188-, while 
in Kit<(eva'8 bouee of proetdtation, sent the above-men- 
tioned prostitute L7ub(5y, with the key of his valise, to 
his room in the hotel, in order that she might procore 
from bis valise forty roubles, which be had wi^ed to 
spend. Having arrived at his room, Katerina Mtfslova, 
while taking this money, bad entered into an agreement 
with B6chkoTa and with Eart{nkin to seize all the money 
and the valoables belonging to MeK^ant SmyelktSv, and 
to divide them up among themselves, which was promptly 
execated by them (again M^Iova shuddered, raised ber^ 
self in her seat, and grew purple in her face), whereat 
Mtblova received the diamond ring, — the secretary con- 
tioaed reading, — and probably a small amount of money, 
which baa been either concealed or lost by her, since 
daring that ni{^t she happened to be in an intoxicated 

In order to conceal the traces of their crime, die par- 
ticipants had agreed to entice Merchant Smyelk6v back 
to his room and to poison him there witlj arsenic, which 
was in Kartfnkin's possession. For this purpose, Mfblova 
returned to the house of prostitution and there persuaded 
Merchant Smyelkdv to drive back with her to his room 
in " Hotel Mauritania." Upon Smyelk<{v'8 return, M^ 
lova, having received the powders from Eartinkin, poured 
Uiem into the wine, and gave it to Smyelk6v to drink, 
from which ensued his death. 

In view of tiie above-mentioned facts, Simon Eartfn- 
Idn, a peasant of the village of B6rki, and thirty-three 
yean of age, Bnigees Evffmiya Ivinovna Btfcbkora, fot^- 



three yeara of age, and Burgess Saterfna Uikhiylonw 
M&lovs, twemtf-eeven years of age, are accused of hav- 
iiig, OQ Janoaiy 17, 188-, conspired to seize the money 
of Merchant Smyelkdv, to the som of twent^^ve hundred 
roubles, and to de^ffive Merchant Smyelk6T of his Ufe, 
in order to conceal the traces of their crime, for which 
purpose they administered pcnson to him, which caused 
his death. 

This crime is provided for in Article 1455 of the Crimi- 
nal Obde. In pursuance thereof, and on the basis of 
article so and so of the Statutes of Criminal Procedure, 
Peasant Simdn Karthikin, Evffmiya £<{chkova, and Bui^ 
gesa Eaterfua Mtialova are subject to the jurisdiction of 
the circuit court and are to be tried by jury. 

Thus the secretary ended the reading of his long indict- 
ment, and, putting away the docnmente, sat down in his 
seat, passing both his hands through his hair. Everybody 
drew a sigh of rehef, with the pleasant conviction thfU; 
now the investigation would begin, when everything 
would be cleared up, and justice would be satisfied. 
Nekhlyiidov alone did not experience that sensation : he 
was aU absorbed in the contemplation of the terrible 
diargea Iwoi^ht against Mfblova, whom he bad known 
as an innocent and charming girl tea years before. 



Whsh the reading of the mdictmest was ended, the 
presiding jndge, having conBulted with the members, 
tamed to KartfuMn with an expression which manifestly 
aaid that now they would most Barely ascertain all the 
detaila of the case. 

" Feasant Simtfn Kartfukin," he begfto, leaning to his 

Simdn Kartlnldn got up, holding his hands close at hia 
aidee, and bending forwfurd with his whole body, while 
his cheeks continaed to move inaudibly. 

" Tou are accused of having, on January 17, 188-, in 
company with Evffmiya BtScJfikova and Eaterfna M^ 
lova, appropriated from Smyelk6v'8 valise his money, and 
then" of having brought arsenic, and having persuaded 
Katerina Mislova to give it to Merchant SmyelkiJv to 
drink in wine, from which his death ensued. Do you 
plead guilty ? " he said, leaning to his right. 

** It is entirely impossible, because it ia our duty to 
serve the guests — " 

" Ton •win tell that later. Do yon plead guilty ? " 

"Not at all I only— " 

" You will say that later. Do you plead guilty ? " the 
[wesiding judge repeated calmly, but firmly. 

" I can't do that because — " 

Again the bailiff ran up to SimiJn Kartinkiii, and 
stopped him, in a tragic whisper. 

The presiding judge, with an expression on his face as 
though this matter had been settled, changed the position 



U the elbow of that ana, in the hand of which he waa 
holcUng a paper, and addressed Evffmiya B6chkova. 

" Evflmiya B6cbbova, you are accused of havii^ taken, 
on January 17, 188-, in company with Simtin Kaitinkin 
and Katetina M^ora, from Merchant Smyelk^r's valiae, 
his money and ring, and after dividing the property up 
among yoniselves, of having tried to conceal your crime 
by giving Merchant Smyelk<Sv poison, from which his 
death ensued. Do yon plead guilty Y " 

" I am guilty of nothing," Uie defendant spoke boldly 
and firmly. -I did not even go into bis room — Asd 
as this lewd one went in there, she did it." 

"Tou will tell that later," the preaidiog judge said 
again, just as gently and firmly as before. " So you do 
not pl^ guilty 1 " 

" I did not take the money, and I did not give him 
anything to drink, and I was not in his room. If I had 
been in there, I should have kicked her out." 

" You do not plead guilty ! " 

" Kever." 

" Very well" 

" Katerfna Mtlslova," began the presiding jadge, addiesa- 
ing the third defendant, " you aie accused of having 
come from the public house to the room of ' Hotel Mauri- 
tania,' with the key to Merchant SmyelkiSv's valise, and of 
having taken from that valiae money and a ring," he said, 
as though reciting a lesson learned by rote, leanii^ hia 
ear to the member on the left, who was informing him 
that according to the list of the exhibits a certain vial 
was wanting, " of having taken from that valise money 
and a ring," repeated t£e judge, " and, after having di- 
vided up the stolen property, and having arrived with 
Merchant SmyelktSv at 'Hotel Mauritania,' of having 
offered Smyelki5v poiS(Kied wine to drink, from tba aETeots 
of which he died. Do you plead guilty T" 

"I am not guilty of anything," she spoke rajadly. 



" Ab I have said before, bo I aay now : I did sot take it, 
I did Dot, I did not ; and the ring he gave me himBelf." 

" You do not plead guilt; to the charge of having takea 
tbe twenty-five hundred roubles ? " said the presiding 

" I Bay I took nothing but the forty roubles." 

" Bo you plead guilty to having put some powderB into 
tiie wine of Merchant Smyelkdv ? " 

"l do. Only I thought that they wete sleeping-powders, 
and that nothing would happen to him from them. X 
had no intentions of doing wrong. I aay before Ood, 
I did not wish his death," she said. 

" And so you do not plead guilty to having taken the 
money and ring of Merchant Smyeik6v," said the presid- 
ing judge. " But you do plead guilty to the chuge of 
having administeied the powders < " 

"I plead guilty to this, only I thought they were 
sleeping-powders. I gave them to him to put him to 
sleep ; I bad no other intention." 

" Very well," said the presiding judge, evidently satis- 
fied with the reenlt " TeU, then, how it all happened," 
he said, leaning against the back of the chair, and placing 
both his handa on the table. " TeU everytlung bs it hap- 
pened. You may be able to alleviate your condition by a 
frank confession." 

M(!slova continued to gaae at the preBiding judge, and 
to keep silent. 

" Tell how it aU happened." 

" How it happened ? " Mdslova suddenly b^an, in a 
harried voice. " I arrived at the hotel ; I was token to 
his room, and he was already there, very drunk." She 
pronounced the word " he " with a peculiar expression of 
terror, opening her eyes wide. " I wanted to drive home, 
bat he would not let me." 

She stopped, as though having suddenly lost the thread 
of what she was saying, or recalling Bomething else. 



" Well, and then ? " 

" And tben ? I stayed there, and then drove homa" 

At that time the aesociate prosecuting attorney half 
raised himself, leaning unnaturally on one elbow. 

" Do yon wish to ask a question ? " said the presiding 
judge, and, on the associate prosecuting attorney's afBrma- 
tive answer, he indicated by a gesture that he could pat 
the question. 

" I should like to ask whether the defendant had been 
acquainted with Simijn Eartfnkin before that," sud the 
associate prosecuting attorney, without looking at M^ 

Having put the question, he compressed his lips and 

The judge repeated the question. Mfislova gazed 
frightened at the assistant prosecuting attorney. 

" With Sim6n ? Yes," she said. 
* « I should like to know wherein the defendant's ac- 
quaintance with ElartfnMn consisted, and whether they 
had frequent communicationa," 

" What this acquaintance consisted in ? He nsed to 
invite me to his room, but there was no other acquaint- 
ance," replied M^ova, restlessly turning her ^es from 
the associate prosecuting attorney to the presiding judge, 
and hack agfdn. 

" I should like to know why Karttnkin used to invite 
M&lova ezdusively, and no other girls 7" said the asso- 
ciate prosecuting attorney, half-closing his eyee, and with 
a light Mephistophelion smile. 

" I do not know. How can I know ? " replied Mdslova, 
casting a frightened look all around her, and for a moment 
resting her eyes on NekhlyiJdov. " He invited whom be 

" Has she recognized me ? " Nekhlyiidov thought in 
terror, feeling all his blood rush to his face ; but M^lova 
did not separate him from the rest, and, turning imme- 


RBstmsBcnoH 59 

diately owkj from him, riveted her eyea on Uie assistant 
prosecatiog attorney, with an ezpressioD of terror in her 

" The defendant, then, denies having had any close rela- 
tionB with Kajtinkin ? Very well I have nothing eUa 
to ask." 

And the associate prosecuting attorney immediately re- 
moved hia elbow from the desk, and b^an to write some- 
thing down. In reality he was not writing anything at 
all, ^t only mnning his pen over the letters of his brief, 
bat he pretended to imitate the prosecnting attorneys and 
lawyers who, after a clever question, make a note in their 
speeches that are to crush their opponents. 

The presiding judge did not at once turn to the defend- 
ant, because he was just then asking the member in the 
spectacles whether he agreed to his putting the previously 
prepared and noted down questions. 

" What happened next ? " the presiding judge continued 
bis inquiry. 

" I came back home," continued MMova, looking more 
boldly at the judge, " and gave the money to the land- 
lady, and went to bed. I had barely fallen asleep when 
one of oar girls, B^rta, woke me up with ' Go, your mer- 
chant has come again 1 ' I did not want to go out, but 
the madam told me to go. In the meantime, he," she 
again uttered this word with manifest terror, "he had 
been all the time treating our girls ; then he wnnted to 
send for some more wine, but his money was all gone. 
The landlady did not trust him. So he senf; me to bis 
room ; and he told me where his money was, and bow 
much I should take. So I went." 

The presiding judge was whispering sometJiing to the 
member on the 1^, and did not hear what M^ova was 
saying, but to show that he was listening, he repeated her 
last words. 

" You went Well, and then ? " he said. 



" I went than and did as he hod ndend me to da I 
went to his room. I did not go by myself, bat called 
SinuSn Mikh^ylovich, and her," ahe aaid, pcnntiiig to 

"She Ib lying; I did not pot my foot in there — " 
began Evffmiya BaSchkora, bat ahe was stoi^ied. 

" I took oat four red biUa in thoiz presence," MjUIotb 
continued, frowning, and withoat glancing at BcScbkova. 

" Well, did not the defendant notice how much money 
there was in it, while she was taking the forty roablea 1 " 
again asked the prosecntitig attorney. 

M^ova shuddered, the moment the prosecating attca^ 
ne^ addreesed her. She did not know how to explain 
her feeling, bat ahe was sure he meant her harm. " I did 
not count, hut I saw ttieie were some hundred-rouble 
bills there." 

•' The defendant saw hnndred-roable billa, — I have 
nothing else to ask." 

" Well, 80 yoa brought the mcmey ? ** tiie {weoding 
jadge weot on to ask, looking at hia watch. 

"I did." 

" Well, and then ? " asked the presiding judge. 

■* Then he took me with him once more," said HfEslova. 

"And how did yoa give him the wine with the 
powder?" asked the judge. 

" How ? I poored it into the wine, and gave it to 

" Why did you give it to him ? " 

Withoat anawwing the questiwi, she heaved a deep 
and heavy sigh. 

" He would not let me go," she said, after a moment's 
silence. " X got tired of him, so I went into the corridor, 
and said to Simdn Mikh^ylovich, ' If he'd only let me 
go, — I am BO tired.' And Simi5n Uikhiylovich said, 
' We are tired of him, too. Let us give him some eHeep- 
ing^Kiwders; that will put him to sleep, and then yoa 


BxausRBonoH 61" 

w31 get Rway.' And I said, ' Very well I ' I thought it 
wu a hannless powder. He gave me a paper. I went 
in, and he was lying behiad a screen, and asked me at 
once to 1^ him have some cognac I took from Uie 
table a hottle of fine-champagne, filled two glaases, — 
one foi myself, and one for hun, — and poured the powder 
into hia glaae. I ebonld neret have given it, if I had 
known what it was." 

" Well, how did yon get poHseasitHi of the ring ? " asked 
the presiding judge. 

" He himself had made me a present of it." 

" When did he give it to you 1 " 

" When we came to hia room, I wanted to leave, and 
he stTDck me upon the head, and broke my comh. I grew 
angry, and wanted to go away. He took the ting off his 
finger and gave it to me, askmg me to stay," she said. 

Just then tha associate proBocating attorney half-taised 
lumself, and, with the same feignedly naive look, asked 
t^e judge's permisBion to put a few more qaestiona Hia 
request being granted, he bent his bead over hia em- 
Iwoidered collar, and asked: 

" I should like to know how loi^ the defendant re- 
mained in Merdiant SmyelkdVe room." 

Again Mislova was overcome by tenai, and, her eyes 
restlessly flitting from the associate prosecuting attorney 
to the presiding judge, she muttered, hurriedly : 

" I do not lemembw bow long." 

" Well, does the defendant remember whether she called 
elsewhere in the hotel apcm coming out of Merchant 
Smyelk6v's room 1 " 

Mislova thought awhila 

" I went into the adjoining room, — it was onooen^ed," 

"Why did yon step in Uwrel" said the : 
pro oe coting attorney, enthusiastically, and addressiug her 


62 BssuBBBcnon 

" I went in to fix myself, and to wait {or a cab." 

" And was Kartfnkm in the room witJi the defendant 
or not ? " 

" He came in, too." 

" What did be come in for ? " 

"There waa some of the merchant's fine-cbampogne 
left, so we drank it together." 

" Ah, you drank it in company. Very welL" 

"Did Uie defendant have any conversation with 

M^lova suddenly frowned, grew red in her face, and 
rapidly said : " What I said ? Nothing. I have told 
everyttiiag tiiat took place. I know nothing else. Do 
with me what you pl^se. I am not guilty, and that's 

" I have nothing else," the prosecuting attorney said to 
the preaiding judge, and, unnaturally raising his shouldere, 
b^an swiftly to note down in the brief of his speech the 
confession of the defendant that she bad been in an un- 
occupied room with SimiSn. 

There ensued a moment's olence. 

" Have yon nothing else to say ? " 

" I have said everything," ahe declared, with a aigfa, and 
sat down again. 

Thereupon the presiding ja^e made a note of some- 
tJiii^, and, upon having l^tened to a communication 
whi^ the member on the left had made to him in a 
whisper, he announced a recess of ten minutes in the 
session, and hurriedly rose and left the room. The coa- 
Bultation between the presiding judge and the member on 
his left, the tall, bearded man, with the large, kindly eyee, 
otmuBted in the latter's information that h^ stomach was 
slightly out of order, and that he wished to massage him- 
self a htUe and swallow some drops. It was this that he 
bad told the {oesiding judge, and the judge acceded to 
his ret^ueat and granted a ten minutes' recess. 



Bight after the judges rose the jurors, the lawyers, and 
Uie witnesses, and, with the pleasurable sensation of 
having performed a part of an important duty, they 
moved to and fro. 

NekhlyiidoT went into the consaltation room, and 
there sat down at the window. 



Th, tioM wu SAtydsha. 

NeUilTiidoVB lel^mB with Katyifilu had bean like 

Keldilyrfdov saw Katytleha tor the first time wfaen, as 
a Uuid-jear studont at the uoiTersi^, he passed the 
aanmiar wiUi his aonts, workiiig on his ULesis abont 
tbe ownnahip of land. Hia Taoaticnis he usaally passed 
with his mcrtiher and sister on his mother's Bnhnrban 
estate near Moscow ; bat in tiiat particular year his sister 
was married, and his mother went abroad to a watering- 
place. NebblyiidoY had to worb on his essay, and so he 
decided to stay during the sunnner with bis aunts. There, 
in the depth of the country, it was quiet, and there were 
no distractions ; and the aunts tenderly loved Uieir nephew 
and heir, and he loved them and their old-fashioned ways 
and simpjidty of life. 

Daring diat summer yekhlyddov experienced Uiat rap- 
turous mood which comes over a youth when be for the 
first time discovers, not by the indications of others, but 
from within, all the beauty and significance of life and all 
the importance of the woA which is to be performed in 
it by each man ; when he sees the endless perfectibility 
of himself and of the whole universe ; and when ' he de- 
votee himself to Uiat perfectibility not only with the hope, 
but with the full conviction of being able to attain ^ 
perfection of which he baa been dreuning. Daring that 
year, whOe attending his lectures, he had had a chance of 
zaading Spencer's Social Statict, and Spencer's refleo- 
tliiu m tiie ownanh^ <rf land had pcoduoed a stzoog 



impreasion apon him, eapadally siiice lie himBeU was the 
BOB of « large proprietress. His father had not been rich, 
bat Mb mother had leceiyed aboat ten thousand desyatinaa 
of land as a doviy. It was theo the first time that he 
bad perceived the craelty and injustace of private owner- 
ship^ and, being one of those men to vhom a sacrifice in 
the name of moral demands affords the highest spiritual 
enjoyment, he had decided not to make use of his right 
of the ownership of land, and had given away to the peas- 
ants the land which he had inherited from his father. 
And it was on this subject that he was writing his essay. 

His life on the estate of his aunts, during that summei:^ 
ran like this : he rose vety early, sometimes at three o'clockk. ' 
and before sunrise, frequently before the morning mist haa ' 
lifted, went to bathe in the rivw at the foot of a hill, and 
returned home while the dew was still on the grass 
and the Sowers. ' At times, he seated himself, soon after 
drinking his coffee, to write on his essay, or to read up 
the sources for his essay ; but very frequently, instead of 
leadii^ ot writing, he went away from the house and 
wandedred over fields and through woods. Before dinner 
he fell asleep somewhere in the shade of the garden ; then, 
at table, he amused hie aunts with his jollity ; then he 
rode on horseback, or went out rowing, and in the evening 
he read again, or sat with his aunts, playing solitaire. 
Frequently he could not sleep during the night, especially 
when the moon was shining, because he was ove^owii^ 
with a billowing joy of life, and so, instead of sleeping, he 
would stroll through the garden, dreaming and thuikiiig. 

Hiub he had quietly and happily passed the first month 
of his sojourn on the estate of his aunts, without paying 
the slightest attenti(ai to the faalf-«hambermaid, half-edu- 
cated, black-eyed, swifb-footed Katyilsha. 

At that time, Nekhlyiidov, who had been bronght up 
imder his mother's wing, though nineteen years of age, 
woa aa entirely innocent youth. He dreamed of womsa 



only aa of a wife. But bU the women who, according to his 
opinion, could not be Mb wife, were people and not women, 
Bo far as he was concerned. But on Ascension day of 
that sununer a neighbour happened to call with her chil- 
dren, two young ladies and a gymnasiast, and a young artist, 
of peasant origin, who was staying at their house. 

After tea they began to play the " burning " catching^ 
game on the lawn before the house, which had already 
been mowed down. Eiityiisha was of the company. After 
several changes of places NekhlyiidoT had to run with 
Katyttsha. It was always a pleasure for Nekhlyiidov to 
see Katyileha, but it had never occurred to him that tho'e - 
could be any special relations between them. 

" Well, I sha'o't be able to catch them," aaid the " burn- 
ing," joUy artist, who was very ewift on his short and 
crooked, but strong peasant legs. 

" Maybe they will stumble I " 

" No, you will not catch us I " 

" One, two, three I " 

They clapped their hands three times. With difficulty 
restraining her laughter, Eatydsha rapidly exchanged 
places with Kekhlyiidov, and, with her strong, rough, 
little hand pressii^ his large hand, she started running to 
the left, rustling her starched skirt. 

Nekhlyiidov was running fast, and, as he did not wish 
to be caught by the artist, he raced as fast as his legs 
would carry him. As he looked around be saw the artist 
close at her heels, and she, moving her lithe young le^^s, 
did not submit to him, but got away to his left In hoab 
was a clump of lilac bushes, behind which no one was 
mnning, and Katyilsba, looking back at Nekhlyiidov, 
made a sign with her head to him to join her behind the 
bushes. He understood her, and ran back of the clump. 
But here, back of the lilac bushes, there was a small ditch 
overgrown with nettles, of which he did not know ; he 
■tumbled into it, and in his fall stung his hands with the 



oatUes, and wet them in the erening dew ; but be imm&- 
diately got up, lai^bing at himself, uid ran out on a clear 

Kal^tleha, gleaming with a smile and with her eyes as 
black as moist blackberries, was running toward him. 
They met and clasped each other's hands. 

" The nettles have stung you, I think," she said, adjust- 
ing her braid with her free hand ; she breathed heavily 
and, smiling, looked straight at him with her upturned 

" I did not know there was a ditch there," he said, him- 
self smiling, and not letting her hand out of his. 

She moved up to him, and he, himself not knowing 
how it all happened, moved his face up to hers ; she did 
not torn away, and ho pressed her hand more firmly, and 
kissed her on the lips. 

" I declare ! " she muttcired, and, with a swift motion 
freeing her hand, ran away from him. 

She ran up to the lilac bushes, picked cff two bunches 
of withering white lilacs, and striking her heated face with 
them and looking around at him, waved her hands in a 
lively manner and went bock to the players. 

From that time the relations between Nekhlyiidov and 
Katy\isha were changed for those other relations whidl 
are established between an innocent young man and an 
equally innocent young girl, who are attracted to each 

The moment Katyilsha entered the room, or if he saw 
her white apron from a distance, everything seemed to 
him as though illuminated by the sunlight, everything 
became more interesting, more cheerful, more significant, 
and life was more joyfuL She experienced the same. It 
was not merely Eatyiisha's presence and nearness that 
produced that effect upon Nekhlyiidov ; it was also pro- 
daced by the mere consciousness that there was a £a- 
tjdaba, just as she was affected by the conficiousness of his 



If KekhlyiidoT received an unpleasant letter 
from his mother, or if his essay did not proceed satisfao- 
tarHj, or if he felt an inexplicable jout^ul sadness, — it 
was enough for him to think of Ka^iisha's existence, and 
to see her, in order that all that should be dispersed. 

Katyiisha had many houaeUbld cares, but she generally 
had time to spare, and in such moments she read books ; 
Nekhlyiidov gave her the works of Dostoevski and of 
Tui^g^ey, which he himself had just finished reading. 
Nothing gave her so much pleasure as Turg^neVs " The 
Calm." They conversed with each other by fits, while 
- meeting in the corridor, in the balcony, in the yard, and 
sometimes in the room of the aunts' old chambermaid, 
Matrons Ptlvlovna, with whom Eatyilsha was hvisg, and 
to whose room Nekhlyddov osed to go to drink unsweet- 
ened tea. The conversations which took place in the 
presence oi Matr^na Pdvlovna were the most enjoyable. 
It was much worse when they talked to each other with- 
out witnessea Their eyes at once began to say something 
different, something much more important than what the 
lips were saying.; the lips pursed, and they felt uneasy, 
and hastened to get away from each other. 

These relations existed between Nekhlyiidov and Ea< 
tyiisha daring the whole time of his first visit at his aunts'. 
They noticed these relations, were frightened, and even 
wrote about them to Princess El^na Iv^novna, Nekhlyd- 
dov's mother. Aunt M^ya Iv^ovna was afraid lest 
Dmitri should have a liaison with KatyrfBha. But her 
fears were groundless : Nekhlyttdov, without knowing it, 
loved Eatydsha, as only innocent people love, and his 
love was tua main shield ag&inet his fall, and against hers. 
He not only had no desire of a physical possession of 
her, bat was even terrified at the thought of sach a poesi- 
lulity. There was much more reason for the feaie of 
poetical StJfya Ivdnovna, lest Dmitri, with his uncom- 
prominng and detennined character, being in love with 



tiie girl, dumld make her bis wife, vitboat pajring any 
attention to her origin and positioii. It KeHily^doT bad 
Hien clearly been conecioas t^ bis love tor Eatyiieba, and 
eq;)ecially if tbey had tried to convince bim that he could 
not and should not by any means onite bis fate with that 
of the girl, it might have easily happeaied that he, with 
his costomary directaiess in eveiything, would have de- 
eded that there were no urgent reasons againat marrylDg 
a girl, whoever she might be, if he loved her. But his 
aunts did not tell bim their fears, and so he departed 
without confessing bis love to Katyiisba. 

He was convinced that his feelii^ for Katytisha was 
only one of the mamfeetatdons of those feelings of the joy 
of living, which at that time filled all his heiag, and 
which was also shared by that dear, merry girL As he 
was leaving, and Katyilsha, standing on the porch with 
bis anntfl, saw bim off with her black, slightly cross eyes, 
toll of tears, he was conscious of leaving behind him 
something beautiful and dear, which would never be 
repeated. And be felt very sad. 

" Good-bye, Eatydsba, I thank yon for everything," he 
said, across Sdfya Ivtoovna's cap, seating himself in the 

" Good-bye, Dmftri Ivttnovicb," she said, in her pleasant, 
sootliing voice, and, restraining her tears, which filled her 
^es, ran into the veetibnle, where she could weep at her 



Afteb that NekhlytldoT did not see £atyilsha for three 
years. And he saw her only when, having been promoted 
to the rank of a commissioned ofBcer, he, on his way to join 
the arm'y, came to see his aunts ; he was then a diffeient 
man from what he had been three years befora 

At that time he had been an honest, self-sacrificing 
youth, ready to devote himself to any good cause ; hut 
DOW he was a dissolute, refined ^otist, who loved only 
his own enjoyment, l^en, God's world had presented 
itself to him as a mystery, which he had joyfully and 
rapturously tried to solve ; but now, in his new life, 
everything was sim^Je and clear, and was defined by 
those conditions of life in which he happened to be. 
Then, be had regarded as necessary and important a com- 
munion with Nature and with men who had lived, 
thought, and felt before him (philosophy, poetry) ; now 
human institutions and communion with comradea were 
the necessary and important things. Then, woman had 
presented herself to him aa a mysterious and enchanting 
creature, — enchanting by dint of h&e very mysterious- 
ness ; now, the significance of woman, of every woman, 
except such as were of his family, or the wives of his 
friends, was quite definite; woman was one of the best 
instruments of tasted enjoyment. Then, money had not 
been needed, and one-third of the money offered him by 
his mother had sufficed, and it had been possible to re- 
nounce the land left him by his father in favour of his 
peasants ; now, the fifteen hundred roubles granted him 
every month by his mother were not enough, and he had 



had some unpleaaant encounterB frith her od occonnt of 
mouej. Then, he had Kgarded hia Bpiiitoal being aa his 
nal ego ; now, he legaided his healthy, virile, anuaal c^ 
as hia actual personalitjr. 

All this terrible change had taken place ia him only 
because he had qoit believing himself, and had b^ua to 
believe others. The reason he had qoit believing himself 
and had b^un believing others was because he had found 
it hard to live by believing himself : while believing him- 
self, every question had to be solved not in favour of hia 
own animal ego, in search of frivolous enjoyments, but 
nearly always against himself ; wha«ae believing o^ers, 
there was nothing to solve, — everything had been solved 
before, and not in favour of the spii^ual, but of the 
animal ega More than that: while he believed himself, 
he was constantly subjected to the jadgment of others ; 
while believing others, he met tiie approval of those who 
aurronnded him. 

Formerly, when Nekhlyiidov had been thinking, read- 
ing, and speaking about God, about truth, about wealth, 
about poverty, — all his neighbours bad considered this 
out of place and even ridiculous, and his mother and his 
aunt had called him " notre cker philoaophe " with good- 
natured irony; but when he read novels, told nasty 
anecdotes, drove to the French theatre to witness ridicu- 
lous vaudevilles, and mirthfully narrated them, he was 
praised and applauded by everybody. When he had 
regarded it aa necessary to limit hia needs, and had worn 
an old overcoat, everybody had considered this an odd 
and boastfol originality ; but when he spent large sums 
on the chaae, or on the appointments oC his extremely 
Inzurioua cabinet, everybody praised his good taste and 
presented costly thiuge to him. When he had been 
chaste and had intended to remain so until his marriage, 
hia relatives had been afraid for bis health, and even hia 
mo&et waa not grieved, but, on the contrary, rejoiced, 



when she heortl that he was & raal bobq and h&d won a 
certain French woman away from his comrade. Bat tho 
princess oonld not think without horror of the iuddent 
with EatyilE^, — namely, that it might have ocoaired to 
him to marry her. 

Similarly, when Nekhlyildor, upon having reached his 
majority, had given away to the peasants the small estate 
inherited from his father, becauBe he bad considered the 
owneiship c^ land to be an injustice, this deed of his 
had honied bis mother and his relatives and formed a 
constant subject of reproach and ridicule for all his kin. 
They never stopped telling him that the peasants who 
had received the land had not only not become any 
richer, but that, on the contrary, they had been impover- 
ished, through the establishment of three diam-^hops and 
from their cessBtion from work. But when N'ekhlyitdov, 
npon entering the Qoarda, had gambled away bo mnch 
money in the company of distinguished comrades that 
El^ua Ivinovna was compelled to draw money away 
from the capital, she was hardly grieved, ton she con- 
aidered it to be natural and even good to have this vims 
inoculated early in youth and in good society. 

At first Nekhlytldov had straggled, but it was a hard 
stmggle, because everything which he - bad considered 
good, while believing himself, was regarded as bad by 
others, and, vice versa, everything which he, believing 
himself, had regarded as bad, was considered good by all 
the people who surrounded him The end of it was fliat 
Nekhly^dov succumbed, ceased heUeving himself, and be- 
gan to beheve others. At first this renunciatitm of aalf 
had been anpleasant, but this disagreeable sensation lasted 
a very short time, and soon NekhlyiidoT, who in the 
meantime had b€gun to smoke and drink wine, no longer 
experienced this heavy sensation, but ratiier a great 

Nekhlyildov surrendered himself, with all the j 



of his nature, to this new life, which was approved hj aD 
bis neighbouTB, and drowned that voice in himwBlf tbat 
demanded something quite difTeient This had b^uu 
after his anival in St. Petersborg and was an accom- 
plished fact after he hod entered upon his military servica 

Mihtai; service Id gaieral corropta people by potting 
the military men into a condition at comideto indolence, 
that is, by giving them no intelligent and useful wwk to 
do, and by liberating them from common human obliga- 
tions, in place of which it substitutes the conventional 
honour of army, uniform, end flag, and by investing them, 
on the one hand, with on anlimited power over other 
people, and, on the other, by subjecting them to Bernle 
humility before their superiors. 

But when to this corruption of the military service In 
general, with its honour of the army and flag, and iU 
legalization of violence and murder, is added the seduc- 
tion of wealth and the communion with the imperial 
family, as is the case in the select raiments of the Guards, 
in which only rich and aristocratic officers serve, tiiis cor- 
ruption reaches in people who are under its- influence a 
condition of absolute insanity of ^otiam. It was in sach 
an insanity of egotism that NeUilytldov wrs from the /^ ' 

time when he entered the military service and began to 
live in the manner of his comrades. 

There was no other work to do but to put on a uniform 
whidi had been beautifully made and brushed, not by 
himself, but by others, and a helmet and weapons, which 
bad also been made and burnished and handed to him by 
others ; to ride on a beautiful charger, which somebody 
else bad brought up, exercised, and groomed ; to go Oiua 
to instruction or to parade, with people similarly ao- 
Doutred, and to gallop, and sway his sword, to shoot, and 
teach o^sra to shooL There was no other occupation, 
and distinguished dignitaries, young and old men, and 
the Tsar and his suite, not only approved of this occupa- 



tion, bnt even praised and rewarded it. In additaon to 
this, it Yiaa regarded good and proper to squander the 
money, which came froin one knew not where, to come 
together in the clubs of the officers or in the most expen- 
sive restaurants to eat, or, more particularly, to drink; 
then to the theatre, to balls, and to women, and then 
^ain riding, swaying of sabres, galloping, and squander- 
ing of money, and wine, cards, and women. 

Such a life has a peculiarly corrupting influence upon 
the military, because if any man, not belonging to the 
army, should lead such an existence, he could not help 
feelhig ashamed of it to the bottom of his heart. But 
military people think that it cannot be otherwise, and 
brag and are proud of such a life, particularly during war 
time, just as bad been the case with Nekhlyildov, who 
bad entered the army immediately after the declaration 
of the war with Turkey. " We are ready to sacrifice our 
lives in war, and therefore auch a careless, gay life is not 
only permissible, but even necessary for us. And we do 
lire such a life." 

Such were the thoughts which N'ekhlyiidov dimly 
thought duriug that period of his life; he experienced 
during that time the rapture of liberation from moral 
barriers, which he had erected for himself before, and he 
continuously remained in a chronic state of egotistical 

Ha was in that condition when, three years later, he 
visited his aunts. 



Nrehlt^ov made a call upon his aunts becaiue their 
estate was on i^e way to tlw raiment, which was in 
advance of him, and becaase they had earnestly requested 
it, and, chiefly, in order to see Eatyiisha. It may be 
that in the bdlom of iaa heart there was already an evil 
intention in r^ard to £atyi!sha, which hia nnfettered 
animal man kept whispering to him, hut he was not con- 
sdouB of this intention, and simply wanted to visit the 
places where he had been so happy before, and to see 
the somewhat funny, but dear and good-hearted aunts, 
who always surrounded him with an invisible atmosphere 
of love and transport, and to look at dear Katyiisha, of 
whom he had such an agreeable recdlectaon. 

He arrived at the end of March, on Gcood Itiday, 
while the roads were exceedingly bad and the rain came 
down in sheets, so that he was wet to bis skin and 
chilled, but brisk and wide awake, as he always was 
during that time. " I wonder whether she is atill here I " 
he thought, as he drove into the enow-covered old coun- 
try courtyard with its brick wall. He had expected her 
to come running oat on the porch upon hearing the tin- 
kling of his bell, hat on the servants' porch there came 
out only two barefooted old women with their ' dreasee 
tucked up and buckets in their hands. They were evi- 
dently busy washing floors. Nor was she at the main 
entrance ; none came out but lackey Tflchon, in an apron, 
who, no donbt, was also busy cleaning up. In the ante- 
diamber he met S<5fya Ivinovna, in a silk dieoB and s 
cap, who had come out to meet him. 

:,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle , 


"Now, it is Dice th^ you have come I" eaid S<Sfya 
Ivdnovna, IdBsiiig him. " Mftriya is a little ill ; ebe was 
tiled out in church. We have been to commuuion;.'' 

" I congratulate 70a, Aunt S6ty&" said Kekhlyiidov, 
kissing S6fj& Iv^ovna'a hands. " Foigive me for having 
wet yoa." 

"Go to your room. You are dreadfully wet. I see 
you DOW have a moustache — Eatyi5sha I Katyilsha I 
Quick, get him some cofTee." 

" Bight away 1 " was heard the familiar, pleasant voice 
from tiie corridor. Nekhlyddov's heart gave a joyful 

" She is here I " And he felt as thoa^ the sun had 
come out from behind the clouds. Nel^yiidov merrily 
ftdlowed TfkboD to his old room to change his clotbea. 

Nekblyildov wanted to ask Tlkbon about KatyiiBha — 
how she was, and whether she was going to many soon. 
But T£khoii was so respectful and, at the same time, so 
stem, and so firmly insisted upon pouring water &om the 
latcher upon Kekhlyddov's hands, that he did not have 
Uie courage to ask him about Eatyiisha, and inquired 
only about his grandchildren, about the old stallion, and 
about the watch-d(^, Polkdn. All were weU and hale, 
except Folkfb, who had gotten the hydroj^obia the year 

He had barely thrown off his damp clothes, and was 
dressing himself, when he heard hurried steps, and some- 
body koocked at the door. Nekhlyildov recognized the 
steps and the knock at the door. Nobody walked or 
knocked that way but she. 

He threw over him his damp overcoat, and went up to 
the door. 

" Come in t " 

It was she, Eatyiisfaa The same Ka^dsha, only more 
charming than before. Her smiling, naive, slightly squint- 
ing, black eyes were as upturned as before. She wore, as 



ionnerly, b dean white apron. She brought from his 
auDtB a cake of scented soap, tmah fsom the wrai^>er, and 
tvo towels, one a large Rusaian towel, and the other a 
towel of a rou^ textnre. The untouched soap, wif^ the 
letters distinctly marked upon it, and the towels, and she 
herself, — Bverything was equally clean, fresh, untoudied, 
agreeable. Her sweet, firm, red lips pursed as before ftvm 
uncontroUabla joy, when she beheld him. 

" I greet you upon your arrival, Dmftri Iv^novich I " 
she uttered with difficulty, and her face was all covered 
with a blosh. 

" I greet thee — you," he did not know whether to say 
* thou " or " yon " to her, and he blushed, just like her. 
" Are you alive and well T " 

" Thank God. Your aant has sent you your favour* 
ite rose-eceuted soap," placing the soap on the table, and 
the towels over the back of an armchair. 

« He has his own," said Tfkhon, defending his guest's 
independence, and pointing proudly at Kekblyiidov's large 
open toilet bag, with its mlver lids and an immense mass 
of bottles, bniBhes, pomatums, perfumes, and all kinds of 
toilet articles. 

« Thank aonty tor me. I am so glad I have come," 
said Kekhlyildov, feeling that there was the same light 
and gentleness in his heart that used to be there in former 

She only smiled in retnxn to these words, and went 

His aunts, who had always loved Nekhlyddov, this 
time met him with even greater expressions of joy than 
UBuaL Dmftri was going to the war, where he might be 
wounded, or killed. This touched his aunts. 

Nekhlyddov bad so arranged his journey as to be able 
to pass but one day wiUi bis aunts; but, upon seeing 
KalyilBha, he consented to stay until past Easter which 
was to be in two days, and so he telegraphed to his 



friend uid comrade Sh^nbok, whom he was to have met 
at Odesaa, to have U|m^ Btop ^t his aunts'. Nekhlyiidov 
felt the old feeling toward Katyilsha, from the first day 
he saw her. Juflt as formerly, he was not ahle even 
now to aee with et^uanimity Katyilsha's white a|WOD, nor 
to restrain a pang of joy when he heard her steps, her 
\9ce, her laagh, nor vrithout a soothing sensation to 
look into her eyes, which were as black as moist black- 
berries, especially when she smiled, nor, above all, could 
he help seeii^ wit^ embarrassment that she blushed every 
time she met him. He felt that he was in love, but not 
as formerly, when this love had been a mysteiy to him 
and be did not dare acknowledge that be was in love, and 
when he had been convinced that it was not possible to 
love more than once ; now he was consciously in love, and 
he was glad of it ; he had a dim idea what this love was, 
though he concealed it from himself, and what might 
come of it. ^ 

In Nekhlyddov, as in all people, there were two men ; 
one the spiritual man, who sought his well-being in such 
matters only as could at tbe same time do other people 
some good, and the other the animal man, who was look- 
ing out only for bis own well-being, ready for it to sacri- 
fice the well-being of the whole world. During that 
period of his insanity of egotism, induced by his Peters- 
I bargian and military life, the animal man whs ruhng 
I wit&n him, and had completely suppressed the spiritual 
I man. But, upon seeing KatyiJsha and becoming actuated 
by the same feeling which he had had for her before, the 
spiritual man raised his head, and began to assert his 
rights. During the two days preceding Easter an internal 
struggle, though unconscious on his part, agitated him 

In the depth of bis soul he knew that he ought to 
depart, that there was no reason why he should stay 
at his aunts' any longer, and that nothing good would 



come d it; bat he experienced such an agreeable and 
joyful seoB^on that he did not speak of it to himself, 
and ramained. 

On the Saturday evening preceding Easter Sunday, the 
{siest, with the deacon and the sexton, having with difG- 
colty jouToeyed in a sleigh over puddles and dirt in order 
to inake the three verste which separated the church &oid 
the house of his aunts, arrived to serve the matins. 

During the matins, which were attended by Nekhlyildov, 
his aunte, and the servants, he did not take his eyes 
from Eatytlsha, who was standing at the door and bring- 
ing the censers ; then he gave the Easter kiss to the priest 
and hi^ aunte, and was on the point of retiring, when he 
saw in the corridor Matrons P^vlovna, M^ya Ivlnovna's 
old chambermaid, and Katy lisha getting ready to drive to 
church, in order to get the bread and Easter cakes blessed. 
" I will go with them," he thought 

The road to the church was passable neither for wheel 
carriages, nor for sleighs, and so Nekblyiidov, who ordered 
ihii^^ at his aunts' as though he were at home, told them 
to saddle the riding stallion for him, and, instead of gung 
to bed, dressed himself ia his gorgeous uniform with the 
tightly fitting riding pantaloons, threw bis overcoat over his 
shoulders, and rode on the overfed, stout old stallion, that 
did not stop neighing, in the darkness, through puddles 
and enow, to church. 



This matiQ Uieo remained during Nekhlyildov's wholfl 
life as one of hia biighteet &nd strongest memories. 

The service had abeady begun, when, having groped 
through the dense darkness, %hted up occasicmaUy by 
patches of snow, and having splashed through the water, 
he lode into the yard of the church on the stallion, that 
kept priddng hia ears at the sight of the little street- 
lamps that were borniog all around the cfaurch. 

Having recognized M^ya Iv^ovna's nephew, the 
peasants took him to a dry place, where he could dia- 
mouot, tied his horse, and led him into the church. The 
church was full of people celebrating the holiday. 

On tjie right were the old men, in home-made caftans 
and bast shoes and clean white l^-rags, and the young 
men, in new cloth caftans, girded with brightly coloured 
belts, and in boots. On the left were the women, in 
bright silk kerchiefs, plush vests, with brilliant red 
sleeves and blue, green, red, and variegated skirts, and 
small boots with steel heel-plates. The modest old women, 
in white kerchiefs, gray caftans, old skirts, and leather or 
new bast shoes, were standing back of them. Here and 
there, on both sides, stood the dressed-up children, with 
oily heads. The peasants were crossing themselves and 
bowing, tossing their heads ; the women, especially the 
old women, riveting their faded eyes upon one image 
with its tapers, Brmly pressed their joined fingers against 
the kerchi^, the shoulders, and the abdomen, and, saying 
someUuDg under their breath, were standing and makiiig 



low obeisancea, or were kneeling. The children imitated 
Uieir elders, and prayed attentively, as long as they were 
Tatched. The golden icoooetasifl was resplendent from the 
tapera that on all sides snrroanded the large gilt candles. 
The casdelabrum was sglow with its candles ; from the 
choir were heard the joyous voices of the amateur 
choristers, with the roaring bassBB, and the descants of 
iho boya 

Ifekhlyiidov went to the front. In the middle stood 
the aristocracy: a landed proprietor, with his wife and 
his son in a sailor bloose, the country jndge, the tele- 
gra^jiist, a merchant in boots with smoo^ boot-legs, 
tba village elder with a decoration, and to the right of the 
ambo, back of the proprietress, Matr^na Fivlovna, in a 
short lilac dross and white fringed shawl, and Ka^nisha, 
in a white drees with tucks, blue belt, and red ribbon on 
her black hair. 

Everything was holiday-like, solemn, cheerful, and 
beautiful: the priests in their bright silver vestments, 
with their golden crosses, and Qie deacon and sextons in 
tteix gala ^ver and gold copes, and the dressed-up ama- 
teur ohoriaters, with their oily hair, and the gay rianrang 
tones of the holiday songs, and the continuous bless- 
ing of the people by the cdergy with their toiple, flower- 
bedecked candles, with the ever repeated exclamations, 
" Christ is arisen ! Christ is arisen I " — everything was 
beautifiil, bnt better than all was Kat^dsba, in her white 
dress and blue belt, witii the red ribbmt on her head, and 
with her sparkling, rapturous eyes. 

Nekhlyiidov was conscioas of her seeii^ him, thongh 
she did not turn aroand. He noticed that as he passed 
by her, up to ^e altar. He had nothing to say to her, 
but he made up something and said, when abreast of her : 

" Aunty said that she would break her fast after tliB 
late mass." 

Her young Uood, as always at the sij^t of htm, flushed 



hor Bweet face, and her black eyes, smiling and rejoicing, 
looked naively upwards and rested on NeUilyildov. 

" I know," she said, smiling. 

Just then a sexton, wiUi a brass coffee-pot, making his 
way through the crowd, came past Katyile^a, and wi&oat 
looking at her, caught the sMrt of his cope in her dresa. 
The sexton had done ao evidently in bis attempt to 
eKpresa his respect for Nekhlyildov by Tn ^Vi ng a circle 
aroond him. Nekhlyiidov could not understand how it 
was this sexton did not comprehend that everything that 
was there, or anywhere else in the world, existed only for 
KatytEsha, and that one conld disregard anything else in 
Uie world bat her, because she waa the centre of every- 
thing. For her gleamed the gold of the iconostasis, and 
burnt all these candles in the candelabrum and in the 
candlesticks ; for her were the joyous refrains, " The Easter 
of the Lord, rejoice, people ! " EveryUiing good that 
waa in the world was only for her. And Katyiiaha under- 
stood, so he thought, that it was all for her. So it seemed 
to Nekhlyiidov, as he looked at her stately form in the 
white drees with its tucks, and upon her concentrated, 
joyful countenance, by the expressioa of which he could 
see Hutt the same tJiat was singing in his heart was sing- 
ing also in hers. 

In tiie interval between the early and late mass, Kekh- 
lyddov went out of the church. The people stepped 
aside before him and bowed. Some recognised him, and 
some asked, " Who is he ? " He stopped at the door. 
Hendioanta surrounded him : he distributed tlie small 
change which be had in his purse, and walked down the 
steps of the entrance. 

It was now sufiBciently light to distinguiah objects, bat 
tJie sun waa not yet up. The people were seated on the 
churchyard mounds. Eatyttaha had remained in the 
choroh, and NekhlyildoT stopped, waiting for her to come 



The people still kept comii^ out, and, clattering with 
their hobnaila on the fiagstonee, walked down the steps 
and scattered in the yaid and cemetery. 

A decrepit old man, Mdrya Iv^ovna's pastiy-baker, 
with trembling head, stopped Nekblyttdov, to give him 
the Easter greeting, and Ms old wile, with wrinkled neck 
beneath her silk kerchief, took out ot a handkerchief a 
saffron-yellow egg, and gaye it to him. Then also came 
np a yomig, mnacular peasant, in a new sloevQleHs coat 
and green belt. 

" Christ is arisen ! " he said, with laughing eyes, and, 
moving np toward Nekhlyildov, wafted an agreeable 
peasant odour upon him and, tickling him with his curly 
beard, three times kissed him in the middle of his month 
with hia own strong, fresh lips. 

While Nekhlytldov was kissing the peasant and receiv* 
ing from him a dark brown egg, there appeared the shot 
dross of MatrJna P£vlovna, and the sweet hlack head 
with the red ribbon. 

She espied him above the heads of those who were 
walking in trmit of her, and he saw her countraiance 
gleaming with joy. 

Matr^na Ptivlovna and Katytisha stopped before the 
door, to give alms to the mendicants. A beggar, with a 
healed-over scar in place of a nose, went up to KatyiiBha. 
She took aomethii^ out of her handkerchief, gave it to 
him, and, without expressing the least disgust, — on the 
contrary, with the same joyful sparkle in her eyes, — 
kissed him three times. While she was giving the beggar 
the Easter kiss, her eyes met Nekhljnldov's glance. Her 
eyes seemed to ask : " Am I doing right ? " 

" Yes, yes, my dear, everything is good, everything is 
beautiful, I love it" 

Iliey walked down the ateps, and he walked over to 
her. He did not mean to exdiange the Easter kiss with 
her, hat only to be in her neighbourhood. 



« Christ ifl arisen I " said Mata^na P^vlovna, bendii^ 
her head and smiling, with an intension which said that 
on that day all were equal, and, wiping her month with 
her rolled up handkerc^ef, offered him her lips. 

* Verily," replied Nekhlyildov, kissing her. 

He looked aronnd for Katyiisha. She hunt into a 
bladi, and immediately went up to him. 
. " Christ is arisen, Dmitri Iv&ioTich I " 

" Yerily He arose," he said^ They kissed twice and 
stopped, as though ccmsidering whether it was necessary 
to proceed, and havii^ decided in the afSrmatiTe, kissed 
for the third time, and both smiled. 

" Tou will not go to tixB priest ? " asked N'ekhlytldov. 

"Ko, Dmitri Ivinovich, we shall stay here," said 
Katyiiaha, breathing with her full Inmost, as though afttt 
a labour of joy, and looking straight at him with her 
BUbmissiTe, chaste, loving, slightly squinting ^ea. 

In the love between a man and a woman there is 
always a minute when that love reaches its zenith, when 
conscioiunesB, reason, and feeling ate dormant. Such a 
moment vras for Nekhlyiidov the night preceding Easter 
Sunday. As he now recalled Katyiisha, this moment 
alone, of all the situations in whic^ he had seen her, 
loomed up and effaced all the others : her black, smooth, 
shining little bead, her white dress wit^ the tucks, chastdy 
embra^ng her stately figure and small bosom, and th»t 
blush, and those tender, sparkling eyes, and in her whole 
being two main (diaracteristics, — the purity of the chastity 
of love, not only toward him, he knew that, hot of her 
love for aU and evBrytbing, not only fw the good that 
there was in the world, Imt even for the beg^, whom 
she had kissed. 

He knew that she had that love, because he was 
coiBcious of it on that night and on that morning, as 
he was consdoos that in that love he became one with 


RBfiURBEcnoir 85 

Ah, if all that had stopped at the feeling which he had 
experienced that night I " Tee, all that terrible work was 
done after that night of Easter Sunday I " he now thon^t, 
sittiiig at the window in the jniy-roonL 



ArrzE retunuiig from church, Nekhljnidov broke his 
fast with his aunts, and, to brace himaelf, followed the 
habit which he had acquired in the army, and drauk 
some brand; and ¥dne, and went to hia room, where he 
fell asleep in his clothea He was awakened by a knock 
at the door. He knew by the knock that it was she. He 
arose, rubbing his eyes and stretching himself. 

" Katyilsha, is it you 1 Come in," he said, rising. 

She half-opened the door. 

" Dinner is served," she said. 
* She was in the same white dross, but wiUiout the 
ribbon in her hair. As she glanced into hia eyes, she 
beamed, as Uiough she had announced Bomethisg very 
joyful to him. 

" I shaU be there at once," he said, taking up the comb 
to smooth bis hair. 

She lagged behind for a minute. He noticed it and, 
throwing away the comb, moved toward her. But she 
immediately turned around and walked with her cnetom- 
ary light, rapid gait over the corridor carpet-strip. 

" What a fool I am 1 " Nekhlyildov said to himself, 
« Why did I not keep her ? " 

And he ran at full speed after her through the corridor. 

He did not know himself what it was he wanted of ber ; 
but it seemed to him that when she had entered his room, 
he ought to have done what everybody does under such 
drcumstancee, and he had failed to da 

« Eatyilsha, wait," he said. 



She looked back. 

" What do you wish ? " she said, stopEong. 

" Nothing, only — " 

And making an effort over himself, and lecallijig how 
other men would do in his sitaation, he put bis arm 
around Katyltsha's waist 

She stopped and looked him in the eyes. 

" Don't do tliat, Dmftri Ivinovich, — don't do that," 
she muttered, blushing and with tears, and with her 
rough, strong hand pushed away the embracing aruL 

Nekhlytidov let her go, and for a moment felt not 6nly 
nueasy and ashamed, but disgusted with himself. He 
ought to have beheved himself, but he did not understand 
that this uneasiness and shame were the best qualities of 
his soul begging to be freed, whereas he, on the contrary, 
thought that it was his stupidity that was speaking withm 
him, and Uiat it waa necessary to do as everybody else 

He caught up with her a second time, again embraced 
her, and kissed her on the neck. This kiss was not at all 
like those first two kisses : the first, the unconscious kiss 
behind the lilac busb, and the other, in the morning, at 
church. This kiss was terrible, and she felt it. 

" What are yon doing 7 " she cried, in such a vcace as 
though he had irretrievably broken something endlessly 
valuable, and ran away from bim at full speed. 

He arrived in the dining-room. The dressed-up aunts, 
the doctor, and a lady from the neighbourhood were stend- 
ing near tiie appetizer. Everything was as usual, but in 
Nekhlyiidov's soul there was a storm. He did not under- 
stand a word of what was said to him, answered to ques- 
tions at haphazard, and only thought of Eatytisha, reckling 
the sensation of that last kiss, when he had caught up 
with her in the corridor. He was not able to think of 
anything else. Whenever she entered Uie room, he, 
without looking at her, was with all his being conscioaa 



o{ her preseoce, aod had to make an effort over himaelf 
in Older not to gaze at her. 

After dinner he at once went back to ha room, and 
loi^ paced up and down in the greatest agitation, listen- 
ing to all &e sounds in the house, and waiting to hear 
her steps. The animal man which was dwelling within 
him not only raised his head, but had trampled underfoot 
the spiritual man which he hod been during his first visit, 
and even ou that morning while at church ; and now that 
terrible Bn'mal man ruled all alone in his souL Though 
Kekhlyiidov lay all the time in watch for Katyilsha, he 
did not BQCceed ouce daring that day in seeing her altme. 
She obviously avoided him. But in the evening it so 
happened that she had to go into the room adjoining the 
one which he occupied. The doctor was to remaLn over- 
night, and Xatyilsha had to make the bed for him. He&i^ 
ing her steps, Nekhlyiidov, step^ang lightly and holding 
bis breath, as thou^ getting ready to commit a crime, 
walked up behind her. 

Having put both her hands into a pillow-shp and hold- 
ing the comers of a pillow, she looked back at him and 
amiled, not a gay and joyful smile, but one expressive of 
fear and pity. This smile seemed to tell him that that 
which he was doing was bad. He stopped for a moment. 
A straggle was still possible^ Ihongh feebly, the voice 
of genuine love was still audible in him, which told him of 
her, of her feelings, of her life, but another voice kept say- 
ing to him, " Look out, or yon will lose your enjoyment, 
your happiness." And tJiis second voice drowned the 
first He went up to her with firmness. And a terrible, 
uncontxoUable, animal feeling took possession of him. 

Without letting her out of his embrace, Nekhlyildov 
seated her on the bed, and, feeling that someUiing else 
had to be done, sat down near her. 

" Dmfth Iv^ovich, my dear, please let me go," she said, 
in a pitiful voice. " Matr^na P^vlovna is coming I " she 



cried, tearing lieraelt away ; there was, reaUy, some oae 
coming toward the door. 

" Then I will come to yon in the night," he muttered. 
" Ton are alone 7 " 

** What are yoa saying ? Never 1 Ton most not," she 
spoke with her lipe only, but her whole agitated being 
spdce something quite d^erent. 

The person who came to the door was Matr&ia Pi(t- 
lovna. She entered tiie door with a sheet over her arm, 
and, looking reproachfully at Nekhlyddov, angrily np- 
Infiided Katyiisha for having taken the wrong sheet. 

KekhlytEdov went away in silence. He did not even 
feel ashamed. He saw, by Matr^na F^vlovna's expres- 
sion, that she condemned him, and knew that she was 
T^ht in condemning him, just as he knew that that which 
he was doing was bad ; but the animal feeling, which 
strai^tened itself out from behind the former feeling of 
genuine love for her, took posseBsion of him and reigned all 
alone, to the exclusion of everything else. He now knew 
what it was necessary to do in order to satisfy his sen- 
sation, and he was looking for means to attain his end. 

During the whole evening he was beside himself : he 
now went in to see his aunts, now went away from them 
to his room or upon the porch, and vna diinking of noth- 
ing else bat how he might see her alone ; but she avoided 
him, and Matrtna Fttvlovna did not let her out of her 



Thits paased the whale evening, and night approached. 
The doctor had retired. The aunts were going to bed. 
Nekhlyildov knew that Mati^na P^vlovna was now in 
the atmte' Ble^ng-room, and that XatyilBha was alone 
in the maids' chamber. He again went out on Uie porch. 
The air was dark, damp, and warm, and filled with that 
white mist which in spring dispels the last anow, or itself 
risee from the melting snow. From the river, which was 
within one hundred feet of the bouse, down a hill, weie 
borne strange sounds : the ice was breakiug. 

Nekhlyildov descended from the porch, and, walking 
through the puddles over the crusted snow, went up to 
the window of the maids' roooL His heart beat bo 
strongly in his breast that he could hear it ; his breath 
now stopped, now burst forth in a deep sigh. In the 
nudds' dikmber a small lamp was burning; Katyusha 
was dttii^ at the table and looking in front of her. 
Nekhlyiidov did not stir, looking long at her, and wonder- 
ii^ what she would do, when unconscious o( anybody's 
presenc& For a couple of minutes she sat motionless, 
then raised her eyes, smiled, shook her bead as thoi^h 
reproachfully at herself, and, changing her position, 
abruptly placed both her hands in front of her on the 
table, and gazed ahead of her. 

He stood and looked at her, and at the same time 
heard the beating of his own heart and the strange 
sounds that were borne from the river. There, on the 
river, a continaous slow work was going on, and now 



B(mie£hiiig crashed, or cracked, or malied dovn ; and now 
the ice-fioes tinkled like glasa. 

He stood and looked at the pensive face of Katyiislia, 
which was tormented by an inward stru^le, and he was 
sorry for her, hut, strange to aay, that pity only intensi- 
fied his passion for her. 

The passion took complete poeeesaion of him. 

He tapped at the window. She qnivered with her 
whole body, as though from an electric shock, and tenor 
was expressed in her face. Then she sprang up, went 
up to the window, and pressed her face to the window- 
pane. Nor did the expression of terror leave her bee 
when, upon screening it with the palms of her hands, she 
recognized him. Her countenance was serious, sudi as 
he had never observed it before. She smiled, when be 
smiled, as though submitting to him, but in her soul 
there was no smile, but terror. 

He motioned to her with his band, calling her out into 
the yard to him; but she shook her head, to deny his 
request, and lemained standing at the window. He put 
his face once more to the window, intending to cry to her 
to come out, but jast then she turned to the door, — 
evidently somebody had called her. Kekhlyiidov went 
away from the window. The fog was so heavy that upon 
walking back five steps it was not possible to see the 
windows of the house, but only a bla<& mass, from which 
stood out the gleaming light of the lamp, which seemed 
to be of enormous aize. On the river was going on the 
same strange crashing, rustling, crackling, and tinkling of 
the ice. Near by, through the fog, crowed a cock, and 
others near him answered, and then from the village were 
borne the intermingling cockcrows, finally joining'into 
one. But everything ^e around, except the river, was 
absolutely quiet l^is was at second cockcrow. 

After having walked a coaple of times around the cor> 
ner of the house, and having stepped several times into 



a puddle, NekhlyildoT once more want op to the window 
of the DiflidB' room. The lemp was still burning, and 
Eatyilsha was again sitting at the table, as though in 
indecision. The moment he came up to the window, she 
looked at him. He knocked. And, without watdiing to 
see who it was that had knocked, she ran out ot the maldB* 
room, and he heard the back door smack and creak. He 
was waiting for her near the vestibule, and immediately 
embraced her, in silence. She pressed clcee to him, 
raised her head, and with her hpa met his kiss. They 
were standing around the cx)mer of the vestibule on a 
spot from which the ice had melted, and he was fall of 
a tormenting, unsatisfied desire. Suddenly the back door 
smacked and creaked in the same manner, and Mati^na 
P^vlovua's angry voice was heard : 


She tore howU away from him and returned to the 
maids' room. He heard the latch being fastened. Soon 
after all grew silent ; the red eye of ti^e window disap- 
peared, and nothing was left but the fog and the noise on 
the rivOT. 

Kekhlyiidov went np to the window, but no one was 
to be seen. He knocked, and nobody answered him. 
Kekhlyiidov returned to the house by the main entrance, 
but did not go to sleep. He took off bis boots, and went 
barefooted along the conidor to her door, which was the 
one adjoining Matr&ia Pdvlovna's room. At first he 
heard Matr^a Ffivlovna's quiet snoring, and was on 
the point of entering, when suddenly she began to cough, 
and turned around on hw creaking bed. He stood aa 
though petrified for five minutes in one spot. Whoi 
everything again grew silent, and the quiet snoring was 
heeid again, he trwd to walk on the deals that did not 
creak, and thus approached the door. Everything was 
quiet. Evidently ^e was not asleep, for he could not 
hear bat breathing. But the moment he whispeaied. 



"Katydshaf" she leaped up, went to the door, and 
angrily, so he thought, h^an to persuade him to go 

" That's not right 1 How cao you I Tonr aunts will 
hear yon," said her lipa, bat her whole being said : " I am 
all yourat" 

And it was this only whidi NekhlyitdoT uuderatood. 

" Just for a momeDt, please open. I implore you," he 
uttered senseless words. 

She grew ailoiit: theo he beard the mstling of hei 
hand as it groped for the latch. The latch clit^ed, and 
he slipped in through the opened door. 

He seized her, as she was, in her coarse, rough shirt 
with her bare arms, lifted her up, and carried her away. 

" Ah I What are you doing ? " she whispered. 

But he paid no attention to her words, carrying hot to 
his room. 

" Ah, you must not, — let me — " she said, all the 
time clinging to him 

When she, trembling and silent, without saying a word, 
went away from him, he came out on the porch, trying to 
reflect on the significance of all that had taken place. 

It wBfl now lighter in the yard ; down below, on the 
riVOT, the crackling and ringing and cra^i^ of the floes 
was stronger than before, and to it was now added the 
sound of Uie rippling water. The fog was settling, and 
behind the wall of the fog swam out the last quarter 
of the moon, dimly illuminating something black and 

" What is this ? Has a great happiness or a great mis- 
forCune oome to me ? " he asked himself. " It is always 
this way, and all do this way," he said to himself, and 
went to sleeps 



On the foUowing day, brilliant, merry Sh^bok came to 
the aunts' to fetch yekhlyiidov, and he completely fasci- 
nated them with his el^ance, kindness, merriment, gen- 
erosity, and love for DmitrL His generosity very much 
pleased the aunts, but it baffled them somewhat by its 
exaggeration. To some blind b^gars, who came to the 
house, he gave a rouble ; in gratuities he spent about 
fifteen roubles ; and when Suzette, S<Sfya Ivinovna's lap- 
dog, in his ptesenca had Bo scratched her leg that the 
blood began to fiow, he proposed to dress her wound, and, 
without a moment's hesitation, tore up his cambric lace- 
edged handkerchief (S6fya Ivdnovna knew that such hand- 
katihiefs cost not less than fifteen roubles a dozen), and 
made bandages of it for Suzette. The aunta bad not yet 
seen such gentlemen and did not know that this Sh&ibok 
owed something like two hundred thousand roubles, which, 
he knew full well, would never be paid, and that there- 
fore twenty-five roubles more or le^ would not matter 

Sh^nbok stayed (mly one day, and on the fdlowing 
■ night drove off with Nekhlyiidov. They could not stay 
any longer because it was die last date for their leave 4^ 
absence from the army. 

On this last day of Nekhlyiidov's stay at his aunts', 
while the memory of the night was still fresh, two feel- 
ings rose and stru^led in his soul: one, the burning, 
sensual recollectious of the animal love, even though it 
had failed by much to give him what it had held out 
to him, and a certain self-satisfaction of having reached ft 



goal ; Uie other, the consciousness that he bad done some- 
thing very bad, and that that evil had to be mended, not 
for her sc^e, but for his. 

In this condition of his insanity of ^otiam, in which 
he now found himself, he thou^t only of himself, — of 
whether he would be condemned, and how much he 
would be condemned, if it were found out how be had 
acted toward her, and not of what she wb^ experiencing, 
or what would become of her. 

He thought that Sh^nbok guessed of his relations with 
Eatydsha, and that flattered his vanity. 

" I now see what has made you ao suddenly fall in 
love with your aunts," Sb^bok said to him, when he saw 
Katydsha, " and why you have passed a week with them. 
If I were in your place, I would not leave myself. 
Superb I " 

He also thot^ht that although it was a shame to leave 
at once, without having had the full enjoyment of his 
love, the peremptory call to duty was advantageous in 
that it broke the relations at once, which otherwise it 
would have been difficult to sustain. He also thought 
that it was necessary to give her money, not for her sake, 
because the money mi^t be useful to tier, but because it 
was customary to do so, and he would have been r^arded 
as a dishmest man, if, after seducing her, he did not pay 
her. And so he gave her mcmey, — as much as he thought 
proper according to their respective positions. 

On the day of bis departure, he watched for her in the 
vestibule. Her face flushed, when she saw him, and she 
wanted to pass by him, indicating with her eyes the open 
door into the nmds' room, but he kept her back. 

" I wanted to bid you good-bye," he said, crumpling the 
envelope with the hundred-rouble bill in it "I — " 

She guessed what it was, bttwued, shook her head, and 
pushed his hand away. 

" Do take it," he mumbled, putting the envBlope in Qie 



boflom of her gatmesit, and numing iiuik to his room, 
frowoing sad groaning, as though he had burnt himself. 

He paced lua room for a long time, and crouched, and 
even leaped and groaned, as though from physical pain, 
every time he thcnght of that scene. 

But what was to be done ? It was always that way. 
It had been so with Sh^bok and the governess, of whom 
he bad told him ; time it had been with Uncle Grfsha ; 
and thus it had been with hie faUier, when he was living 
in the country, and when that illegitimate son, Mftenka, 
was bom to a peasant woman, who was alive even now. 
And if all do that way, it must be right Thus he tried 
to console himself, without getting any real consolation, 
l^e memory of his deed burnt his conscience. 

In the depth, way down in the depth of his soul, he 
knew that he had acted so meanly, so contemptibly, and so 
cmelly that with the consciousness of this deed he not only 
could not condemn any one, but even could not look straight 
into people's eyes, and that he certainly could not r^id 
himflelf as a fiiie, noble, m^nauimous young man, such as 
he considered himself to be. And yet he had to continQe in 
that opinion of himself, if he wished to lead the same free 
and hapi^ life as before. For this there woe but one 
means : not to tinnk of it And thus he did. 

The life which he now altered upon — the new [dooes, 
comrades, and the war — was helpful to him. The 
longer he lived, the more be foigot, until, at last, he did 
not remember anything of it 

Only once, when, after the war, he visited his aunts, 
with l^e hc^ of seeing her, and when he found out that 
Katyilaha was no longer there, that soon after his depar- 
ture she hod left them, to give birtii to a child, that she 
had given birth to one, and &at, so the aunts had heaid, 
she had become entirely dissolute, — his heart gave him 
a painful twinge. To judge from the time of the child's 
bvth, it might have been his, and yet it might have been 



somebody else'a The aonta said th^ she was demoral- 
ized, and just sncb a dissolute character as her mother 
had been. This reflection of his aonta gave him pleasure, 
becaoae it in a certain way justified him. At first he in- 
tended to look up Katytisha and the child, hut then, since 
in the depth of his soul he was too much aabamed and 
pained to think of it, he did not make every effort to 
locate her, and still more foigot his sin, and ceased dunk- 
ing of it. 

And just now this marvellous coincidence leminded him 
,of everything, and everything demanded the confession of 
his heutlesBneas, cruelty, and meannese, which had made 
it possible for him quietly to live ten years with such 
a sin upon his conscience. But he was still very tar 
from sudi a confession, and now he was thinking only 
that all might be found out, that she or her counsel would 
bring out Qa facts, and would pat him to shame before 
evety on& 



KEEHLTlhx)T was in this frame of tniiid when he left 
Die coort-room for the consnltfttum-room. He sat at the 
window, listening to the conversations that took place 
about him, and smoking incessantly. 

The merry merchant obviously with all his heart 
sympathized with Merchant Smyelki5v in his pastime. 

" Well, he was a great carouser, in Siberian fashion. He 
knew a tiiicg or two, when he selected such a girl to 

The foreman was expataating on the importance of the 
expert testimony. Peter (>er^movich was jesting with 
the Jewish clerk, and they were both laughing about 
something. Nekhlyddov answered in monosyllables to 
all the questions which were addressed to him and 
wished only to be left alone. 

When the bailiff, with his sidling gait, t^ain called the 
jurors to the court-room, Nekhlyiidov experienced a sen- 
sation of terror, as thougji he were going, not to give a 
verdict, but to be tried. In the depth of his soul he felt 
that he was a scoundrel who ought to be ashamed to look 
people in the eyes, and yet he, by force of habit, ascended 
the platform with his usual self-coufident gait, and sat 
down in his seat, the second from the foreman's, and 
began to play with his glasses. 

The d^endants bad been removed, and now were being 
brought back. 

In the court-room there were new faces, — the wlt>- 
nesses, — and Nekblyildov noticed that Mdslova several 



timee gazed down, as though she could not take her eyes 
off a (at woman, all dressed up in silk and velvet, who, 
in a taU hat with a la^ ribbon, and with an elegant 
reticule on her arm, whi(£ was bare up to the elbow, was 
sitting in the first row, nezt to the screen. This was, aa 
he later found out, the landlady of the establishment in 
which Mtialova had hved. 

Then the examination of the witnesses began: their 
names, religion, and so forth. Then, after the sides had 
been consulted as to whether the witnesses should be 
examined under oath or not, the same old priest, with 
difficulty moving his legs, and in the same manner ad- 
justing the gold cross on his silk vestment, with the same 
calm and conviction that he was performing an exceed- 
ingly useful and important work, administ^ed the oath 
to the witnesses and bo the expert. .When the oath waa 
finished, all the witnesses were led away, and only one, 
namely, Kit^va, the proprietress of the house of prostitu- 
tion, was allowed to remain. She was asked what she 
knew of the afiair. Kit^va, with a feigned smile, duck- 
ing her head under her hat at every phrase, told, with a 
German accent, everythii^ in detail and distinctly : 

At first the hotel servant Sim<5n, whom she well knew, 
had come to get a girl for a rich Siberian merchant. She 
sent Lyub<5v. After awhile Lyub(5v returned with the mer- 
chant. The merchant was already in '^ raptures," Kit^eva 
said, with a slight smile, " and at our house continued to 
drink and treat the girls, but as his money gave out, he 
sent* that same LyubtSv, for whom he had a prediiection," 
she said, glancing at the defendant. 

It aeemed to Nekhly^dov that at these words Mdalova 
smiled, and this smile seemed disgusting to him. A 
strange^ indefinable feeling of loathing, mingled with 
compassion, arose in him. 

** And what has your opinion been of Mtlslova ? " 
timidly asked the blushing candidate for a judicial place 


100 sssuBRBcrnoN 

who had been appomted by the coart to bo Utfsbvs's 

"The very beat," answered KitJeTa. "An edacated 
girl and ehie. Sducated in good family, and conld read 
Fiottch. At times drank a little too mach, bat never 
lost her seoaes. A very good girl" 

Katydsha looked at the propriebsss, and then soddenly 
tnnsferred her eyes to the juroia, and rested tliem on 
NekhlyiidoT, and her face bei^me seriona and even stem. 
One of her stem eyes squinted. For quite awhile these 
strange-looking eyes were tuned npon Ifekhlyiidov, and, 
in spite of the terror which took possession of him, he 
was unable to tarn his glance away from these squinting 
eyes with the bright white around them. He recalled 
that terrible night with the bieaking ice, with its fog, 
and, above all, with that upturned last quarter of the 
moon, which rose before daybreak and illumimU^d some- 
thing black and terrible. These two black eyes, which 
gazed at him and past him, reminded him of something 
black end terrible. 

" She has recognized me," be thought And Kekblyii- 
dov seemed to croudi, as though expecting a blow. She 
calmly heaved s sigh, and once more began to look at the 
fvesicUng judge. Nekhlyddov, too, sighed. " Oh, if it 
<mly came at once," he thought. He now experienced a 
sensation which he had experienced before at the chase, 
when he had to pick up a wounded bird, — he felt shame, 
and pity, and annoyance. The wounded bird would 
flatter in his game-bag, and he would feel loathing and 
laty, and would like to kill it, and to forget. 

It waa Bach a mixed feeling that Nekhlyddov was now 
experiencing, as he listened to the examination of the 


As if to ^te him, the case was drawn out long : after 
the examination of the witnesses and the expert, one 
after the other, and after the assistaDt prosecuting at- 
torney and the lawyers for the defence had, with sig- 
nificant looks, asked a number of useless questions, the 
presiding judge told the jurors to inspect the exhibits, 
which consisted of a ring of enormous size, with a setting 
of rose-diamonds, which evidently fitted on the stouteat 
lA fwefi^ers, and of a vial in which the poison had been 
examined. These things were sealed, and there were 
small labels upon them. 

The jurors were just getting ready to inspect these 
ob}ectB whoi the assjatant {ffosecnting attorney again 
raised himself in his seat and demanded the reading ot 
the medical examination of the dead body, before passing 
to the inspection of the exhibits. 

The presiding judge, who was hurrying the case as fast 
as possible, in order to get to his Swiss woman, was very 
w^ umvinced that the reading of that document could 
have no other effect then inducing ennui and delaying 
the dinner, and that the assistant prosecuting attorney 
had requeti«d this only because he knew he had the tight 
to make such a request ; still, he coold not refuse, and so 
ordered it to be read. The secretary got the document, 
and again with his monotonous voice, with the guttural 
enonoiation of the letters I and r, began to read. 

The external investigation had gtv«a tbe foUowiog 



(1) Feiapdot Sm7elk<$T's height wsa (iwo eisMoB and 
twelve verAfSks.^ 

" I declare, he was a strappiug fellow," the merchant, 
■wUh an interested mien, whiape«ed over Nekhlyiidov'a 

(2) HiB age was from external appearances ap{ffOx- 
imately fixed as fort^ years. 

(3) The body had a bloated appearaoce. 

(4) The colour of the iote^meaitB was greenish, here 
and there tinged with darker spots. 

(6) The cuticle on the surface of the body had risen 
in pustules of different sim, and in places had come off 
and was hanging in the shape of large flaps. 

(6) His hair was dark blond, thick, and at the touch 
came out of the skin. 

(7) The eyes stood out of their sockets, and the cornea 
was dimmed. 

(8) From the apertures of the nose, of both ears, and 
of the cavity of the mouth a lathery, foamy, serous liquid 
was discharged, and the mouth was half open. 

(9) There was no perceptible neck, on account of the 
bloated condition of the face and chest. 

And so on, and bo on. 

Four pages contained twenty-seven points of such kind 
of 8 description of all the details reveled at the external 
examination of the terrible, immense, fat and swollen, 
decomposing body of the merchant who had been carous- 
ing in the city. The sensation of indefinable loathing, 
which Nekhlyiidov had been experiencing, was intensified 
at the reading of this description of the corpse. Eatyd- 
aha's life and the s^um which issued from his nostrils, 
and the eyes standing out from their sockets, and his 
treatment d her, seemed to him to be objects of one and 
the same order, and he was on all sides surrounded 

1 An anbbi eqiula twentj-ei^t lnch«a, and a veiahA eqoala one 
and Ume-qnartam inobea. 




and absorbed by these objects. Wbem, at last, the read- 
icg of the external examinatioo was over, the presiding 
judge heaved a deep sigh and raised his head, hoping that 
all was ended, but the secretary immediately proceeded 
to the reading of the internal examination. 

The presiding judge once more lowered his head, and, 
leaning on his arm, closed his eyes. The merchant, who 
was sitting next to N'ekhlyiidov, with difficulty kept Uie 
sleep from his eyes, and now and then swayed to and 
fro ; the defendants, and the gendarmes behind them, sat 

The .internal ezamination revealed Uiat; 

(1) The cranial int^amenta eacdly separated from 
the cranial bones, and suffusion was nowhere notice- 

(2) The cranial bones were of medium tiiickness, and 

(3) On the dura mater two small pigmented spots 
were observed; they were approximately four lines in 
size ; the dura mater k«elf was of a p^e white hue ; and 
BO on, and so on, through thirteen points. 

Than followed the names of the coroner's jury, t^e 
signatures, and then the conclusion of the m^(»l ex- 
aminer, from which it was seen that the modifications 
which had taken place in the stomadi, and partly in the 
intestines and kidneys, ae discovered at tbo inquest and as 
mentioned in the protocol, gave a right to conclude, with 
a great degree of probability, that SmyelkiSys death bad 
been caosed by poison which had found its way into the 
stomach with the wina From the modification in the 
stomach and intestines, which were at hand, it was diffi- 
cult to determine what kind of pois(ni it was that had 
been introduced into the stomach ; but that it found its 
way into the stomach with the wine must be sormised 
from the fact that a la^e quantity of wine was disoor- 
ered in Smyelkdv's stomach. 



"Endentl^ he was a great hand at ariuUi^" agsm 
whifipered the merchant, waking from hia sleepL 

But the reading of this protocol, which lasted nearljr 
an hour, did not satifify the assistant prosecuting attorney. 
When it was over, the presiding judge turned to him : 

" I eappose it would be superfluous to read the doca- 
ment referring to the investigation of the int^nal organs." 

" I should ask to have ttua examination read," sternly 
said the associate prosecuting attorney, without gl an rang 
at the presiding judge, raising himself with a sidewiae 
motira, and giving the judge to feel, by the intonatitm of 
his voice, that the request for this reading constituted one 
of his privileges, that he would not be curtailed of hia 
right, and that a refusal would serve as a ground for 

The member of the court with the hmg beard and 
(he kindly, drooping eyes, who was suffering from the 
catarrh, feeing himself very weak, turned to the presiding 

" What is the use of reading it ? It only delays matters. 
These new brooms sweep longer, but not cleaner." 

The member in the gold spectacles did not say any- 
thing, and looked gloomily and with determinatloD in 
front of him, expecting nothing good from his wife, or 
from life in general 

The reading of the document began : 

" On February 16, 188-, I, the undersigned, at the 
request of the medical department, aa given in writing in 
No. 638," the secretary, who bad such a soporific effect 
upon all persons present, b^an in a detennined tone, 
raising the diapason of his voice, as though wishing to 
dispel sleep, "in presence of the aasistant medical in- 
spector, have made the following ezaminatdon of the 
internal organs: 

" (1) Of Uie right tnng and of the heart (in a aiz-poond 
glass jar). 



' (2) Of the contenta of the stomach (id a six-poond 
glass jar). 

" (3) Of the stomach itself (in a six-pound glass jai). 

" (4) Of die liver, the spleen, and the kidneys (in a 
three-poond glass jar). 

" (5) Of the intestines (in a siz-poond glass jar) — " 

The pteeiding judge in the b^innii^ of the reading 
bent down to one of the members and whispered some- 
thing to him ; then to the oUier, and having received ao 
affirmative answer, interrupted the reading in this place : 

" The court finds the reading of the document to be 
superfluous," he said. The secretary stopped and [dcked 
up his papers. The assistant prosecuting attorney ai^rily 
made a note of something. 

" The jurors may examine the exhibits," said the pre- 
mding judge. 

The foreman and a few of the jurymen arose, and, 
embarrassed as to the disposition of their hands, went up 
to the table, and in turns looked at the ring, the jars, and 
the viaL The merchant even tried on the ring on his 

" Well, he had a good-sized finger," he said, upon re- 
turning to his seat " As big as a cucumber," he added, 
obviously enjoying the conception of the hero which ha 
had fonned (rf the poisoned merchant 



When the ezaminatioQ of the exhibits mui aided, tiie 
presiding judge declared the judicial inquest closed, and, 
without any interruption, wishing to get through as soon 
as possible, asked the prosecutor to b^n his speech, in 
the hope that he, too, wishing to have a smoke and a 
dinner, would have pity on him. But the assistant prose- 
cuting attorney pitied neither himself nor them. Hie 
assistant prosecuting attorney was naturally very stupid, 
but he had the additional misfortune of having graduated 
from the gymnasium with a gold medal, and of having 
received a rewatd at the university for his thesis on the 
servitudes of the Soman law, which made him exceed- 
ingly self-confident and self-satisfied (which was still 
more increased by his success with the ladies), and in 
consequence of this he was extremely stupid. When the 
floor was given to him, he slowly rose, displaying his 
whole graceful figure, in an embroidered uniform, and, 
pladog both his bands on the desk, and slightly inclining 
his head, cast a glance upon the whole room, avoiding 
only the defendants, and then began : 

" The case which is presented to you, gentlemen of the 
jury," he began his speech, which he had prepared darii^ 
tiie reading of the protocol and coroner's inquest, " is, if 
I may so express myself, a characteristic crima" 

The speech of the associate prosecuting attorney, ac- 
cording to his opinion, ought to have a public significance^ 
like those famous speeches which had been delivered by 
those who later became famous lawyers. It is true, 
among the spectators were only three women, a sewing 



girl, a cook, and Simda's sister, and one coachman, bnfe 
Uiat waa nothing. Those celebrities had b^un in the 
eame way. It was a rule of the associate prosecating 
attorney always to be on the height of bis calling, that 
is, to penetrate tbe depth of the psychologic significance 
of the crime, and to lay bare the soies of society. 

" Too see before you, g^itlemen of tlie jury, if one may 
BO express oneself, a characteristic crime of the end of 
the ceotary, bearlDg upon itself, so to speak, the specific 
characteristics of that melancholy phenomenon of de- 
composition, to which, in our day, are subjected those 
elements of society that, so to apeak, are under the ultra- 
burning rays of _ that process — " 

The associate prosecuting attorney spoke a very loi^ 
time, on the one hand trying to recall all tliose clever 
things which he had thooght of, and, on the other, — and 
this was most important, — endeavouring not to stop for 
a moment, but to let his speech flow uninterruptedly 
for an hour and a quarter. Only once did he stop, and 
for awhile kept swaJlowing, but he soon found his bear- 
ings and made up for the interruption by his intensified 
eloquence. He spoke now in a tender, insinuating voice, 
stepping from one foot to tbe other, and lookii^ at the 
jurors, and now in a quiet, businesslike tone, glancing 
at his notes, and now again in a loud, condemnatory 
voice, addressing now the spectators, and now tbe jurors. 
On tbe defendants, however, who had riveted their eyes 
upon him, he did not look once. In his speech were all 
the latest points which had become fashionable in bis 
circle, and which had been accepted as the latest word 
of scientific wisdom. Here were heredity, and inborn 
criminality, and Lombroso, and Tarde, and evolution, and 
struggle for existence, and hypnotism, and suggestion, 
and Charcot, and decadence. 

Men^nt Smyelk6v, according to the definition of the 
associate prosecuting attorney, was a type of a mighty. 



UQcomipted RussiaD, with his broad nataie, who, on 
account of his coofidence and magnanimity, bod fallen 
as a victim of deepljr perverted persons, into whose power 
ha had com& 

SinuSn Kartinkin was an atavistic production of serf- 
dont, a crushed man, without education, without principles, 
even without religion. Evfimiya was his sweetheart, and 
a victim of heredity. In her could be observed all the 
characteristics of a d^enerate personality. But the chief 
mainspring of the crime was M&lova, who represented 
the phenomena of decadence in its lowest form. " This 
woman," so said the associate prosecuting attorney, with- 
out looking at ber, " has received an education, as we 
have learned here in court from the evidence of her land- 
lady. She not only can read and write, but can also 
speak French ; she is an orphan, who no doubt beara 
in herself the germs of criminality ; she has been edu- 
cated in a family of cultured gentlefolk, and could have 
lived by honest labour; but she left her benefactors, 
abandoned heraelf to her passions, and, to satisfy them, 
entered a house of prostitution, where she stood out from 
among her companions by her education, and, above 
everything else, as we have heard here from her kuidlady, 
gen^emen of the jury, by her ability to ioflnence the 
visitors by that mysterious quality, which has of late 
been investigated by science, especially by the achool of 
Charcot, and which is known under the name of sugges- 
tion. By means of that quality she took possession of 
a Russian hero, that good-natured, trustful Sadkd, the 
rich merchant, and used that coufidence, first to rob him, 
and then pitilessly to deprive him of life." 

" He is getting dreadfully off on a tangent," said, smiling, 
the presiding judge, leaning dowD to the austere member. 

" He's a terrible blockhead," said the austere member. 

"Gentlemen of the jury," the associate prosecuting 
attorney continued in tlie meantime, gracefully beoding 



bis lithe form, " the fate of these persons is in your power, 
but, to a certain extent, the fate of society, which yon 
influence by your sentence, is in your power. Oarefully 
consider the meaning of this crime, the dai^r to which 
society is subjected by such pathological individuals, if 
I may so express myself, as is this MMova, and guard 
it against contagion, guard the innocent, strong elements 
of society against contagion, and often against deBtmcti<Mi." 
Aa though crushed by the importance of tbe impend- 
ing dedsioD, tbe associate prosecating attorney, erid^itly 
highly enraptured with hia own speech, fell back in hu 

The pith of his speech, outside of tbe flowers of elo- 
quence, was that M^lova had hypnotized the merchant, 
by insinuating herself into his confidence, and, having 
arrived in the room with tbe ke^, in order to fetch the 
money, had intended to take it all for herself, bat, hav- 
ing been caught by Simdn and Evffmiya, bad been com- 
pelled to share tbe booty with them. Later, intending 
to conceal the traces of her crime, she came with the 
merchant to the hotel, where she poisoned him. 

After the assodate prosecuting attom^'s speech there 
rose from the lawyers' bench a middle-aged man in a 
dress coat, vrith tbe broad semicircle of a white starched 
shirt front, and with animation defended Kartinkin and 
BfSchkova. He was tbe attorney who had been employed 
by them for three hundred roubles. He justified their 
actions, and put aU tbe guilt on M^ova's shoulders. 

He refuted M^ova's testimony that BtScbkova and 
Eartinkin had been with her, when she took the mon^, 
pointing oat the fact that her testimony, as that of an 
establidied poisoner, could have no weight. The money, 
— the twenty-five hundred roubles, — said the lawyer, 
could have been earned by two iuduetrious and honest 
people, who received as mach as three and five roubles a 
day in grataitiee. The merchant's money had been stolen 



by Mfblova, and had been given to somebody, or probably 
was lost, since she was in on abnormal conditicm. The 
poisoning was done by Mislova alone. 

Therefore be asked the jury to declare TTurrinlriTi and 
B«S(dikova not guilty of the robbery of the money, or, if 
they did declare them guilty of ibe robbery, to give a 
veidiot without paiticapEU>ion in the poiaaning, and with- 
out premeditation. 

In conclusion, the lawyer, to sting the associate prose- 
cuting attorney, remarked that the eloquent reflections of 
the assistant prosecuting attorney explained the scientific 
questions of heredity, but were out of place in this case, 
because B<Schkova was die child of unknown parents. 

The associate prosecuting attorney, as though to show 
his teeth, angrily made a note on his paper, and with 
contemptuous surprise shrugged his shoulders. 

Then arose MJCslova's counsel, and timidly and with 
hesitation made the defeno& Without denying the fact 
that M^ova had taken part in the robbery, he insisted that 
she had had no intention of poisoning Smyelk^v, and had 
given him the powder merely to put him to sleep. He 
wanted to make a display of eloquence, by surveying 
M&lova's past, how she had been drawn to a life of 
debauch l^ a man who remained unpunished, while she 
had to bear the whole brunt of her fall, but this excursus 
into the field of psychology was a perfect failure, so that 
all felt sorry for hioL As he was muttering about the 
cruelty of men and the helplessness of women, the presid- 
ing judge, wishing to help him out, asked him to keep 
doaer to the essentials of the case. 

After this defence, again rose the associate prosecuting 
Attorney, and defended his position about heredity 
gainst the first counsel for the defence by sayii^ that 
the fact that Bdchkovs was the daughter of unknown 
parents did not in the least invalidate the doctrine of 
heredity, because the law of heredity was so firmly 


KBSimRBOnOK 111 

established b^ science that we not only coold deduce a 
crime from heredity, but also heredity from a crime. But 
as to the supposition of the defence that M^ova had 
been corrupted by an imaginary seducer (he dwelt with 
particular sarcasm on the word " imaginary "), all the data 
seemed to point to the fact that she had been the seducer 
of many, very many victims who had passed through hex 
hands. Having said this, he sat down victorious. 

Then the defendants were asked to say something in 
dieir justification. 

Evffmiya B6chkova repeated that she knew nothing, 
that she had not been present at anything, and stabbomly 
pointed to M^ova as the only culprit. Sim6n repeated 
several times : 

" Do as you please, bat I am not guilty, and it is all 
in vain." 

U^slova did not say anything. To the predding judge's 
invitation to say something in her defence, she only raised 
her eyes npmi him, glanced at everybody, like a hunted 
deer, and immediately lowered her eyes, and burst out 
into loud sobs. 

" What is the matter with you ? " asked the mffltdiant, 
who was sitting next to Nekhlyifdov, upon bearii^ a 
strange sound, which NekhlytSdov was suddenly eniitting. 
It sounded like a checked sob. 

Nekhlyiidov did not yet grasp the full significance of 
his position, and ascribed tiie restrained sobs and the 
tears, which had come out in his eyes, to the weakness of 
his nerves. He pat on his eye-glasses, in order to conceal 
them, then drew his handkerchief from his pocket, and 
began to clear his nose. 

The dread of the disgrace with which he woold cover 
himself, if all in the court-room should learn of his deed, 
drowned all the inner work which was going on within 
him. This dread was during that time stxonger than 
ap y thiTw else. 


Atteb these woidB of the defeodants and the consnlta- 
tioD of the sides about the patting of the qnegtions, which 
lasted for quite awhile, the questions were pat, and the 
presiding judge b^an his i^sum^ 

Before entering on the recapitolaticHi of tiie case, he, 
with a pleasant, familiar intonation, for a long time 
explained to the juty that misappropriation was misappro- 
priation, and th^t was theft, and robber; from a place 
atider lock was robbery from a place under lock, and 
robbery from an unlocked place was robbery from an 
unlocked place. While giving this explanation, he very 
frequeaitly glanced over to Kekhlyildov, as though anxious 
to impress him in particular witji this important fact, in 
the hope that be, comprehending its whole import, would 
be able to explain it to his fellow jurors. Then surmising 
that the jury was sufficiently instructed in this truth, he 
began to expatiate on another truth, namely, tixai murder 
was an act from whi(^ ensues the death of a man, and 
that, therefore, poisoning was also murder. When this 
tmth, too, had, in his opinion, been imbibed by the jury, 
he explained to them that when theft and murder are 
committed at the same time, then the crime constitutes 
both theft and murd». 

Notwithstaoding the fact that he wanted to get throng 
as soon as possible and that the Swiss girl was waiting 
for him, he was so accustomed to his occupati(M that, - 
having begun to speak, he could not check himself, and 
so he minutely instructed the jury that it they found the 
defendants guilty, they had a right to give a verdict of 


KEstmREcnoN lis 

goilty, and that if they found them not gailty, they were 
empowsred to pass a verdict of not guilty ; but tf they 
found them guilty of one thing, and not guilty of another, 
they could declare them gniUy of one tiling, and not 
guilty of another. Then he explained to tiiem that 
Although they had such a right, they must use it with 
discretion. He also wished to iiutruct them that if they 
gave an affirmative answer to a given question, they there- 
with accepted the question in ita entirety, and if they 
did not accept it in its entirety, they ou^t to specify 
what it was they exclnded. But upon looking at tiiB 
watch and seeing that it was five minutes to three, he 
dedded to pass at once to the review of the case. 

" The circnmatances of the case are as follows," be 
began, and repeated all that had previously been said by 
the defence, and the assistant prosecuting attorney, and 
the witnesses. 

The presidii^ judge spoke, and the members on both 
sdee listened to him wiUi a thoughtful mien, and occa- 
siooally looked at the clock, finding his speech very 
beautiful, that is, such as it ought to be, but rather long. 
Of the same opinion were the assistant prosecuting attorney 
and all the judicial persons and all the spectators in the 
court-room. The presiding jcdge finished his r^um^ 

It seemed that everythi^ had been said. But the 
presiding judge could not part from his privily of speak- 
ing, — it gave him such pleasure to listen to the impressive 
intonations of his own voice, — and he found it necessaiy to 
add a few words on the importance of the right which 
was granted to the jorors, and bow attentively and 
cantioosly th^ ought to make use of that right, and not 
misuse it ; he said that they were under oath, and that 
they were the public conscience, and that the secrecy 
oS the jory-room must be kept sacred, and so on, and 
'so on. 

From tlie time that the fvesiding judge began to apeak. 



MMora did not take her eyes away from him, as though 
fearing to lose a word, and therefore Nekhlyildov was not 
afraid of meeting her glance, and uninterruptedly looked 
at her. And in his imagination took place that commtsi 
phenomenon, that the long missed face of a beloved person, 
at first striking one by the external changes whi(^ have 
taken place during the period of absence, suddenly becomes 
precisely like what it was many years ago : all the 
changes disappear, and before the spiritual eyes arises 
only that chi^ expression of an exclusive, uurepeated, 
epritual personality. Precisely this took place in Nekh- 

In spite of the prison cloak, and the plumper body 
and swelling bosom, in spite of the broadened lower part 
of her face, the wrinkles on her brow and temples, and 
the somewhat swollen eyes, it was unquestionably that 
same Katydsha who on that Easter night had so inno- 
cently looked at him, the man beloved by her, with her 
upturned loving eyes, smiling with joy and with the ful- 
ness of life. 

" Such a strange coincidence ! How wonderful that this 
case should come up during my turn as a juror, that after 
ten years I shoold meet her here, on the defendants' 
bencji I And how will all this end ? Ah, if it only would 
all end soon I " 

He did not yet submit to that feeling of repentance 
which was beginning to speak within faim. It appeared 
to him as an acindent whidi would pass by without diatuxb- 
ing the tenor of his life. He felt himself to be in the 
condition of the pap, when, after he has misbehaved in 
the room, his master takes him by the back of his neck and 
sticks his nose into the filth which he has caused. The 
pup whines and pulls back, in order to get away as far as 
possible from the consequences of his deed, and to forget 
them, bat the inexorable master does not let him go. 
Jost 80 Nekhlyiidov was conscious of the filth which 



he was goil^ of, and of the migbtj hand oi the i 
bat he did not yet andeistond the significance of what he 
had done, and did not acknowledge the maatet himself. 
He did not wish to belieye that Chat which was before 
him was his deed. Bnt on inexorable, invisible hand 
held him, and he felt that he should never wring himself 
away from it He was still putting on a bold face, and, 
l^ force of habit, placed one leg over the other, carelessly 
played with his eye-glasses, and sat in a self-satisfied atti- 
tude on the secoad chair of the first row. In the mean- 
time be was conscdous, in the depth of his soul, of all the 
cruelty, meanness, and rascality, not only of his deed, but 
of his whole indolent, dissolute, cruel, and arbitrary life, 
and that terrible curtAiu, which as if by some magic bad for 
twelve years concealed from himself that crime and all 
his consequent life, was already swaying, and be could 
get some short glimpses beJiind it. 



FnfALLT, the presiding judge fiaiehed his speech, and 
with a graceful motdon raising the questioO'Sheet, handed 
it to the foremaD, vho had waited over to him. The jury 
rose, glad to get away, and, not knowing what to do with 
their bands, as though ashamed of something, went one 
after another into the conaultation-oxxiiu. The moment 
the door was closed behind them, a gendarme went ap to 
the door, and, unsheathing his sabre and shouldering 
it, took up a position near it. The judges arose and 
walked oat. l^e defendants, too, were led away. 

Upon reaching the consultation-room, the jurors, aa 
before, immediately took out their cigarettes and began 
to smoke. The unnaturalneas and falaenesB of their sitna- 
tion, which they all had been conscious of In a greater or 
lesser degree while seated in the court-room, passed the 
moment they entered the consultation-room and began 
to smoke, and, with a feeling of relief, they made them- 
selves at borne and began to converse in an animated 

" The girl is not guilty, she is just tangled up," said the 
good-natured merchant "We most be indulgent with 
her I" 

" Tias we shall consider later," said the foreman. " We 
must not be misled by our personal impressions." 

" The presiding judge has made a fine r&umV i^ 
marked the colonel 

" Twy fine indeed ! I almost fell asleep." 

" The main thing is that the servants could not have 



known of the money, if Mttslova had not been in a con- 
spiracy with them," said the clerk of Jewish type. 

"Well, did she steal it, in your opiuiou I" a^ed one ol 
die jniots. 

"You cant make me belieTe it," cried Uie good-natiued 
merchant " The red-eyed wendi has done it all." 

"They are every one of them a nice lot," said the 

" She aaya she never went inside the room." 

"Yes, you may believe her. I should not believe 
that slot for anything in the world." 

" But what of it if you would not believe her ? " said 
the clerk. 

" She had the key." 

" What of it if she did have it ? " retorted Hie merchant. 

" And the ring 1 " 

" She told about it," again shouted the merchant. " Tbo 
merchant had a temper, and had been drinkiiig and 
walloping her. And then, of course, he was aony 
(or what ha had done. ' Take this, and don't cry I ' IVom 
what I heard, he must have been a stiapiong fellow, two 
and twelve, uid weighing some three hundred pounds." 

" This has nothing to do with the case," Peter Oer^ai- 
movich interrupted him. " The question is, whether she 
did it all and persuaded the others, or whether the serv- 
aotB took the initiative." 

" The servants could not have dme it l^ themselves, 
for she had the key." 

The disconnected conversation lasted quite awhila 

" Please, gentlemen," said the foreman. " Let us sit 
down at the taUe, and consider the case. Please," he 
said, sitting down in the foreman's chair. 

" Those girls are contemptible," said the derk, and, in 
confirmation of his opinion that M^ova was the chief 
culprit, he told how one of theae girls had stolen a watch 
from a friend cf his in the boulevard. 



Tbis gave the colonel u> opportunity of relating a more 
wonderful theft of a silver samov^. 

"Gentlemen, let as take up the questions is order," 
said the foreman, tapping his pencil on t^e table. 

All grew quiet The questions were expnaaai as fol- 

(1) Is SimijD FetnSv Kart&ildn, a peaaant of the village 
of BtSrki, ErapiveDsk County, thirty-three years of age, 
guilty of having consjured on January 17, 188—, in the 

city of N , to deprive Merchant Smyelk6v of hia life, 

for the purpose of robbing him, in company with others, by 
administering to him poison in cognac, from which ensued 
Smyelk6v's death, and of having stolen from him about 
2,500 roubles and a diamond ring ? 

(2) Is Bui^ess Evflmiya Iv^ovna B<5chkova, forty- 
three years of age, guilty of the crime described in the 
first question? 

(3) la Burgess Katerina Miklulylovna MMova, twenty- 
seven years of age, guilty of the crime described in the 
first question ? 

(4) If the defendant, Evffmiya BtSdikova, is not guilty 
according to the first question, may she not be guilty ot 

having, on January 17, 188-, in the city of N , while 

being a servant in " Hot«l Mauritania," secretly stolen from 
the locked valise of a hotel guest. Merchant Smyelk<5v, 
which was in his room, the sum of 2,600 roubles, having 
for this purpose opened the valise with a false key ? 

The foreman read the first question. 

" WeU, gentJemen ? " 

To this question, the reply was readily mad& All 
agreed to answer, " Tes, guilty," finding . him guilty <rf 
paiticipatioQ, both in the poisoning and in the robbery. 
The only one who would not agree to finding Kettlnkm 
guilty was an old labourer, who answered all questions in 
an exculpatory way. 

The fcoeman thought that he did not understand, and 



explained to him that there was do possible doubt of 
Kartinkip'fi and B6chkoYa's guilt, but the labourer replied 
that he understood It all, but that it would be better to 
ezeroise mercy. " We ourselves are no saints," he said, 
aod stuck to hia opinion. 

To the second question about B<5chkova, they replied, 
after long discussioiis and elucidati(»ifi, "Not guilty," 
because t^ere were no clear proofs of her participation 
in the poisoning, npcn which her lawyer had dwelt so 

The merchant, wishing to acquit M&lova, insisted that 
Bdchkova was the chief instigator of the whole thing. 
Many jurors agreed with him, but the foreman, trying to 
remain within strictly legal bounds, said that there was 
no ground for finding her guilty of participation in the 

After many diacussioDB, the foreman's opinion pre- 

To the fourth question, about B<Schkova, they replied, 
"Yes, guilty," bu^ since the labourer insisted upon it, 
they added, " but deserves mercy." 

The question about M^lova brought forth violent dis- 
cussions. The foreman insisted that she was guilty both 
of the poiscHiing and of the robbery, but the mercluuit did 
not agree with him, and he waa joined by the colonel, the 
clerk and the labourer ; the others seemed to waver, but 
tibe opinion of the foreman b^an to prevail, especially 
mnce all the jurors were tired, and gladly accepted the 
opinion which was more likely to unite all, and ^erefore 
to free them. 

By all that had taken place at the inquest, and by 
what Kekhlyildov knew of M&lova, he was convinced 
that she was not guilty either of the robbery or of the 
pcosouii^ ; at first he was certain that all would find it 
so, but when he saw that, on account of the merchant's 
awkward defence, which waa based on the fact that M^ 

:,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC . 


lova pleased him in a physical way, a tact of vhich he 
made no aecret, on account of the oppositioD of the foie- 
man for that very reasoD, aod, especially, on account of 
the fatigue of all, the verdict was turning toward finding 
her guilty, he wanted to retort, but he felt terribly about 
saying anything is regard to MfiBlova, — it seemed to Mm 
that everybody would at once discover bis relations with 
her. At the same time he felt that he could Dot leave 
the case as it waa, but that he had to retort. He blushed 
and grew pale by turns, and was on the point of saying 
something, when Peter Ger^imovich, who had remained 
silent until then, evidently provoked by the foreman's 
authoritative tone, suddenly began to oppose him and to 
say the very thing Nekhlytldov bad intended to brii^ 

" If you please," he said, " you say that she ie guilty of 
the robbery because she had a key ; could not ^e hotel 
aervauts have later opened the valise with a false 

" That's it, t^t's it," the meichant seconded him. 

" It was not possible for her to take the money, because 
in lier situation she could not dispose of it." 

"Thafs what I ssy," the merehant confirmedhim. 

" It is more likely that her arrival gave the servants 
the idea of utilizing the opportunity and throwing every- 
thing upon her shoulders." 

Petei;.Ger&imovich spoke in an irritated manner. His 
irritation was communicated to the foreman, who, for that 
very reason, began with greater stubbornness to insist upon 
his opposite views ; but Peter Gerdsimovich spoke so con- 
vincingly that the majority agreed with him, finding that 
MfEslova had not taken part in the robbery of the money 
and ring, and that the ring had been given to her. 

When the discussion about her share in the poisming 
began, her warm defender, l^e merchant, said tbat she 
ought to be found not guilty, because she had no reason 



for ■pmataoDg him. But the foreman said that they could 
DOt help finding her gnilty because she had herself ctm- 
fesaed to administering the poison to bim. 

" She gave it to him, but she thought it was opium " 
said the merchant 

" She could have deprived him of life with opium," said 
the colonel, who was fond of digieasions, and b^an to tell 
that his brother-in-law's wife bad poisoned herself with 
opium, and that she would certainly have died if a doctor 
had not been near, and if the proper measures had not 
been taken in time. The colonel spoke so persuasively, 
eelf-confidently, and with such dignity, that nobody had 
the courage to interrupt him. Only the clerk, infected by 
his example, decided to interrupt bim in order to tell his 
own story. 

" Some get so used to it," he began, " that they can take 
forty drops. A rolative of mine — " 

But the colonel did not permit himself to be inter- 
rupted, and continued his story about the effect of the 
(q[dum on the wife of his brother-in-law. 

" ClenUemen, it is already past four," said one of the 

" How is it, then, gentlemen ? " the foreman addressed 
them. " Let us find her guilty vrithout premeditated 
robbery, and without seizing any property." 

" How is that ? " 

Peter GerfCsimovich, satisfied with his victory,^greed 
to this. ^ 

" But deserves mercy," added the merchant. 

All consented to this, only the labours insisted upon 
saying " Not guilty." 

" Itiat's what it amounts to," explained t^e foreman. 
" This makes her not guilty." 

"Put it down: 'and deserves mercy.' That means, 
deariug off the whole mstter," merrily said the merchant. 

Everybody was so tired, and so confused by their dis- 



casBioDS that it did not occur to any one to add to Uie 
anawar : " Yea, but vnthout the intention of killing." 

Kekhlyiidov was ao agitated that he did not notioe 
that. In thia form the aoswera were written down and 
taken back to the couitriooin. 

Rabelais tells of a jurist, to whom people had come in 
a lawsuit, and who, after haying pointed oat all kinds 
oE laws, and haying read twenty pages of senseless jurid- 
ical Latin, proposed to the contending parties to cast dice : 
if they feU even, the plaintiff was right; if odd, the 
defraidant was right. 

Thus it happened here. This or that verdict had been 
accepted, not because all had agreed to it, but, in the first 
place, because the presiding judge, who had made such a 
long r4sum4, had foigotten upon that occasion to say 
what he always said, namely, that they might answer the 
question : " Yes, guilty, but without the intention of kill- 
ing ; " secondly, because the colonel had told a long and tire- 
some story about his brothw-in-law's wife ; thirdly, because 
Nekhlyiidov had been so f^tated that he did not notice 
the omission of the clause about the absence of any inten- 
tion to kill, and because he thought that the clause, 
" without any premeditated murder," annulled the accu- 
sation ; fourthly, because Peter Gertbimovich did not 
happen to be in the room — be had gone out — when 
the foreman reread the questions and answers; and, 
chiefly, because everybody was tired, and all wanted to 
be free as soon aa possible, and therefore»agreed to a ver* 
diet whick^pntd bring everything to an end. 

The jf^'^ rang the beU. The gendarme, who was 
standing at the door with the unsheathed sword, put it 
beck into the scabbard and stepped aside. The in(^e8 
took their seats, and the jurors filed out from the 

The foreman carried the sheet with a solemn look. 
He went up to the presiding judge, and gave it to him. 



The presidiiig judge read it, and, evidently sui^iaed, . 
vaved his hands and turned to the members, to consult 
with them. The presiding judge was surprised to find that 
the juiy had modified the fint condition, by making it, 
" Without the intention of robbing," while they had not 
equally modified the second, by saying, " Without the in- 
tention of killing." It now turned out that MfUlora had 
not stolen, not robbed, and yet had poisoned a man with- 
out any evident causa 

" See what absurdity they have brought here," be said 
to the member on the left. " This means hard labour, 
and she is not guilty." 

" Why not guilty ? " said the atem member, 

" Simply not guilty. In my opinion this case is pro- 
vided for in Statute 817." (This statute says that if a 
court finds the accusatiou unjust, it may set aside the 
jury's verdict) 

" What do you think of it ? " said the presiding judge, 
turning to the kind member. 

The kind member did not answer at once. He looked 
at the number of the document which was lyii^ before 
him, and it would not divide by three. He had made up 
his mind that he should be with him if the number would 
be divisible ; notwithstanding this, he, in the goodness of 
his heart, a^eed with him. 

" I think myself this ought to be done," he said. 

"And you?",the judge turned to the angry member. 

" On no ccmdition," he answered, firmly. J' ^e papers 
are saying, as it is, that the juries acquit the criminals. 
I sha'u't agree to it under any circumstaDces." 

The preaidii^ judge looked at bis watch. j-. , 

" I am sorry, but what is to be done ? " and he handed 
the list to the foreman to read. 

All arose, and the foreman, resting now on one foot 
and now on the other, cleared, his tluoat, and read the 
questions and answers. All the judicial persons, the secre- 



toiy, the lawyeni, even the prosecatiiig attorney, expraased 
their aujpriBe. 

The defendants sat unpertorbed, obviooaly not nnder- 
standing the pnipoit <A the answers. Again, all sat down, 
and the presidiag judge asked the prosecnting attorney 
to what punishment he proposed to subject the defend- 

The prosecuting attorney, delighted at the unexpected 
turn which Mtfslova's case had taken, and ascribing this 
success to his eloquence, looked up some points, rose, and 

" SimiJn EardnkiD ought to be aabjected to punish- 
ment on the basie of artlde 1,452 and paragraph four of 
article 1,453 ; Evflmiya B6cbkova on the basis of article 
1,659 ; and Eaterfua M^lova on the basis of article 

All these punisbmenta were the severest which it was 
possible to mete out. 

" The court will withdraw for the purpose of arriving 
at a sentence," said the prosecuting attorney, rising. 

All arose at the same time, and, with the relief and 
the agreeable sensation of a well-performed good work, 
began to leave the room, or to move op and down. 

" My friend, we have done a shameful piece of busi- 
ness," said Peter Cter^movich, walking up to fTekhlyiidov, 
to ^om the foreman was telling something. " We have 
aent her to hard labour." 

"You don't say?" cried Nekhlytldov, this time not 
taking notice at all of the teacher's disagreeable famil- 

" Precisely bo," he said. " We did not put down in die 
answer, < Quilty, but without the intention of killing.' 
The secretary haa just told me tiiat the prosecnting 
attorney ia giving her fifteen years of hard labour." 

" That's ^e way we gave the verdict," said the for». 



Peter QertCsimovicli hegaa to argue witJli him, saying 
that it was self-evident that if she did not steal the 
money, she could not have had the intention of killing 

" But did I not read the answers before coming out t " 
the foreman justified himself. " Kobody contxadicted." 

" I vaa not in the room at that time," said Peter 
Ger^movich. " But how ie it yoa were na[^&ng ? " 

"I could not im^ine it was tJiat way," saM Nekh- 

" This comes from not imagining." 

" But this can be corrected," said Nekhlyildov. 

" No, now everything is ended." 

Nekhlyiidov looked at the defendants. They, whose 
fate was being decided, sat just as motionless bdiind the 
screen, in front of the soldiera M&slova was smiling at 
something. An evil feeling began to stir in Nekhlytfdov's 
Innaat. Before this, while he saw her acquittal and so- 
joum in the city, he had been undecided as to how to act 
toward her. In any case, his relations with her would 
have been difficult ; but now, the hard labour and Siberia 
at once destroyed every possibility of any relations with 
her. The wounded bird would stop fluttering in the 
gune-bag and reminding him of itaeU. 



Pkter GEEJlfiiuoyiCH'3 auppositiona vere correct 

Upon retaming from the consultation-room, the pie- 
aiding judge took the paper and read : 

"On April 28, 188-, by order of hie Imperial H^h- 

nesB N , the criminal department of the Circuit 

Court, by virtne of the jury's verdict, and on the basia of 
par. 3, art. 771, par. 3, art. 776, and art. 777 of the Code 
of CiiuL Jur., hsB decreed: Peasant Simian Kartfukin, 
thirty-three years of ^e, and Burgess Katerfna M^ova, 
twenty-aereu yeais of age, to be deprived of all civil 
rights, and to be sent to hard labour : Kartfnkin for 
the period of eight years, and Mislova for four years, 
with the ccmsequences incident thereupon according to 
art. 2fi of the Statutes. But Burgess Evflmiya B6chkova, 
forty-three years of age, to be deprived of all special 
rights, both personal and civil, and of all privileges, to be 
incarcerated in prison, for the period of three years, with 
ttie consequences incident thereupon according to art 48 
of the Statutes. The expenses of the court incurred in 
this case to be borne in equal parts by all the defendants, 
and in case of their inability to meet them to be paid by 
Hie Crown. 

" The exhibits presented in the case to be sold, the 
rii^ to be returned, and the jars to be destroyed." 

EartfnkiD stood as erect as before, holding his hands 
with their spreading fingers down his sides, and moving 
his cheeks. B<5chkova seemed to be quite calm. Upon 
hearing her sentence, M&lova grew red in her face. 

" I am not guilty, I am not guilty 1 " she suddanlr 



shoated through the conrt-room. " This is a sin. I am 
DOt guilty. I had no intention, no thought of doing 
wrong. I am telling the truth ! The truth I " And, 
letting heiaeU down on the bench, she Bobbed ont alond. 

When Kartinkin and Bdchkova left, she still remained 
sitting io one spot and weeping, ao that the gendarme 
had to toach her hy the elbow of her cloak. 

"No, it ia impossible to leave it thuB," Kekhlyrfdov 
said to bimedf, entirely forgetful of bis evil feeling, and, 
without knowing why, rushing out into the corridor, in 
order to get ano^er glimpse of her. 

Throu^ the door pressed the animated throng of the 
jurors and lawyers, satisfied with the result of the case, 
BO that he was kept for several minutes near the door. 
When he came out into the corridor, she was far away. 
With rapd steps, and without thinking of the attention 
which he was attracting, he caught up with her, and, 
going beyond, he stopped. She had ceaaed weeping, and 
only sobbed fitfully, wiping her flushed face with the end 
of die kerchief ; she passed beyond him, without looking 
aronnd. After she was gone, he hurriedly went back, in 
order to see the presiding judge, but the ^dge had just 
left, and be ran after him and found him in the Testibul& 

" Judge," said Nekhlyildov, approaching him just aa he 
had donned his bright overcoat and had taken from the 
porter his silver-knobbed cane, " may I speak with yon 
about the case which has just been tried ? I was one of 
the jurors." 

" Yes, certainly. Prince Nekhlyddov t Veiy happy, we 
have met before," said the presiding judge, pressing his 
band at the pleasant recollection of how well and gaily 
and how much better than many a young man he had 
danced on the evenii^ of his first meeting with Nekh- 
lyiSdov. " What can I do for you 1 " 

" There was a misunderstanding in the answer in 
regard to Mdslova. She is not guilty of poisoning, and 



yet Bhe has been Bentenced to hard labour," Kekhlyildov 
Bald, with a coacenbsted and gloomy look. 

" Tha court haa posaed aentence according to tha an- 
swers which you have handed in," said the presidiiig 
judge, moving toward the entrance door, "even though 
the answers seemed to the court not to be relevant to the 

He recalled that he had intended to explain to the jury 
that thair answer, " Yes, guilty," without a specific denied 
of intentional murder, only confirmed the muidOT with 
the intention, but that, in his hurry, he had forgotten to 
do sa 

" Yes ; but cannot the error be corrected ?" 

" A cause tar annulmeat may always be found. One 
must consult the lawyeis," said the presiding judge, 
putting on his hat somewhat jauntily, and moving up 
toward the door. 

« But this is terrible." 

" You see, one of two Uiings could have happened to 
M^slova," said the presiding judge, wishing to be aa 
agreeable and polite to NekhlytidDV as possible ; be 
steaightened out all his whiskers above the collar of his 
overcoat, and, slightly linking his band in Nekhlyildov's 
tarn, contdnued, on his way to the door : " Yon are going 
out, are you not ? " 

" Yes," said Kekhlytldov, swiftly putting on his coat, 
and going out with him. 

They came out into the liaight, cheering son, and it 
became necessary to speak loader, in order to be heard 
above the rattling of the wheels on the pavement 

"The situation, you see, is a stntnge one," continaed 
the presiding judge, raising his voice. " One of Uie two 
things could have happened to her, I mean Mlislova: 
either almost an acquittal, with incarceration in a prison, 
from which might have been deducted the time already 
passed in jail, or merely an anest, or otherwise baid 



labour, — there was nothing between these twa If yon 
had added the worde, 'but withoat die intention of 
causing death,' she would have been acquitted." 

" It is inezcuaable in me to have omitted them," said 

" lliat's where the trouble is," said the presiding judge, 
smiling, and looking at his watch. 

There were only forty-five minutes left to the latest 
hour appointed by Kkra. 

" If you wish it, invoke a lawyer's aid. You must find 
cause for annulment. It is always possible to find such. 
To the Dvory^nskaya," he said to a cabman ; " thirty 
kopeks, — I never pay more than that" 

" If you please, your Excellency." 

" My regards to you. If I can be useful to you, call at 
DviSmikov's house, on the Dvory^skaya, — 'that is easily 

And, bowing giacioaalf , he dzove off. 



Tex coQTersation with the presiding judge and t}ie 
fresh air somewhat calmed Nekhlyddov. He now con- 
claded that the sensation experienced by him waa ex- 
aggerated by his having passed the whole morning under 
each unaccustomed circumstancea 

" Of course, it is a remarkable and striking coincidence 1 
I must do everything in my power to alleviate her condi- 
tion, and I must do so at the earhest possible moment, — 
at once. I must find out in the court-house where 
Fan^rin or Mikfshin lives." He recalled the names of 
t^ese two famous lawyers. 

Nekhlyiidov returned to the court-house, took ofif bis 
overcoat, and went up-stairs. He met Fan^rin in the 
first corridor. He stopped him, and told him that be 
had some business with him. Fan^rin knew h"" by 
sight and by name, and said that he would be happy to 
be useful to him. 

" Although I am tired — but if it will not take you 
iaag, tell me your huainess, — come this way." 

Fan^rin led Nekhlyiidov into a room, very likely the 
private cabinet of some judge. They sat down at the 

" WeU, what is it about ? " 

" First of all I shall ask you," said Nekhlyiidov, " not 
to let anybody know that I am taking any interest in 
this matter." 

" That is self-understood. And — " 

*' I served on the jury to-day, and we sentenced -an 
innocent woman to bard labour. This torments me." 



K'ekUytidoT blnsbed, quite nnexpectedl; to himBelf, and 
hesitated. Fantiriii flashed his eyes upon him and again 
lowered them, and listened. 

" Well I " was all he said. 

" We have sentenced an innocent woman, and I should 
like to have the judgment annulled and earned to a 
higher court" 

" To the Senate," Fanirin con«ct«d him. 

« And so I ask you to take the case." 

NdchlytidDT wanted to get over the most difficult point 
as soon as possible, and so he said, blushing: 

" I shall bear the expenses in this case, whatever they 
may be," 

" Well, we shall come to an understanding about that," 
said the lawyer, with a smile of condescension at his 

"What case is it?" 

Nekblyiidov told him. 

" Very well, I will take it up to-morrow, and look it 
over. And the day after to-morrow — no, on Thursday, 
come to see me at six o'clock, and I ehaU have an answer 
for you. Is that all tight ? Come, let us go, I have to 
make some inquiries yet." 

Nekhlytidov said good-bye to him and went away. 

His conversation with the lawyer and the fact that he 
hod taken measures for Mdslova's defence calmed him 
still more. He went out. The weather was beautiful, 
and it gave him pleasure to breathe the vernal air. The 
cabmen offered bim their services, but he went on foot. 
A whole swarm of thoughts and recollections in regard to 
Eatyilsha and to his treatment of her at once began to 
whirl around in his mind, and he felt melancholy, and 
everything looked gloomy. "No, I will consid^ t^at 
later," he said to himself, "hot now I must divert my 
mind from these heavy imp'SBBions.'* 

He tbouj^t of the dinner at the Eordiflgins, and looked 



at his watch. It wu oot yet late, and he could get these 
in time. A tram-way car was tinkling past him. He ran 
and caaght it. At the square he leaped down and took 
a good cab, and tea minutes later he was at the entrance 
<rf the laige hooae of the Eorcbigijia. 

by Google 


"Flkabi, jma Serenity! The; ftie expecting yon," 
said the kindly, stout porter of the large house of the 
Korchi^gins, opening the oak door o£ the entrance, whidi 
moved noiselesaly on its English hinges. " Th^ are at 
dinner, but I was ordered to ask you to come in." 
The porter went up to the staircase and rang a belL 
" Is anybody there ? " asked KekblyiidoT, taking off bis 

"Mr. Et^osoT and Ttfilrhafl Sergy^vich, and the 
family," answered the porter. 

A fine-looUsg lackey, in drees coat and white gloTes, 
looked down-ataiis. 

"Please, your Serenity," he said, "I am told to ask 
you in." 

Nekhlyddov asc^ided the staircase and tlirou^ the 
familiar, loxnrions, and spei^oaa parlour passed to the 
dining-room. Here ihe whole family woe sittii^ at 
the table, excepting the mother, FrioceBS S<ifya Vasflevna, 
who DBTer left her cabinet. At the head of the table 
eat the alder Korch^gin ; next to him, to the left, was 
thd doctor; to the right, a guest, Ixin IvflnoTich E6I0- 
Bov, formerly a Government marshal of the nobility, and 
DOW a director of a bank, a liberal comrade of Eorchi- 
gin's ; then, on the left, Miss Kedder, the governess of 
Missy's little sister, with the four-year-old girl ; on the 
right, exactly opposite, was Missy's brother, the only son 
of the Konihi^B, a gymnaaiast of the sixt^ form, P£tya, 
for whose sake t^e whole family was still staying in the 
city, waitiDg for his exuninations, and his tutw ; then, on 



the left, Eatetfaa Alekay^evna, an old maid fortj years of 
age, who was a Slavophile ; opposite her, Mikhtdl Setgyi' 
ovich, or Misha Tely^in, Missy's coosia, and at t^e lower 
end df (he table, MlBsy herself, and, near hex, an untoadied 

"Now, that's nice. Sit down, — we are just at ibe 
fish," said the elder Korch^;in, carefully and with diffi- 
culty chewing with his false teeth, and raising his suf- 
fused, apparently lidless eyes. 

" Stepdn," be turned, with his full mouth, to the atout, 
majestic butler, indicating with his eyes the empty 
plate. Although Nekhlyiidov was well acquainted with 
old KorchtEgin, and had often seen him, especially at din- 
ner, he never before had been so disagreeably impreBsed 
by bis red face, with his sensual, smacking lips, with his 
napkin stuck into his vest, and by his fat neck, — in 
general, by his whole pampered military figura 

Nekhlyildov involuntanly recalled everything he had 
heard of the cruelty of this man, who, God knows why, 
— for he was rich and of distinguished birth, and did not 
need to earn recognition by z«Jous service, — had had 
people flogged and even hanged wheai he had been the 
chief officer of a territory. 

" He will be served at once, your Serenity," said Step^, 
taking from the buffet, which was filled with silver vases, 
a large soup-ladle, and nodding to the fine-looking lackey 
with the whiskers ; the lackey at once arranged the un- 
touched cover near Missy's, on which lay a quaintly folded 
starched napkin with a huge coat of arms. 

Nekhlyiidov walked all around the table, pressing every- 
body's hands. All but old Eorch^n and the ladies rose 
when he came near them. On that evening the walking 
around the table and the pressing of the hands of all per- 
sons present, though with some of them he never exchanged 
any words, seemed to him particularly disagreeable and 
ridiculous. He excused himself for being so late, and was 



OD Ae pcnnt ot seating himself on the anoccn^ed chair, 
when old KorchlEgin insisted that, even if he did not take 
any brandy, he should take an appetizer from Che table on 
which stood lobsters, caviare, Tarious kinds of cheese, and 
herrings. NekhlyiidoT did not know he was so hungry, 
but when he stfuted on a piece of cheese sandwich he 
could not stop, and ate with zest. 

" Well, have you loosened tiie foundatioQB ? " said K6- 
losoT, ironically quoting an expression of a retn^;rade 
paper which was opposed to trial by jury. " Have you 
acquitted the guilty, and sentenced the innocent 7 Yes ? " 

" Loosened the foundations — loosened the founda- 
tions — " laughingly repeated the prince, who had an 
unbounded confidence in the wit and learning of his lib- 
enl comrade and friend. 

Nekhlyiidov, at the risk of being impolite, did not 
answer E61osov, and, sitting down to the plate of steam- 
ing soup which had been served to him, continued to 
munch his sandwich. 

" Let him eat," Missy said, smiling ; she used the pro- 
noun " him " in order to point out her intimacy with him. 

E<5IosoT, in the meantime, proceeded, in a loud and 
brisk vcnce, to give the contents of the article attacking 
the trial by jury which had so exasperated him. Mi- 
kbafl SergySevich, the nephew, agreed with him, and gave 
the contents of another article in the same paper. 

Missy was very diati-nguie, aa always, and well, unos- 
tentatiously well dressed. 

" You must be dreadfully tired and hungry," she said to 
Kekhlyildov, when he had finished chewing. 

" No, not very. And you ? Did you go to see the 
pictures ? " be asked. 

" No, we have put it off. We were out playing lawn- 
tennis with the Salam£ntoTa. fieolly, Mr. (^ooks plays a 
marvellous goma" 

Nekhlyiidov had come here to divert his miod \ it was 


136 BEsmtRBonoK 

always pleasant for bim in that house, not only on acoonot 
fA that good taste in loxui; which ^ireeably affected his 
fealingB, but also on account of that atmosphere of insinu- 
ating MndnesB with which he was imperceptibly surrounded 
here. But, strange to say, on that evening everything in 
that house was distasteful to him, everything, b^inning 
with the porter, the broad staircase, the fiowers, the 
lackeys, the setting of the table, to Missy herself, who now 
appeared unattractive and unnatural to him. He was also 
disgusted with that self-confident, mean, liberalizing tone 
of E($lo8ov } he was di^usted with the ox-like, self-confi- 
dent, sensual figure of old Korcbf^in ; he was disgusted 
with the French phrases of the Slavophile Katerlua Alek- 
syjevna ; he was disgusted with the repressed countenances 
of the governess and the tutor ; and he was particularly 
disgusted with the pronoun " him," whidi had been used 
in regard to himselt 

Nekhlyddov always wavered between two relations with 
Missy : now he saw her as though with blinking eyes, or 
as if in the moonlight, and everything in her was beauti- 
ful ; she seemed to him fresh, and beautiful, and clever, 
and natural Then again, he saw her as though in the 
bright sunshine, and he could not help noticing her de- 
fects. That evening was just each an occasion. He now 
saw all the wrinkles on her face ; he knew that her hair 
was artificially puEfed out ; he saw the angularity of her 
elbows, and, above everything else, observed the wide nail . 
of her thumb, which reminded him of her father's thaml^ 

" It is an exceedingly dull game," Kdlosor remarked 
about the tennis. " The ball game we used to play in oar 
childhood was much more fun." 

"You have not tried it. It is awfully attractive," re- 
torted Missy, pronouncing with particular unnaturalness 
the word " awfully," as Nekhlyiidov thought. 

And then began a discussion in which also Mikhafl 



Sergy^vich and Katerfna Aleksy^evna took pait. Only 
the goveniess, the tutor, and the children were silent and, 
evidently, felt ennui 

« Qnurelling all the time ! " exclaimed old £orcb<^, 
bursting out into a guSaw ; he took the napkin oat from 
his vest, and, rattling his chair, which the lackey immedi- 
ately took away, rose from table. All the others got up 
after him and went up to a small table, where stood the 
finger-bowls, filled with warm scented water ; they wiped 
thfflr months and continued the conversation, which did 
not interest anybody. 

"Am I not right?" Missy turned to Nekhlytidov, 
bying to elicat a confirmation of her opinion that a man's 
.character is nowhere manifested so well as at a game, 
She had noticed in bis face that concentrated and, as shd 
thought, condemnatory expression of which she was aft^id, 
and wanted to know what it was that had caused it 

" Beally, I do not know ; Z have never thought about 
it," replied NekhlyiSdov. 

" Will you go to see mamma ? " asked Missy. 

"Tea, yes" he said, taking out a cigarette, and in a 
tone whi^ manifestly meant that he should prefer not 

She looked at him in silence, with a questioning glance, 
and he felt ashamed. " How mean ! To call on people 
in order to make them feel bad," he thought about him- 
self, and, trying to say something agreeable, announced 
tliat it would give him pleasure to go, if the princess 
would receive him. 

" Yes, yes, mamma will be happy. You may smoke 
there. Iv^ Iv^ovicfa is there, too." 

The lady of the house. Princess 9i5fya Vasflevna, was 
a bedridden woman. For the last eight years she had 
received her guests while lying in bed, amidst laces and 
ribbons, amidst velvet, gold tinsel, ivory, bronze, lacquer, 
and flowers ; she did not drive out, aod received only her 



" own frieDda,** as aha ezpresBed herself ; that is, sU sach 
people as stood out from the crowd. Nekhlyildor was 
among these select people, because she i^arded him as a 
clever joung man, because he and his mother were near 
friends of Uie house, and because it would be well if 
Missy married him. 

The room of Princess S<Sfya Yastlevna was beyond die 
large and small drawing-rooms. In the laige drawing- 
room. Missy, who preceded Nekhlyiidov, suddenly stopped 
and, holdii^ on to the back of a ^t chair, looked straight 
at him. 

Missy was very anxious to get married, and Nekhlyii- 
dov was a good match. Besides, she liked him, and had 
accastomed herself to the idee that he would belong to 
her (not that she would belong to him, but be to her), 
and she reached out for her goal with unconscious, but 
persistent cunning, such as the insane are possessed of. 
She said aomethmg to him in order to ehcit an explanation 
from him. 

" I see that something has happened to you," she said. 
« What is the matter with you ? " 

He recalled the incident in the court-room, frowned, 
and blushed. 

" Yea, something has happened," he said, trying to be 
truthful ; " a strai^, UDusual, and important thing." 

« What is it ? Can't you tell it r 

" Not now. Permit me not to mention it. Something 
has happened which I have not yet had time to reflect 
upon," he said, and his face became even redder. 

" And you will not tell me 7 " A muscle on her face 
quivered, and she moved the chair to which she was hold- 
ing on. 

" No, I cannot," he answered, feeling that in answering 
her he was answering himself, and confessing that really 
Bomediing important had happened to him. 

* Well, let us ga" 



She tossed bet head, aa if to drive away impoitaDate 
thoughts, and walked on with faster ateps than QSnaL 

It appeared to him that she compressed her lipe in an 
nnnatiu^ manner, as though to keep back tears. He felt 
ashamed and pained at having grieved her, hot he knew 
that ihe least weakness wonld ruin him, that is, it would 
bind him. And on that evening he was afraid of it more 
than ever, and so he readied (>he j^inoass's cabinet with 
her in silence. 



Pedicsbb S6rTA VABfLEYNA bad finiflhed her very 
refined and aoorishing dinner, which she waa in the habit 
of eating all alone, in order that she might not be seen 
at that unpoetical function. Near her lounge stood a 
small table with coffee, and she was smoking a cigarette. 
Princess 36fya VasUevna was a lean, haggud brunette, 
wit^ la^e teeth and big black eyes, who was trying to 
appear young. 

There was a rumour about htx having certain relations 
with her doctor. On previous occoaionB KekhlyiidoT 
generally forgot about this ; on that evening he not only 
thought of it, but, when he saw near her chair the doctor, 
with his pomaded, shining forked beard, he was overcome 
by loathing. 

At S<Sfya Vasflevna's side, on a soft low Brmchair, sat 
£61oeov near the table, atining his coffee. On tiie table 
atood a wine-glass with liqueur. 

Missy ent«^ with Nekhlyddov, but did not remuu 
in tiie room. 

" When mamma gets tired and drives you away, come 
to me," she said, turning to £61osov and Nekhlyildov, in 
such a tone as though nothing had happened between 
them, and, with a merry smile, inandibly atepinng over 
the heavy mg, went out of the room. 

" Qood evening, my friend ! Sit down and teQ me all 
about it," said Princess S6fya Vaaflevna with an artificial, 
ftigned smile, which remarkably resembled a real smile, 
and showing her beautiful large teeth, which were as 
artistically made as though they were naturaL " I am 



told that yoa have coiue from coart in a very gloomy 
mood. Thia must be very hard for people with a heart," 
she aoid in French. 

" Yes, ihai is so," said Nekhlyddor. " One c^ten feels 
his in — One feels that one has no right to ait in jndg- 

" Cotnme <fetA vrai" she exclaimed, as thoogh struck 
by the truth of his remark, and, as always, artfully flatter- 
ing her interlocutor. 

" Well, bow is your picture getting on ? — it interesta 
me very much," she added. ■ '* If it were not for my 
ailment, I should bare gone long ago to see it." 

" I havB given it up altogether," dryly replied Nekh> 
lyiidOT, to wham the insincerity of her flattery was now 
as manifest as her old age, which she was trying to 
conceal He was absolnt^y unable to attune himself 
in such a way as to be pleasant. 

" I am sorry. Do you know, Ryepnfn himself told me 
tiiat he has positiTe talent," she said, tumii^ to Edlosov. 

" How unashamed of lying da is," thought Nekblyildov, 

Havii^ convinced herself that Nekblyildov was not 
in a good humour and that it was not possible to draw 
him into a pleasant and clever convarsation, S<$fya Vasi- 
levna turned to Kdlosov, asking for his opinion about the 
latest drama, in such a tone aa though £i51oeov's opinion 
was to solve all doubts, and as though every word of 
that oinnion was to be eternalized. E61oeov condemned 
the drama, and used this opportunity to expatiate on bis 
conceptions of ait. Princess 36ty& Vasflevna expressed 
surprise at the correctness of bis views, tried to defend 
the author of the drama, but immediately surrendered her- 
self, or found some com^avmise. Nekhlyildov was looking 
and bearing, but he saw and heard something different 
from what was going on in front of bint 

Listening to S6fya Vasflevna and to K^osov, Nekh- 



lyililov observed that neither S6fya Yasflevna nor KSioaov 
had the leaet interest in the drama, or in each other, and 
<^at they were conversing only to satisfy a phyBiologlcal 
necessity of moving the muacles of the mouth and throat 
after dinner ; secondly, that Ki51o&ov, having dnink brandy, 
wine, and liqueur, was a little intoxicated, — not as 
intoxicated as peasants are who drink at rare intervals, 
but as people are who make a habit of drinking wine. 
He did not sway, nor say foolish things, but was in an 
abnormal, excitedly self-satisfied condition ; in the third 
place, N^±lyiidoT noticed that Princess StSfya VasQevna 
during the conversation restlessly looked at the window, 
through which fell upon her the slantit^ rays of the sun, 
for fear that too strong a light might be shed on her old 

"How true that is," she said about a remark of 
EtSIosoVs, and pressed a button in the wall near the 

Just then the doctor arose, and, being a familiar friend, 
went out of the room without saying a word. S6fya 
YasQevna followed him with her eyes, continuing to 

" Please, Fillpp, let down this curtain," she said, indicat- 
ing with her eyes the curtain of the window, when the 
fine-looking lackey had come in in answer to the belL 

" You may say as you please, but there is something 
mystical in him, and without mysticism there can be 
no poetry," she said, angrily watching with one black 
^e the movement of the lackey who was fixing the 

" Mysticism without poetry ia superstition, and poetry 
without mysticism is prose," she said, sadly smiling, and 
not letting out of sight the lackey, who was still busy 
about the curtain. 

" Filipp, not this curtain, — the one at the la^ 
window," S6fya Yasflevna muttered, with the tone of a 



suffem, evidently regretting the effort which she had 
to make in order to pronounce these words, and imme- 
diately, to soothe her nerves, putting the fragrant, smok- 
ing cigarette to her mouth with her ring-covered hand. 

Broad-chested, muscular, handsome Filfpp made a 
slight bow, as though to excuse himself, and, stepping 
softly over the rug with hie strong, well-shaped legs, 
humbly and silently went up to the other window, and, 
carefully watching the princess, so arranged the curtain 
that not one single ray could fall upon her. But here he 
again did not do exactly right, and again exhausted S<5fya 
VasQevna was compelled to interrupt her conversation 
about mysticism and to correct Filfpp, who was hard of 
understanding and who pitilessly tormented her. For 
a moment there was a flash in Filfpp's eyes. 

" The devil can make out what it is you want, no doubt 
is what he said to himself," thought Kekblyildov, who woe 
watching the whole game. But handsome, strong Filfpp 
at once concealed h^ motion of impatience and b^an 
calmly to carry oat the order of exhausted, powerless, 
artificial Princess S6fya Vasflevna. 

" Of course, there is a larger grain of truth in Darwin's 
teachings," said K<51o80v, throwing himself back in the 
low armchair, and looking with sleepy eyes at Princess 
S<ifya Vasflevna, " but he oversteps the boundary. Yes." 

" And do you believe in heredity ? " Princess Srffya 
Vasflevna asked Nekhlyildov, vexed by his silence. 

" In heredity ? " Nekhlyiidov repeated her que8ti(nL 
" No, I do not," be said, being at that moment all absorbed 
in the strange pictures which for some reason were rising 
in his imagination. By the side of strong, handsome 
' Filfpp, whom he imagined to be an artist's model, he saw 
K<51oeov naked, with a belly in the shape of a water- 
melon, and a bald head, and thin, whip-like arms. Just 
as disconsolately he thought of S6fya Vasflevna's shoul- 
ders, which now were covraed with silk and velvet ; ha 



imagined them in their Dataral state, bat this conception 
wae 80 terrible that he tried to dispel ''iL 

SiSfya YasQeTiia measured him with her eyes. 

" I think Missy is waiting for you," she said. " Go to 
her ; she wanted to play to yon a new piece by Gri^ — 
it is very interesting." 

" She did not want to play anytlking. She is just lying 
for some reason," thought Kekhlyiidov, rising and press- 
ing SiSfya Vasfleviia's translucent, bony hand, covered 
witb rings. 

In the drawing-room he was met by Eaterina AJekay4- 
evna, who at once began to speak to him. 

" I aee the duties of a juror have an oppressive effect 
upon yon," she said, speaking as always, in French. 

" ^irdon me, 1 am not in a good humour to-day, and I 
have no right to make others feel bad," said Nekhlyiidov. 

" Why are you out of humour ? " 

" Permit me not to tell you why," he said, bying to 
find his hat. 

"Do you remember how you told us that one must 
always tell the truth, and how you then told us such 
cruel truths ? Why, then, do you not want to tell now T 
Do yon remember. Missy ? " Eaterina Aleksyfevna turned 
to Missy, who had come out to tbem. 

"Because that was a game," Nekhlyildov answered 
serionely. " In a game one may, but io reality we are so 
bad, that is, I am so bad, that I, at least, am Dot able 
to tell the truth." 

" There is nothing worse than to confess that you are 
out of humonr," said Missy. " I never acknowledge ancb 
a feeling in myself, and so I am always in a happy frame 
of mind. Well, won't you come with me ? We shall 
try to dispel your mawaiae humeur." 

NekhlytEdov experienced a sensation such as a horse 
must experience when it is being patted, in order to be 
bridled and hitched. Bat on that evming it was harder 


RESuaBEcnoN 146 

tor him to pull than at any previooa time. He ezcaaed 
himself, saying that he bad to be at home, and began to 
say good-l^& Missy held bis hand longer than asuaL 

"Remember that what is important to yoa is also 
important to your friends," she stud. " Will yon be here 
to-morrow ? " 

" Hardly," said KekblytEdov, and, feeling ashamed (he 
did not know whether for himself or for her), be blasbed 
and hurriedly went away. 

"What is the matter? Comme eela m'itUrigu*" said 
Eaterfna Aleksy^ma, when Nekhlyiidov had gon& " I 
must find out. Some affaire d^amour propre, — il e>t 
tris tttsceptibU, notre cker Mftya." 

" Hutdt, wu affaire (Tamour sale," Uifisy wanted to say, 
but restrained herself, with a dimmed expieaaion which 
was quite difFerent from the one her face had when 
speaking with him; ebe did not tell that bad pun to 
Eaterfna Aleksy^evna, bat merely remarked: "We all 
have good and bad days." 

"I wonder whetitier he, too, will deceive me," she 
thouf^t " After all that has happened, it would be very 
bad of him." 

If Missy bad been asked to explain what she under- 
stood by the words, " after all that has happened," she 
would not have been able to say anything definite, and 
yet she knew beyond any doubt that be had not only 
given her hope, but had almost promised her. All this 
was done not by distinct words, but by glances, smiles, 
insinuatioDB, and reticence. Withal she regarded him as 
her own, and it would have been hard for her to loee* 



" DlsGRAOEnTL and diegaatiug, disgastdng and diegiace' 
fal," NekhlyiidoT thought in tbe meantdme, waMog 
home through famihar streets. The heavy feeling which 
he had experienced during bis conveisation with Missy 
did not leave him. He felt that formally, if one may 
80 ezpresa oneself, he was ri^t befoie her, for he had said 
nothing to her that would bind him, had made no pro- 
posal to her ; at the same time he was consciouB of 
having essentially tied himself and promised; and yet 
he fdt with all bis being that be could not marry 
her. " Disgraceful and disgusting, disgosting and dis- 
graceful,'' ha repeated to himself, not only in referenoe to 
his relations with Missy, but to everything. " Everytiiing 
is di^osting and diegtacefol," he repeated to himself, as 
he ascended the porch of his house. 

"I eha'n't eat any supper," be said to Kom^, who 
walked after him into the dining-room, where the table 
was set and tiie tea was ready. " Tou may go." 

" Tes, sir," said Kom^y ; he did not leave, but began to 
dear the table. Kekhlyiidov looked at Sorely and was 
overcome by a hostile feeling toward him. He wanted to 
be left alone, and it seemed to him that everybody was 
aosoyiiig him, as though on purpose When Eom^y had 
left with the dishes, Nekblyiidov went up to t^e samov^, 
in order to pour in the tea, but upon hearing Agraf^na 
Petx6vna'B steps, he, in order not to be seen, hurriedly 
went into the drawing-ioom and closed the door behind 
him. This drawing-room was the one in which his mother 
had died three months before. 'Sow, upon entering this 



room,' which was illaminated by two lamps witii their 
reflectors, one near his father's picture, the other near his 
mother's portrait, he recalled his last relations with 
his mother, and they seemed to him umiatoral and 
repulsiye. And this, too, was shamefiil and mean. He 
recalled how during her last illness he had simply wanted 
her to dia He had said to himself that he wished it in 
order to see her liherated from her sofTerings, but in reality 
he had wished himself to be freed from the sight of her 

Wishing to evoke a good memory of her, be looked at 
her portrait, which had been painted by a famous painter 
for five thousand roubles. She was represented in a black 
velvet gown, with bared breast The painter had evidently 
spared no effort in painting the bosom, the interval between 
her breasts, and the shoulders and neck, dazzling in their 
beanty. This was absolutely disgraceful and disgosting. 
There was something loathsomely profane in the represeU' 
tatioQ of his mother in the form of a half-naked beauty, 
tiie more loatJisome, snoe three months ago the same 
woman had been lying there, dried up like a mummy, 
and yet filling not oaij the room, hut even the whole 
house with a painfully heavy odour which it was impoe- 
sible to subdue. He thought he could scent it even now. 
And he recalled how the day before her death she had 
taken his str(sig, white hand into her bony, discoloured 
little one, had looked him in the eyes, and had said: 
" Do not judge me, Mftya, if I have not done right," and 
in her eyes, faded from suffering, stood tears. "How 
disgusting I " he said once more to himself, looking at the 
half-bare woman with her superb marble shoulders and 
arms, and with her victorious smile. The nudity of the 
bosom on the portrait reminded him of another young 
woman, whom he had also seen d^collet4e a few days 
befor& It was Missy, who bad found an excuse to invite 
him to the house, in ordw that she might appear before 


148 RBstmHionoH 

him ID tiie evening dress in irhich she was going to a 
baU. He thought with disgust of her beantifal shooldcos 
and arms. And that coarse soimal father, with bis past, 
his craelty, and that spiritnal mother, with her doubtful 
refutation I Disgiacefiil and disgnsting, disputing and 

" No, DO," he thought, " I must free myself ; I must free 
myself from all Uiese false relations witji the Eordutgins, 
and from MEbiTa Vasflevna, and from the inheritance, 
and from everything else — Yes, I most bteathe freely. 
Abroad, — to Home, to work on my picture." He recalled 
hia doubts in regard to bis talent. " What of it ? If only 
to breathe freely. First to Constantinople, then to Borne, 
only to get rid of all jury service. And I must anaDge 
that matter with the lawyer." 

And suddenly the prisoner, with her black squintiDg 
eyes arose in his imagination with extraordinary vividness. 
How she did weep during the last words said by the 
defendants ! He hurriedly extinguished hia finished 
cigarette and crushed it in the ash-bay, lighted another, 
and began to pace up and down in the room. And <Rie 
after another the moments which he had paaaed witii faer 
rose in his imagination. He recalled bis last meeting 
with her, that animal passion which then had taken 
poesessioQ of bim, and the disenchantment which he had 
experienced when his passion was satisfied. He recalled 
the white dress with the blue ribbco, and the morDing 
mass. "I did lore her, did sincerely love her with a 
good and para love duriug that oigbt; I bad loved her 
even before, when I had passed my first summer with 
my aunts, and had been writing my thesis I " And be 
recalled himself such as he had been then. That fresh- 
ness, youth, and fulness of life was wafted upon him, and 
he felt painfully sad. 

The difference between what he had then been and what 
he now was was eDormoos ; it was just as great, if not 



greater,, tlian tbe diffeiencse that existed between Eatyif- 
oha at church and that proatitutfi, who had caroased 
with the morchaot, and who had been sentenced on that 
very day. Then he had been a vigorous, free man, before 
whom endless poesibilitiea had been open; now he was 
conscious of being on all sides caught in the snare of a 
foolish, empty, aimless, and insignificant life, from which 
he saw DO issue, and from which, for the greatest part, be 
did not wish to emerge. He recalled how formerly he 
had prided himself on Ms straightforwardness ; how he had 
made it his rule always to tell the truth ; and how he now 
was all entangled in a lie, in a most terrible lie ; a lie 
which all the people who surrounded him regarded as the 
truth. And there was no way of getting out from this 
lie, — at least he did not see any way. And he was sunk 
deep in it, — was used to it, and pampered himself 
by it. 

How was he to tear asunder those rehUiionB with 
M^ya Vasflevna and with her husband in such a way 
tiiat he should not be ashamed to look into his eyes and 
into the eyes of his children ? How was he to unravel 
Us relations with Missy without lying ? How was he to 
extricate himself from the contradiction between the 
acknowledgment of the illegality of the owner^p of land 
and the possession for life of his maternal iiiberitance ? 
How was ha to atone for his sin before Katydsha ? He 
certainly could not leave it as it was.. " I cannot aban- 
don a woman whom I have loved, and be satisfied with 
paying a lawyer and freeing her from hard labour, which 
she has nob deserved, — that is, to settle the whole matter 
by giving money, just as I had thought then that I ought 
to do, when I gave her the money 1 " 

And he vividly thought of the minute whco he had 
caught up with her in the corridor, and put the numey in 
hex bosom, and had run away again. " Ah, that money I " 
be recalled tha9 minate yntii the same terror and dis- 



goBt that had orercome him then. "Ah, ah ! how con- 
temptible I " he said aloud, just as then. " Only a rascal, a 
scoundrel, could have done that 1 And I am that taacal, 
that scoundrel I " he again said aloud. " And am I 
really," he stopped in his walk, " am I really such a 
ecoandrel t If not I, who jmI" he replied to his own 
question. " And ia this all }" he continued to upbraid 
himsdl "Are not yoor relations with M^ya Vadlevna 
and her husband mean and contemptible ? And your 
relations with property ? Under the pretence that the 
money is your mother's to make use of wealth which you 
r^ard as illegal ? And all your empty, bad life. And 
the crown of all, — your deed with Katyusha. Scoundrel ! 
rascal I Let people judge me as they please : I can deceive 
them, but I shall never be able to deceive myself." 

And he suddenly comprehended that ^t loathing 
which he bad of late experienced for people — and espe- 
dally on that very day for the prince, and for S6fyti Vast- 
levna, and for Missy, and for £om^ — was really a 
loathing for himself. And, strange to say, in this 
feeUng of confessing his meanness there was something 
painful, aiid at the same time something pleasurable and 

Nekhlyildov had had several times before what he 
called a " cleansing of his soul" By a cleandng of his 
soul he understood a cooditiim of his soul such as when 
he suddenly, sometimes after a long interval of time, 
recognized the retardation, and sometimeB the cessation 
of Ms internal work, and began to clean up all the dirt 
which had accumulated in his soul, and which was the 
cause of this retardation. 

After such awakenings Kekhlyildov formed certain 
rules which he intended to follow henceforth : he kept a 
diary and b^an a new life, which he hoped he would 
never change again, — he " turned a new leaf," as be 
nsed to say to himsell But the temptations of the 



vorld pressed hard on him, and he fell again, withoat 
noticing it, and c^ten lower than before. 

Thus he had cleansed himself and had risen several 
times ; thns it had been vith him the first time when he 
bad gone to spend the sammer with his aunts. That had 
been the most vivid, the most enthusiastic awakening, and 
its effects had remained for a considerable time. Then, he 
had another awakening when he left the civil service, 
and, wishing to sacrifica his life, entered the militaiy serv- 
ice during the war. But here the pollution took place 
aoon after. Then, there was another awakening when he 
asked for his dismissal from the army, and went abroad 
to stndf art^ 

Since then a long period had passed without any cleans- 
ing, and consequently he had never before reached such 
a pollution and such a discord between that which his 
conscience demanded and the life whic^ he was leading, 
and he was horror-stmck when he saw the distance. 

That distance was so great, the pollution bo strong, diat 
at first he deapaired of being able to cleanse his souL " I 
have tried often enough to perfect myself and become 
better, but nothing has come of it," said in his soul the 
voice of the tempter, " so what is the use trying again 1 " 
" You are not the only one, — th^ are all like that, — 
snch is life," said thia voice. But the tree, epiiitual 
being, which alone is true, and powerful, and eternal, was 
already beginnii^ to waken in N'ekhlytldoT. He could< 
not help trusting it. "So matter how gre^ the distance 
was between what he had been and what he wanted to be, 
everything was possible for the awakened spiritual being. 

" I will tear asunder the lie which is binding me, at 
whatever cost, and I will profess the truth, and will tell 
the tmUi to everybody at all times, and will act truth- 
fully," he said to himself aloud, with determination. " I will 
tell the truth to Missy ; I will tell her that I am a Uber- 
tine and that I cannot many her, and tiiat I have 



troubled bw in vain ; and I will also tell the trath to 
M^ya Tasflevna. Still I have Qothing to tell her ; I 
will tell her husband that I am a scoundiel, thi^ I have 
daceived him. I will make such dispoaiticoi of my inher- 
itance as to be in ctHiaonance with the truth. I will tell 
her, Katydaha, that I am a rascal, that I am guilty toward 
her, and I will do everything to alleviate her lot. Yea, 
I will aee her, and will aak her to forgive me. 
" Yes, I will aak f orgiveneas, aa children aak it" 
He stopped. " I will marry her, if that ia possible." 
He sto|^ed, crossed his t^nds over his breast, as he 
used to do when he was a child, raised his eyes upwards, 
aad uttered these words : 

" O LcHxl, help me, instruct me, come and take Thy 
abode within me, and cleanse me of aU impurity." 
. He prayed to Gh>d to help him, to take up His abode 
witbio him, and to purify him, and in the meantime that 
which he asked for had already taken place. Qod, who 
was living within him, had awakened in his conscious- 
nees. He telt himself to be that new maU] and there- 
fore he was conscious not only of freedom, of frankness, 
and of the joy of life, but also of all the power of good- 
ness. He now felt himself capable of d(HDg everything, 
, the very best that any human bdng could do. 

In his ^es were tears, as he was saying that to him- 
self, — both good and bad tears : good tears, because they 
were tears of joy at the awakening of the spiritual being 
wiUuu him ; and bad, because they were tears of pacifi- 
caticai with himself, at his own virtue. 

He was warm. He went up to the window and opened 
it It faced tlie garden. It was a quiet, fresh moootigbt 
night ; in tiie street some wheels rattled, and then all 
was qniet Right under t^e window could be seen the 
shadow from the branches of the tall, leafless poplar, 
which with all its forked boughs lay distinctly outHned 
OD the sand ot the cleaned-up opm space. On the left 


tSPBaBCTIOH _____^__ 163 




waa Uu Tooi of a bam, which appeared white in the 
Ivight moonlight ; in front were the intertwined branches 
of the trees, and behind them conld be seen the btac^ 
shadow of the fenca Nekhlyddor looked at tiie moonlit 
garden and roof and the shadow of the poplar, and he 
listened, and inhaled the vivifying fresh air. 

" How good, hew good, Lord, how good I " be said of 
what waa in tus sooL 



HisLOTA. rdnrned to her cell at six o'clock in the even- 
ing, tired and footsore from the unaccustomed fifteen- 
Teret> march over the cobbleetones, and besides oppressed 
by tiiB unexpectedly severe sentence, and hungry. 

Duiing a recess, the gasids had been eatiug bread and 
hard-boiled eggs, and her mouth had begun to water, and 
ahe had felt hongry, but had regarded it as humiliating to 
ask them for anything to eat When, after that, three ~' 
hours passed, she no longer felt himgry, but only weak. 
It was duiing that state ^t she listened to the aeutence. 
At first she Uiought that she bad not heard right, and was 
not able to beheve what she bad heard : she could not 
think (rf herself as sentenced to hard labour. But when 
she saw tiie quiet, businesslike countenances <£ the judges 
aod Qie jury, who received that infonnatioi) as somethiug 
quite natural, she felt provoked and shouted aloud that 
abe was not guilty. When she saw that her cry, too, was 
received as somethiDg natural, as something expected and 
incapable of affecting the case, she burst out into tears, 
feeling that it was necessary to submit to that cruel and 
amazing injustice which had been committed against her. 

She was particularly amazed at the fact that she had 
been so cruelly condemned by men, — young men, not 
old mem, — who had always looked so favourably upon 
her. One of them — the prosecuting attorney — she had 
seat in quite a different mood. While she was sitting in 
the piisoners' room, waiting for the court to begin, and 
duiing the recesses of the session, she had seen those 
men, pretending to be after something, else, pass by the 


BEStrBBKCnOH 166' 

door or walk into the room in order to take a look at her. 
And now these same men had for some reason oe other 
sentenced her to hard labour, notwithstanding Uie tact 
that she was not guilty of. what she had bew accoaed 
of. She wept, but then grew silent, and in complete 
stupOT sat in the prisoners' room, waiting to be taken 
back. She wanted onljr one thing, — to smok& While 
in this condition, she was seen by Bdchkova and Xart&t- 
kio, who were brought into the same room after the sen- 
tence had been passed. Bdchkova at once began to 
scold MlblovB and to taunt her with the hard labour. 

" Well, did you succeed ? Did you justify yours^ 7 
You could not get off, you slut t You have recaiTed your 
deserts. You will give up your fine ways at the hatd 
labour, I am sure." 

M^lova sat with hex hands 'stack into die sleeves of 
her cloak and, bending her head low, remained motiocileee, 
looking two steps ahead of her, at the diity floor, and 
only said: 

" I am not bothering you, so you leave me alona. I 
am not bothering you," she repeated several times, then 
grew entirely sil^t. She revived a little when B^chkova 
and Kartinkin were led away, and the janitor came in 
and brought her three roubles. 

" Are yon Mislova ? " be asked. 

" Here, take it ; a lady has sent it for yon," he said, 
handing her the money. 

" What lady 1 ' 

" Take it, and dont get into discossianB with us I " 

Kittfeva had sent Qie money. Upon leaving the court- 
room she asked the bailiff whether she could give M^ 
lova some money. Hie bailiff said she could. Upon 
receiving tiiis permissioD, she palled the three-button 
chamms glove off her plnmp white hand, took a fashion- 
able pocketbook out of the back folds of her silk ekii^ 
and selecting from a fairly large heap of coupons, which 



had been cut from bank-bills earned by het, one c^ the 
denominatioD of two roubles and fifty kopeks, added to 
this two twenty-kopek pieces and one ten-kopek piece, 
and handed the sum over to the bailiff. He called tha 
janitor, and gave him the money in the presence of tin 

"Please, give it to her in full," EaroUna AlbMovna 
said to the janitor. 

The janitor felt insulted by Uie suspicion, and that waa 
why he was so brusque with Mfislova. 

M^ova was glad to get the money, because it would 
furnish her with what she now wanted. 

" If I could only get cigarettes, and have a puff at 
one," she thought, and all her thoughts were centred on 
this one desire to smok& She was bo anxious for it that 
she eagerly inhaled the air if there was a wbifiF of tobacco 
smoke in it, as it found its way into the corridor through 
the doors of a cabinet. But she had to wait for quite 
awhile, because tlie seca^tary, who had to release her, 
having foi^otten about the defendants, was busy discuss- 
ing a prohibited article with one of the lawyers. 

Finally, at about five o'clock, she was permitted to 
leave, and the two soldiers of the guard — the Nfzhni- 
N'^vgorodian and the Chuvllsh — took her away from the 
court-house by a back door. While in the vestibule of 
the court-house, she gave them twenty kopeks, asking 
them to bay her two rolls and cigarettes, ^e Cfauv&h 
laughed, took the money, and said, " All right, we will 
buy it for you," and really honestly bought the cigarettes 
and rolls, and gave her the changa On the way she 
could not smoke, so that she reached the prison with 
tbe same unsatisfied de^e to smoke. As she waa 
brought to the door, about one hundred prisoners were 
being deUvered from the railroad train. She tell in with 
them at the entrance. 

The prisoners, — bearded, shaven, old, young, Bussians 

DiqilizDd by Google 


and of other nationalities, — some of them vti&i half Hbai 
heads shaven, t^lnnfeing their 1^-fetters, filled the entrance- 
hall widi the noise of their steps, their voices, and the 
pangent odour (d their sveet. Passing by M^ova, tlie 
prisoners looked at her, end some went up to her, and 
teased her. 

" Oh, a fine girl," said one. " My r^[ards to aonty," 
said another, blinkii^ with one eye. 

A swarthy fellovir, with a blue shaven occiput and with 
a moustache on his shaven face, tripping in his fetters 
and clanking them, rushed up to her and embraced her. 

" Did you not recognize your friend 1 Stop putting on 
airs I " he cried, grinning and flashing his eyes upon her, 
as she pushed him away. 

" fiascal, what are you doing there ? " cried the assiBtaQt 
superintendent, coming up to him. 

The prisoner crouched and swiftly ran away. The 
assistant b^;an to scold Mialova. 

" What are yon doing here ? " 

M^Eslova wanted to tell him thf^ she was i 
back from court, but she was too tired to talk. 

" From court, your honour," said the elder guard, com- 
ing out of the tbr(mg of prisoners, and putting his hand 
to his cap. 

" Well, transfer her, ibea, to the ofiBcer, and don't keep 
her in this crowd I " 

" Yes, your honour I " 

" SokoMv ! Beceive her," cried the assistant superin- 

The officer came up, and, giving Mislova an angry 
push on the shoulder and indicating the direction to her 
by a motion of his head, lad her to the women's corridor. 
Tlieie she was examined and fingered all over, and, as 
Dothlt^ was found (the cigarette box had been stack into 
a roll), she was admitted to the same cell which she had 
left in the morning. 


XXX. ■ 

The cell in wbich M^ora was kept waa a long room, 
nine arahtna long and aeven wide, with two windows, a 
protruding, worn-out stove, and sleeping-bencIieB with 
warped boards, which occupied two thirds of the space. 
In the middle, opposite the dbor, was a dark holy image, 
with a wax taper stuck to it, and with a duaty wreath of 
immortelles hanging underneath it. Behind the door, 
and to the left, was a black spot on the floor, and on it 
stood a stink-vat. The roU bad just been called, and the 
women were locked up tot the night. 

There were in aU flfteea inmates in that cell : twelve 
women and three children. 

It was quite light yet, and only two women were 
lying on the benches: one of them, whose head was 
covered with her cloak, was a demented woman, who 
was locked up for having no passport ; she was asleep 
most of the time ; and the other, — a consumptive woman, 
— was serving a sentence for theft. She was not asleep, 
but lay, with her cloak under her head, with hw eyes 
wide open, with difficulty keeping back the tickling 
and oozing moisture in her throat, in order not to cough. 

The other women, ell of them with bare heads, in 
no^ng but shirts of a coarse texture, were either sitting 
on the benches and sewing, or standing at the window 
and looking at the prisoners who were passing through 
the yard. Of the three women who were sewing, one 
was the same old woman who had seen M^Iova off, 
Korabl4va by name ; she was a sullen, scowling, wrinkled, 
toll, strong woman, with skin, hanging in a loose bag' 



under her chin, a ebort hraid of blond hair that was 
streaked with gray over her temples, and a hirsnte wart 
on her cheek. Ihe woman had been sentenced to hard 
labonr for having killed her husband with an axe. She 
had committed ^at mmder because he had been making 
improper advances to her daughter. Korabl^va was the 
forewoman of the cell, end trat&cked in liquor. She was 
sewing in spectatdes, and holding the needle iii her large 
working hands in peasant fashion, with three fingers and 
die point towards her. 

Next to her sat a snub-nosed, swarthy httle woman, 
with small black eyes, good-hearted and talkative, also 
sewing bags of sail-cloth. She was a Sagwoman at a 
railroad hut, sentenced to three months in jail for having 
failed to flag a train, a failure by which an accident was 

The third woman who was sewing, was Fed6sya, — F^ 
nicbka her companions called her, — a white, red-cheeked, 
very young, sweet-faced .woman, with clear, childish eyes, 
and two loi^ blond braids circling around a small head, 
who was imprisoned for an attempt to poison her husband. 
She tried to poison him soon after her marriage, which 
had taken place when she was barely sixteen years old. 
In the eight months which she had been detained awalt-> 
ing the coart's session, she not only made up with, 
her husband, but became so fond of lum that the court 
found the two living in the greatest concord. Notwith- 
standing the fact that her husband and her father-in-law, 
and especially the mother-in-law, who had become exceed- ' 
iDgly fond of her, tried to exculpate her, she was sentenced 
to hard labour in Siberia. Good, merry, frequently smil- 
ing Fedftsya was M^ova's neighbour on the bench, and 
she not only liked Mislova very much, but regarded it as 
her duty to care for her and attend to her. 

Two other women were sitting on the benches, without 
aity work ; one of them, about forty years of age, with a 



pale, ha^!&id face, had evideotly once been very beaatifnl, 
but now was pale and lean, — ahe waa holding a babe in 
her arms, and suckling it from her white, long breast. 
Her crime consiBted in this : a recruit -was taken away 
from their village, who, according to the peasants' under- 
standing, had been unlawfullf drafted ; the people stopped 
the country judge and took away the recruit; this 
woman, the unlawfully seized recruit's auut, was the first 
to lay hands on the reins of the horse which was to take 
away the recruit. The other was a short, wrinkled, good- 
natured old woman, with gray hair, and a hump on her 
back. The old woman eat on a bench noar the stove and 
pretended to be catching the four-year-old, close-cropped, 
chubby little boy who was running past her and laughing 
loudly. He was clad in nothing but a shirt, and kept 
running past and repeatiiig all the time, " Yon see, you 
did not (^tch me ! " 

This old woman, who with her son was accused of arson, 
bore her incarceration with the greatest good nature, feel- 
ing sorry, not for herself, but for her son, who was also in 
jail, and still mor& for her old husband, who, she was 
afraid, would be all covered with vermin, because the 
daughter-in-law bod left, and there was no one at home to 
wash him 

In addition to these seven women, four others were 
standing at one of the open windows, and, holding on to 
the iron grating, were with signs and shouts conversing 
with those prisonera with whom M^lova had fallen in at 
the entrance. One of tiiiese, who was serving for theft, 
was a lai^e, heavy, flabby, ted-haired woman, with sallow 
and freckled face, hands, and neck, which stnck out from 
har untied, open collar. She loudly shouted indecent 
words in a hoarse voice. 

Kext to her stood a swarthy, misshapen woman, with, 
a long spine and very short legs, looking not larger than a 
ten-year-old girL Her face was red, and aU spotted, and 



had widely separated black eyes, and short, stoat lips, 
which did not cover up her protrudiDg whitfl teeth, ^e 
wae laaghiog with a whine and fitfully at what was 
going on in the yard. This prisoner, nicknamed Beauty 
for her foppishness, was ander trial for theft and arson. 

Back of them stood, in a very dirty gray shirt, a mis- 
erable-looking, haggard, venous, pregnant woman, with an 
immense abdomen, who was nnder trial for receiving 
stolen goods. Thia woman was silent, but all the time 
smiled approvingly and rapturously at what was going on 

The fourth woman at the window, who was serving a 
sentence for illicit traffic in liquor, was a short, thick-set 
peasant woman, with very bulging eyes and a good-matured 
face. This woman, the mother of the boy who was play- 
ing with the old woman, and of a seven-year-old girl, both 
of which children were with her in the prison becauae 
she had no place to leave them in, was looking through 
the window like the rest, but continued to knit a stocking, 
and kept frowning disapprovingly and closing her ears to 
what tiie transient prisoners in the yard were saying. 
Her daughter, the seven-year<old girl, with white, loose 
hair, was standing in no^ng but a shirt near the red* 
haired woman, and, holdii^ on with her thin little hand 
to her skirt, was, with arrested eyes, listening attentively 
to the vul^r words which the women were exchanging 
with the prisoners, and repeating them in a whisper, as 
thoi^ to learn tiiem by heart 

The twelfth prisoner was the daughter of a sexton, who 
had drowned her chUd in a well She was a tall, stately 
girl, with tangled hair, which stuck out from her thick 
short blond braid, aad with motionless protrodii^ eyes. 
She did not pay the least attention to what was going on 
aroond her, was barefoot and clad in a dirty gray E^irt, and 
was pacii^ to and fro in the free space of t^e c^, abruptly 
and rapidly turning around whener^ she reached the wall 


Whzk the lock clicked, and M&lova was let into the 
cell, all turned to her. Even the sexton's daughter 
stopped for a minute, and looked at the newcomer with 
uplifted brows, but without eayiDg anything immediately 
proceeded to walk up and down with her long, determined 
stepe. Korabl^va stuck hei needle into the coarse cloth, 
and queetioningly turned her eyee, through her spectacles, 
upon Mfialova. 

" I declare. You are back. And I thought you would 
be acquitted," she said, in her hoarse, deep, almost mas- 
culine voice. " Evidently they have sent you up." 

Bhe took off her spectacles, and put her sewing down 
CD the bench. 

" Aunty and I have been talking about you, dear; we 
thought they would release you at once. Such things do 
fa^pen. And if you strike it right, you get money, too," 
began the flagwoman, in her singing voice. " And just 
the opposite has happened. Evidently our guessing was 
wrong. The Lord evidently has decided differently, my 
dear," she chattered witiuiut cessation in her kind and 
melodious voice. 

" Have th^ really sentenced you? " asked Feddsya, 
with compassionate tenderness, looking at Mislova with 
her childish, light blue eyes; her whole cheerful, young 
face was changed, as though she were ready to weep. 

M^udova did not make any reply, and silently went up 
to her place, the second from the end, near Korabl^va, 
and sat down on the boards of the bench. 

" I suppose you have not had anything to eat," said 
FeifmytL, getting up and walking over to M&slava. 


aBsusBBonoK 163 

Mftslova put tlie foUa at the head of the bench, with- 
out saying a word, and began to undress herself: she took 
off her dusty cloak, and the kerchief from her curly black 
hur, and sat down. 

The humpbacked old woman who had been playing 
with the little fellow at the other end of the benches 
went up and stopped in front of M^lova. 

" Tbb, (68, tssi " she hissed out, sympathetically shaking 
her head. 

The little boy also came up with the old woman, and 
opening his eyes wide, and pursing his upper lip in one 
corner, did not take them off the rolls which Mfislova 
had brought. Upon seeing all these sympathetic faces 
after all that had happened during that day, Mfislova 
felt like weeping, and her lips began to quiver. But she 
tried to restrain herself, and succeeded in doing so imtil 
the old woman and little boy came up to her. But when 
she heard the kindly, compassionate " tss " of the old 
woman, and especially when her eyes met those of the 
boy, who had now transferred his serious eyes from the 
rolls to her, she no longer could hold back. Her whole 
face trembled, and she sobbed out loud. 

" I told you to get the right kind of a counsel," said 
Korabl^va. " Well, what is it, transportation? " she 

MMova wanted to answer but could not; sobbing, she 
took out of the roll the box of cigarettes, on which was 
represented a ruddy woman in a very high head-dress and 
with a triangular bare spot over her bosom, and handed 
it to Korabl^va. Korabl^va glanced at the picture, dis- 
approvingly shook her head, particularly because M^Iova 
had BO badly spent her money, and, taking out a cigarette, 
lighted it at ihe lamp, took heiself a puff, and then put 
it into M&lova's hand. M&slova, inthout interrupting 
her weeping, eagerly began to puff the tobacco smoke in 
quick £ 



" Hard labour," she muttered through sobe. 

" They are not afraid of God, spongers and accursed 
bloodsuckers," muttered Korabl^va. " They have sen- 
tenced agirl for nothing." 

Just then a roar of laughter was heard among the 
women who were standing at the window. The little 
girl was laughing, too, and her thin, childish laugh 
mingled with the hoarse and whining laughter of the 
grown people. A prisoner on the outside had done 
something that affected the women who were looking 
through the window. 

" Ah, shaven dogi See what he is doing," said the 
red-haired woman, and, shaking her whole fat body and 
pressing her face against the grating, she shouted some 
senseless and indecent words. 

" Stop, you skin of a drumi What are you yelling 
about? " said Korablgva, shaking her head at the red- 
bured woman, and again turning to Mftslova. " How 
many years? " 

" Four," said Mfislova, and the tears flowed so copiously 
from her eyes that one fell on the cigarette. 

M&slova angrily crushed it, threw it away, and took 

The flagwoman, though she did not smoke, immediately 
picked it up and began to striughten it out, speaking tdl 
the time. 

" I must say, my dear," she said, " the wild boar must 
have chewed up all the truth. They now do as they 
please. And here we had been guessing that you would 
be released. Matvytevna said that you would be, and I 
said, ' Not ' says I, ' my heart feels that they will undo 
her,' and so it is," she said, evidently finding pleasure in 
listening to the sound of her own voice. 

By that time aL the prisoners had crossed the yard, 
and the women who had been conversing with them had 
left the window and had come over to M&slova. The first 



to come up was the staring dram-shopkeeper with her 
littie girl. 

" Well, were they very severe? " she asked, sitting 
down near M^lova, and continuing rapidly to knit at 
the BtookiDg. 

" They were severe because there was no money. If 
she had had money and bad hired a first-class lawyer, I 
am sure she would have been acquitted," sud Korabl^va. 
" That fellow, what is his name? that shaggy, big-nosed 
fellow, — he will take a man dry through the water. 
She ought to have had him." 

" That's easily sud," retorted Beauty, who had seated 
herself near them, and waa grinning. " He won't as 
much as spit out for lees than one thousand." 

" Yes, it is evidently your fate," remarked the old 
woman who was confined for arson. " It is no small 
matter they have done to me: they have taken the wife 
away from the young fellow, and have put him where he 
only breeds vermin, and me, too, in my old age," she 
b^an for the hundredth time to tell her story. " Evi- 
dently you can't get away from the prison and from the 
bc^ar's wallet. If not the wallet, it is the prison." 

" It seems it is atirays that way with them," said the 
dram-shopkeeper, looking at her daughter's head. She 
put down the stocking near her, drew the girl between 
her legs, and began with swift Sngers to search through 
her head. " Then, why do you traffic in liquor? — How 
are you otherwise going to feed your children? " she said, 
continuing her customary work. 

These words of the dram-shopkeeper reminded M&slova 
of hquor. 

" Let me have some liquor," she said to Korabl^va, dry- 
ing her tears with her shirt-sleeve, and sobbing now and 

" Any dough? Very well, hand it to me," said Korar 



Maslova took the money out of the roll and gave 
Korabl^va the coupon. Korabl^va took it, looked at it, 
and, though she could not read herself, trusted Beauty, 
who knew everything, that the paper was worth two 
roubles and a half, and so she moved over to the ven- 
tilator uid took out from it the jar with the liquor, which 
was concealed there. M^ova, in the meantime, shook 
the dust out of her cloak and kerchief, climbed on her 
bench, and b«^an to eat her roll. 

" I have kept some tea for you, but I am afraid it is 
cold now," Fed6sya said to her, taking down from the 
shelf a rag-covered tin pot and a cup. 

The drink was quite cold and tasted more of the tJn 
than of the tea, but Mfelova filled the cup and drank it 
with her roll. 

" Finishka, here," she called out, and, breakiDg off a 
piece of the roll, gave it to the boy, who was looking 
sl^aight into her mouth. 

Korabl^va in the meantime handed her the liquor 
bottle and the cup. M^ova offered some to Korablgva 
and Beauty. Theee three prisoners formed the aristoc- 
racy of the cell, because they had money and shared what 
they had. 

In a few minutes M^lova was herself agun and started 
to tell about the court, imitating the prosecuting attorney 
and everything which had especially impressed her in the 
court-room. She was particularly struck by the fact that 
wherever she happened to be, the men, according to her 
observation, ran after her. In the court-room they all 



looked at h^, ahe Bud, and they kept all the time filing 
into the prisoners' room. 

" The guard kept telling me, ' They come to see yon.' 
Now and then one would come in, pretending to be look- 
ing for a paper, or something else, but I saw that he did 
not want any paper, and only came to devour me with 
his eyee," she sud, smiling and shaking her head as 
though in surprise. " They are great." 

" That's the way," chimed in the fiagwoman, and her 
singsong speech began at once to ripple. " Like Bies on 
sugar. For other things they are not there, but for this 
they are always ready. Not with bread are they to be 
fed — " 

" But even here," M&slova intemipted her, "" here I had 
the same trouble. When I was brought in, there was a 
party here from the train. They annoyed me so much 
that I did not know how to get rid of them. Fortunately, 
the assistant drove them off. One of them stuck to me 
so that I had the hardest time to keep him off." 

" What kind of a fellow was he? " Beauty asked. 

" Swarthy, with moustache," 

" That must be he." 

" Who? " 

" Shchc^dv. The one that has just passed." 

" Who is that ShchegWv? " 

" You do not know who Shchegl6v isT Shch^dv 
twice ran away from hard labour. They have just 
caught him, but he will get away again. The warders 
even are afr^d of him," said Beauty, who carried notes to 
prisooers, and who knew everything that was going on is 
the prison. " He certainly will get away." 

", And if be does, he will not take us with him," sud 
Korabl^va, " You had better tell me," she addressed 
Mdslova, " what did the lawyer say about the petition 
which you will have to hand in? " 

M^lova Btid that she did not know anything about that. 



Just theD the red-hfured woman, having pot both her 
freckled hands io her tangled, thick, red hair, and scratch- 
ing her head with her nuls, went up to the drinldng 

" I will tell you everything, Katerfna," she began. 
" First of all, you naust write, ' I am not satisfied with 
the judgment,' and then you must announce it to ibe 
prosecuting attorney." 

" What is that to you? " KorablSva turned to her, in 
an angry bass. " You have smelted the liquor, but you 
. need not wheedle. We know without you what is to be 
dooe; we do not need you." 

" I am not talking to you. Don't get so excitedl " 

" You want some liquor, that's why you have come up." 

" Give her some," said Mjalova, who always gave away 
everything she had. 

" I will give her such — " 

" Come, come," s^d the red-haired woiumi, moving up 
to Korabl^va. " I am not afraid of you." 

" Jfulbird! " 

" I hear this from a jfulbird) " 

" Flabby tripeel " 

" You call me tripes? You convict, destroyer of 
souls t " cried the red-hjured woman. 

" Go away, I say," gloomily muttered Korabl^va. 

But the red-haired woman moved up closer, and Kora- 
bUva struck her in the open fat breast. That was exactly 
what the red-haired woman seemed to have been waiting 
for, and suddenly she, with a swift motion, put one hand 
into Korabl^va's hair, and with the other was about to 
strike her face, but Korabl^va grasped that hand. Mfislova 
and Beauty caught hold of the red-h^red woman's hands, 
trying to tear her away, but the hand which had hold of 
the hair would not unbend. She let it go for a second, 
but only to wind it around her wrist. Korabl^va, with 
her head bent down, struck with one hand at the red- 



hatred womaa'e body and tried to bite her arm. The 
women gathered about the two who were fighting, trjdng 
to separate t^m, and shouting. Even the consumptive 
woman walked up to them, and, coughing, watched the 
fight. The children pressed close to each other and wept. 
At the noise the waiden and matron came in. The-fight- 
ing women were separated, and Korabl^va unbraided her 
gray hair, in order to take out the torn tufts, while the 
red-haired woman held her ripped-up shirt against her 
ydlow chest; both cried, explaining and complaining. 

" I know, it is all on account of the hquor; I shall tell 
the superintendent to-morrow, — and he will settle you. 
I can smell it," said the matron. " Take it all away, or 
dse it will go hard with you. I have no tame to make 
it all out. To your places, and keep quietl " 

But silence did not niga for quite awhile. The women 
continued to quarrel for a long time, telling each other 
how it had all begun, and who was to blame. Finally 
the warden and matron went away, and the women slowly 
quieted down and went to bed. The old woman stood 
before the image and began to pray. 

" Two convicts have come together," the red-haired 
woman suddenly said from the other end of the benches, 
in a hoarse voice, accompanying each word with fantastic 

" Look out, or you will catch some more," immediately 
replied Korabl^va, joining similar curses to her speech. 
Both grew silent. 

" If they had not interfered, I should have gouged out 
your eye — " agun s^d the red-haired woman, and again 
KorabI€va was not behind with an answer. 

Then there was a longer interval of quiet, and again 
curses. The interv^ grew ever longer, and finally eveiy- 
thing died down. 

All were lying on their benches, and some were already 
snoring; but the old woman, who always prayed hog. 



was still making her obdsaDcee before the image, and the 
sexton's daughter got up the moment the matron left, and 
once more started pacing up and down in the cell. 

M^ova did not sleep. She was thinking all the time 
that she was a convict, and that she had been twice 
called so, once by B6clikova and the other time by the 
red-haired woman, and she could not get used to the idea. 
Korabl^va, who was lying with her back toward her, 
turned around. 

" I had never expected this," softly said M^ova. 
" Others do terrible things, and they get off, and I am 
suffering for nothing at all." 

" Don't lose courage, ff.Tl. There axe people in Siberia, 
too. You will not be lost there," Korabl£va consoled 

" I know that I sha'n't be lost, but it is disgraceful all 
the same. I ought to have had a different fate. I am 
so used to an easy hfel " 

" You can't go agiunst God," KorabUva said, with a 
sigh. " You can't go against Him." 

" I know, aunty, but it is hard." 

They were silent for awhile. 

" Do you hear that blubberer? " sud Korabl^va, direct- 
ing M^ova's attention to the strange sounds which 
proceeded from the other end of the benches. 

These sounds were the checked sobs of the red-haired 
woman. She was weeping because she had just been 
cursed and beaten, and had not received any Uquor, which 
she wanted so much. She wept also because all her life 
she had seen notlung but scoldings, ridicule, affronts, and 
blows. She wanted to find consolation in thinking of 
her first love for F^dka Molod^nkov, a factory hand; but 
upon recalling this love, she also recalled its end: Molo- 
d^nkov, while drunk, had for a joke smeared some vitriol 
on her in a most sensitive spot, and then had roared in 
company with his friends at the sight of her, contorted 



from puD. She recalled thia, and she fdt sorry for het<- 
self, and, thinking that no one heard her, burst out into 
tears, and wept, as only children weep, — groaning and 
snuffling and swallowing her bitter tears. 

" I am sorry for her," said M^lova. 

" Of course it is a pity, but she ought not to push her* 
self forward." 



The fint aensation which Nekhl]nSdor experienced on 
the following morning, upon aw^ening, was the con- 
BciouanesB that something had happened to him, and even 
before he recalled what it was that had happened to him, 
he knew that something important and good had taken 
place. " Katylisha, the court. I must stop lying, and 
tell the whole truth." And, like & remarkable coincidence, 
that very morning arrived the long-expected letter from 
M&riya Vasllevna, the marshal's wife, the letter which he 
now needed so very much- It gave him full liberty, and 
wished him happiness in his proposed marriage. 

" Marriagel " he muttered ironically. " How far I am 
now from itl " 

He recalled hie determination of the day before to tell 
everything to her husband, to humble himself before him, 
and to be ready for any satisfaction. But on that morn- 
ing it did not appear as easy to him as it had seemed 
the evening before. " Besides, why should I make the 
man unhappy, if he does not know it? If he should ask 
me, I would tell him. But to go on purpose to him to 
tell about it? No, that is not neceesary." 

Just as difficult it seemed to him now to tell the whole 
truth to Missy. Here again, it was impossible to b^n 
telUng her, — it would simply be an insult. It bad 
unavoidably to remain, as in many affairs of life, untold 
and merely suspected. There was, however, one thing 
which he decided on that morning he would do: he would 
not visit them, and would tell them the truth if they 
asked him. 


BEstntsBonoN 173 

But there was to be nothing unsaid in his relationa 
with KatyliBha. 

" I will go to the prison, will speak with her, and will 
ask her to forgive me. And if it is necessary, yes, if it 
IB necessary, I will many her," he thought. 

The thought that for the sake of a moral satisfaction 
he would sacrifice everything and would marry her, was 
very soothing to him oa that morning. 

For a long time he had not met day with euch energy. 
To Agraf^na Petj6vna, who had come in, he immediately 
announced, with a deciuon which he had not expected 
of himself, that he no longer needed these apartments and 
her service. It had been established by silent consent 
that he kept tiiese commodious and expensive quarters in 
order to get married in them. Consequentiy ^ving up 
the rooms had a special significance. AgrafSna Fetrdvna 
looked at him with surprise. 

" I am very thankful to you, Agraf^na PetrAvna, for all 
the care you have taken of me, but I oo longer need such 
large apartments and the servants. If you are willing to 
help me, I shall ask you kindly to look after things and 
to put them away for the time being, as was done during 
mamma's lifetime. When Nat^ha arrivee, she will attend 
to the rest." (Nat^ba was Nekhlyddov's sister.) 

Agraf^na Fetr6vna shook her head. 

" But why put them away? You will need them," she 

" No, I sha'n't need them, Agrafgna Petr6vna, I sh^ 
certfdnly not need them," sud Nekhlyildov, in reply to 
that which she had meant by her headshake. " Please, tell 
Kom€y also that I will pay him for two months in ad- 
vance, but that I no longer need his aervices." 

" You do not do right, Dmitri Ivinovich," she said. 
" Suppose even that you will go abroad, — you will need 
the apartments later." 

" You are mistaken, Agrafjna Petrdvna. I sha'n't 



go abroad; if I leave here U will be for a diffeiait 

He suddenly grew red in his face. 

" Yes, I muat tell her," he thought. " There is no 
reason for concealing it. I must tell everjrthing to every- 

" A very strange and important thing happened to me 
yesterday. Do you remember Eatyi^ha at Aunt M&rya 
Iv&novna's? " 

" Of course I do; I taught her how to sew." 

" Well, KatyliBha was yesterday tried in court, and [ 
was on the jury." 

" Lord, what a pityl " said Agraf^na Petr6vna. 
" What was she tried for? " 

" For murder, and it was I who have done it alL" 

" How could you have done it? You are speaking so 
strangely," said Agraf^na Petrdvna, and fire fiaahed in 
her old eyee. 

She knew Katytlsha'a hiatory. 

" Yes, I am the cause of everything. And it is this 
which has entirely changed my plans." 

" What change can that have caused in you? " said 
AgrafSna Petrdvna, keeping back a smile. 

" It is this: if it is I who am the cause of her having 
gone on that path, I must do everjrthing in my power in 
order to help her." 

" Such is your kindness, — but there is no particular 
guilt of youn in that. Such things have happened to 
others; and if they have the proper understanding, these 
things are smoothed over and forgotten, and they live 
on," Agraf^na Petr6vna 8«d, sternly and seriously, " and 
there is no reason why you should shoulder it. I have 
heard before that she had departed from the right path: 
but who is to blame for it? " 

" I am. And therefore I wish to mend it" 

" Well, this will be hard to mend." 



" That ia my affair. And if you are thinking of your^ 
self, that which mamma had deeired — " 

" I am not thinking of myself. Your deceased mother 
has provided for me bo well that I do not want anything. 
Liz&nkawantsme toatay withher" (that was her married 
niece), " and so I shall go to her bouse when I am no 
longer needed. But there is no reason for your taking it so 
to heart, — such thinga happen with everybody." 

" Wdl, I think differently about that And I again re- 
peat my request for you to help me give up the apart- 
ments and put things away. Don't be angered at me. I 
am very, very thankful to you for everytMng," 

A strange thing had happened : ever since Nekhlyi!idov 
comprehended that he was bad and contemptible himself, 
others ceased being contemptible to him; on the contrary, 
he had a kind and respectful feeling even for AgrafSna 
Petr6vna and for Komgy. He wanted to humble himself 
also before Korn^y, but his attitude was so impressively 
respectful that he could not make up his mind to do so. 

On his way to the court-house, passing through the 
same streets and riding in the same cab, Nekhlytidov 
was marvelling at himself, for he felt auch an entirely dif- 
ferent man. 

Hia marriage to Missy, which but yesterday had seemed 
BO near, now appeared to him as entirely impossibla The 
day before he had been so sure of bis position that there 
was no doubt but that she would have been very happy to 
many him; but now he felt himself to be unworthy of 
marrying her, and even of being near her. " If she only 
knew what I am, she would never receive me. How 
could I have had the courage to reproach her with coquet- 
ting with that gentleman? Suppose even she should 
marry me, how could I be happy, or even satisfied, unce 
the other was in the prison and in a day or two would 
leave for Siberia on foot? The woman whom I have 
ruined will go to hard labour, and I shall be receiving 



congratulationB and making calls with my young wife. Or 
I flhallJM with the marshal of the nobility, whon' I have bo 
disgracefully deceived in regard to his wife, and counting 
up with him at the meeting the votes for and against the 
propoeed County Council inspection of the schools, and so 
forth, and then I shall be appointing a trjrsting-place for 
his wife (how detestable!); or shall I go on with my pic- 
ture, which will manifestly never be finishBd, because I 
have no business to occupy myself with such triSes, and 
anyhow I can't do anything of the kind now," he siud to 
himself, incessantly rejoicing at the internal change which 
he wf^ conscious of. 

" Above everything else," he thought, " I must now see 
the lawyer and find out his decision, and then — then I 
must see hw in the prison, her, yesterday's prisoner, and 
tell her everything." 

As he presented to hims^ tl>e [acture of his meeting 
her, of telling her everything, of repenting of his sin before 
her, of announcing to her t£at he would do everything he 
oould for her, of marrying her in order to atone for his 
guilt, — an ecstatic feeling took poescBsioD of bim, and 
tears stood in his e^es. > 



Upon arriving in the court-houae, NeidUyiidov met the 
bailiff of the day before in the corridor; he asked him 
where the prisonerB who had been sentenced by the court 
were kept, and who it was that would grant pernuseion 
to see them. The bailiff explained to him that the pris- 
onen were kept in different places, and that previous to 
the announcement of the sentence in its final form the 
permission depended on the prosecuting attorney. 

" I will tell you when, and will take you myself to him 
after the session. The prosecuting attorney is not yet 
here. After the seBsioD he will be. And now please go 
to the court-room, — it will begin at once." 

Nekhlytidov thanked the bwliff for his kindnees, though 
he seemed to him particularly wretched now, and went 
into iiie jury-room. 

As he went up to it, the jurors were coming out of it in 
order to go to the court-room. The merchant was as 
joUy, and had had as good a lunch and potation as on the 
previous day, and he met Nekhlyiidov as an old fnend. 
Nor did Peter Gerisimovich provoke any disagreeable feel- 
ing in Nekhlyildov by his familiarity and laughter. 

Nekhlyiidov felt like telling all the jurors about his rela- 
tions to yesterday's defendant. " In reality," he thought, 
" I ought to have got up yesterday and have publicly 
announced my guilt" But when he came into the court- 
room with the other jurors, and the procedure of the day 
before was repeated, — again " The court is coming," 
again three men on the platform in their collars, again si- 
lence, and the sitting down of the jury on the high-backed 



chairs, the gendarmes, the priest, — he felt that, although 
he ought to have done so, he could not have had the 
heart on the previous day to have broken this solemmty. 

The preparations for the court were the same as the day 
before (with the exception of the swearing in the jury, 
and the speech of the presiding judge to them). 

The case on trial was for burglary. The defendant, 
guarded by two gendarmes with unsheathed swords, was 
a haggard, narrow-shouldered, twenty-year-old boy, in a 
gray cloak, and with a gray, bloodless face. He sat alt 
alone ott the defendants' bench, and looked with upturned 
eyes on all who came in. The lad was accused of having, 
with a companion of his, broken a bam lock, and having 
stolen from the bam old foot-mats worth about three 
roubles and sixty-seven kopeks. It appeared from the 
indictment that a policeman stopped the boy aa he was 
walking with his companion, who was canning the mats 
on his shoulders. The lad and hiS' friend at once con- 
fessed, and both were confined in jail. The boy's com- 
rade, a locksmith, had died in prison, and now he- waa 
being tried by himself. The old mats lay on the table of 
the exhibits. 

The case was conducted just like the one the day be- 
fore, with the whole arsenal of proofs, evidence, witnesses, 
th^ swearing in, inquests, experts, and cross-examina- 
tions. The policeman, who waa the witness, to all the 
questions of tiie presiding judge, of the prosecutor, and of 
the prisoner's counsel lifelessly retorted, " Tee, sir," 
" Don't know, sir," and again, " Yes, sir." Still, in spite of 
his soldierlike stupidity and mechanicalness, it was evident 
that he was aony for the lad, and reluctantly told of his 

Another witness, the old man who had sutfeied the 
loss, the proprietor of the house and owner of the mats, 
obviously a bilious man, to the question whether he iden- 
tified his ioats, very reluctantly answered that he did; but 



when the assistant prosecuting attorney began to ask him 
to what use he intended to put the mats, and whether he 
needed them very much, he grew angry and replied : " May 
these mate go to — I do not need them at fdl. If I had 
known how much bother I should have through them, I 
Bhould not have tried to find them; on the contrary, 
I should willingly have given a ten-rouble bill, or two, to 
be delivered from these questions. I have spent some- 
thing like five roubles on cabs alone. And I am not well: 
I have a rupture and rheumatism." 

Thus spoke the witnesses; but the defendant himself 
accused himself of everything, and, looking senselessly 
around, like a trapped animal, in a broken voice told all 
that had happened. 

It was a clear case; but the assistant prosecuting at- 
torney kept raising his shoulders as on the day before, 
and putting cunning questions with which to catch the 

In his speech he pointed out that the burglary had 
been committed in an occupied building; that conse- 
quently the lad ought to be subjected to a very sevwe 

The counsel appointed by the court proved (hat the 
theft was not committed in an occupied building, and 
that therefore, although the crime coiild not be denied, 
the criminal was not yet as dangerous to society as the 
assistant prosecuting attorney had made him out to be. 

The presiding judge, just as on the day before, looked 
dispassionateness and justice themselves, and explained 
to the jury in detail and impressed upon them what they 
already knew and could not help knowing. Just as on 
the previous day, recesses were made; and just so they 
smoked; and just so the btuliS cried, " The court is 
coming! " and just so, trying not to fall asleep, the two 
gendarmes sat with thor unsheathed swords,, threatening 
the prisoner. 



The case revealed that the lad had been apprenticed to 
a tobacco factory while still a boy, and that he had lived 
th^% five years. This last year he had been discharged 
by his master during some unpleasantness which had 
taken place between the master and his workmen, and, 
being without any occupation, he walked aimlessly 
through the city, spending his last money in drinks. In 
an inn he fell in with a locksmith, who, Uke him, had 
lost his place quite awhile ago, and who had been drink- 
ing heavily. In the night, while under the influence of 
liquor, they broke open the lock and took the first thing 
that fell into their hands. They were caught. They 
confessed everything. They were confined in JEul, await- 
ing trial, and here the locl^mith died. Now the lad was 
bang tried as a dangerous creature agwnst whom society 
must be protected. 

" Just as dangerous a creature as the criminal of yes- 
terday," thought Nekhlytidov, listening to everything 
which was going on before him. " They are dangerous. 
And are we not? — I, a libertine, a cheat; and all of us, 
all those who, knowing me such as I was, not only did 
not despise me, but even respected me ? 

" It is evident that this boy is not a peculiar criminal, 
but a simple man (all see that), and if he has turned out 
to be what be is, it is due to the conditions which breed 
Buch men. And therefore it is obvious that, in order not 
to. have such boys, one must try and do away with the 
conditions under which suet unfortunate creatures are 
produced. If only a man had been found," thought 
Nekhlyiidov, looking at the lad's sickly, frightened face, 
" who would have taken care of him when from want he 
was taken from the village to the city, and would have 
attended to his want; or even when in the city, after 
twelve hours' work in the factory, he went with his 
older companions to the inn, — if a man had been found 
tiien, who would have aud to him, ' Don't go, V&nya, it is 



not goodi ' the lad would not have gone, would not have 
got mixed up, and would not have done anything wrong. 

" But no Buch man, who would have pitied Mm, was 
found, not a nngle one, when he, like a little anim^, 
paased his apprentjceship in the city, and, closely cropped 
in order not to breed vermin, ran his master's errands; 
on the contrary, everything he heud from his master 
and companions, during hia aojoum in the city, was that 
clever ia he who cheats, who drinks, who curses, who 
strikes, and who is dissolute. 

" And when he, uck and deteriorated by his unhealthy 
work, by drunkenness and debauch, in a stupor and be- 
side himself, as though in a dream, walked aimlessly 
through the city, and in his foolishness made his way 
into a bam and took perfectly worthless mats away from 
there, we did not try to deatro; the causes which had led 
the boy to his present condition, but expect to improve 
matters by punishing. this boyt — 

" Terrible I " 

NekUyMov thought all that, and no longer listened 
to what was going on before him. And he was horror- 
struck by what was revealed to him. He was amased at 
the fact that he had not seeo this before, even as others 
had not seen it. 



When the first receae was made, Nekblytidov arose and 
went into the corridor, with the intention of not return- 
ing to the court-room. Let them do what they would, 
he could no longer take part in such a comedy. 

tJpon finding out where the prosecuting attorney's 
office was, Nekhlyiidov went to it. The messenger did 
not wish to admit him, saying that the prosecuting 
attorney was busy now; but Nekhlyildov paid no atten- 
tion to him, walked through the door, and asked an 
official whom he met inside to announce to the prose- 
cuting attorney that he was a juror, and that he must see 
him on some very important business. Nekhlyddov's 
title and fine apparel helped him. The official announced 
him to the prosecuting attorney, and Nekhlytidov was 
admitted. The prosecuting attorney recdved him stand- 
ing, manifestly dissatisfied with Nekhlytidov's insistence 
to get an interview with him. 

" What do you wish? " the prosecuting attorney asked 
him, sternly. 

" I am a juror, my name is Nekhlytidov, and I must 
by all means see the defendant M^Iova," Nekhlytidov 
spoke rapidly and with determination, blushing and fee- 
ing that he was committing a deed that would have a 
decisive influence on his whole life. 

The prosecuting attorney was a small, swarthy man, 
with short hair streaked with gray, quick, shining eyes, 
and a thick, clipped beard on a protruding lower jaw. 

" Mfislova? Yes, I know her. She was accused of 
poisoning," the prosecuting attorney said, calmly. " Why 



must you see her? " And thea, aa though wifihing to be 
less harsh, he added, " I cannot give you the pernuBdon 
without [mowing why you need it." 

" I need it for something which is of great importance 
to me," Nekhiytidov said, flaming up. 

" Very well," said the prosecuting attorney, and, Fus- 
ing his eyea, " Has her case beeo tried? " 

" She was tried y^st^day and quite irregularly sen- 
tenced to four years of hard labour. She is innocent." 

" Very well. If she was sentenced yesterday," sfud 
the prosecuting attorney, not paying the slightest atten- 
tion to Nekhlytidov's announcement that Mislova was 
innocent, " she will be kept, until the promulgation of 
the Bentence in its final form, in the house of detention. 
Visitors are permitted there only on certain days. I 
advise you to apply there." 

" But I must see her aa soon as possible," sud NekhlyiJ- 
dov, with trembling tower jaw, feeUng the ^proach of 
the decisive moment. 

" But why mudt you? " asked the prosecuting attorney, 
raiong his eyebrows with some misgiving. 

" Because she is innocent and sentenced to hard labour. 
I am the cause of everything," stud Nekhlyi^dov, in a 
quivering voice, feeUng all the time that he was saying 
what he ought not to mention. 

" How is that? " asked the prosecuting attorney. 

" Because I have dec^ved her and brought b^ to the 
condition in which she now is. If she had not been what 
I have made her to be, she would not now have been sub- 
jected to such an accusation," 

" Still I do not see what connection that has with your 

" It is this: I wish to follow her — marry her," Nekh- 
lyfidov said, and, as always when he spoke of it, tears 
stood in his eyes. 

"Yes? I say I" remarked the prosecuting attorney. 



" This is indeed an exceptional case. You are, I thinlc, 
a voter in the County Council of Krasn6persk County? " 
asked the prosecuting attorney, recalling the fact that he 
had heard before about this Nekhlylldov, who now waa 
expressing such a atrange determinatioiL 

" Pardon me, but I do not think that this can have 
anything to do with my request," angrily answered 
Nekhly^ov, flaming. 

" Of course not," said the prosecuting attorney, with 
a hardly perceptible smile, and not in the least embar- 
rasaed, " but your wish is bo unusual and so transcends 
all customary forms — " 

" Well, shall I get the permiesioD? " 

" The permission? Yee, I shall gjve you the permit at 
once. Please be seated." 

He went up to the table, sat down, and b^an to write. 

" Please be seated." 

Nekhlyddov remained standing. 

Having written the permit, the prosecuting attorney 
gave the note to Nekhlyildov, looking at bim with curi- 

" I must also inform you," said NekhlyiSdov, " that 
I cannot continue to be present at the session of the 

" For this, you know, you must present good cause to 
the court." 

" The cause is t^hat I regard every court not ooly as 
useless, but even as immoral." . 

" Very well," said the prosecuting attorney, with the 
same hardly perceptible smile, as though to say with this 
smile that he had heard such statements before, and that 
they belonged to a well-known funny cat^;ory. " Very 
well, but you, no doubt, understand that, as the prosecut- 
ing attorney of the court, I cannot agree with yqu; there- 
fore I advise you to announce it in court, and the court 
will pass on your information, and wUl find it sufficient 



or insufficient, and in the latter case will itnpoae a fine 
upon you. Address the court) " 

" I have informed you, and sha'n't go elsewhere," 
NekhlyMoT replied, angrily. 

" Your servant, mr," stud the prosecuting attorney, 
bending his bead, evidently wishing to be rid of that 
strange visitor. 

" Who was here? " asked the member of the court, who 
came into the prosecuting attorney's office as soon as 
Nekhlyiidov had left. 

" NekhlyiSdov, you know, who has been making all 
kinds of strange proposals in the County CouncU of 
Krasnbpersk County. Think of it, he is a juror, and 
among the defendants there was a woman, or girl, who 
has been sentenced to hard labour, who, he says, was 
deceived by him, and whom he now wants to marry." 

" Impossible! " 

" He told me so. He was strangely excited." 

" There is a certun abnormahty in modern young 

" But he is not so very young." 

" Oh, how your famous Iv&shenkov has tired me out. 
He vanquishes by exhaustion; he talks and talks with- 
out end." 

" They simply have to be stopped, — they are nothing 
but obstructionists — " 



Fsou the prosecuting attorney Nekhlyi^ov drove 
directly to the house of detention. But It turned out 
that there was do M^lova there, and the superintendent 
told Nekhlyildov that she must be in the old transporta- 
tion jail. Nekhlytidov drove thither. 

Katerfna M^lova was actually there. 

The distance from the house of detention to the trans- 
portation jail was very great, and Nekhlyddov reached 
the prison only toward evening. He wanted to w^k up 
to the door of the huge, gloomy building, but the sentry 
did not let bim in, and only rang a bell. A wuden came 
out in reply to the bell. Nekhlyddov showed him his 
permit, but the warden said that he could not let bim in 
without his seeing the superintendent. NekhlyiSdov went 
to the superintendent's apartments. While ascending the 
sturcase, Nekhlytidov heard behind the door the sounds 
of a compUcated, Sorid piece performed on the piano. 
When an angry chamberm^d, with an eye tied up, opened 
the door for him, the sounds seemed to burst &om the 
room and to strike his ears. It was a tiresome rhapsody 
by Liszt, well played, but only to a cert^n point. When- 
ever this point was reached, the same thing was repeated. 
Nekfalyiidov asked the tied-up cbambermEud wheUier the 
superintendent was at home. 

The chambermaid said be was not. 

" Will be soon be here? " 

The rhapsody agfun stopped, and was agun r^jeated 
briUianUy and noisily up to the enchanted place. 

" I will aak." 




The chambermaid went out. 

The rhapsody again started on its mad rush, but, before 
teaching the enchanted place, it broke off, and a voice 
waa heard. 

" Tell Mm that he is not here and will not be to-day. 
He is out calling, — and what makee them so persistentT " 
was heard a woman's voice behind the door, and again the 
rhapsody; but it stopped once more, and the sound of a 
chair's being removed was heard. Evidently the angered 
performer wanted to give a [xece of her mind to the per- 
sistent visitor, who had come at such an unseasooable 

" Papa is not here," angrily spoke a puny, pale girl, 
with putFed'Up hair and blue rings under her gloomy 
eyes, upon coming up. But when she saw a young man in 
a hoe overcoat, she relented. " Come in, if you please. 
What do you wish? " 

" I wish to see a prisoner." 

" A political prisoner? " 

" No, not a political prisoner. I have a permit from 
the prosecuting attorney." 

" I can't help you; papa is away. Please, come in," 
she agun called him away from the small antechamber. 
" You had better see his assistant, who is in the office, and 
speak with him. What is your name? " 

" Thank you," said Nekhlylidov, without answering the 
question, and went out. 

The door was hardly closed behind him, when the 
same brisk, lively tune was heard; it was badly out of 
place, considering the surroundings and the face of the 
miserable-looking girl who was trying to learn it by 
heart. In the yard Nekhlylidov met a young officer with 
stiffly pomaded moustache, dyed black, and asked him 
for the superintendent's assistant. It was he. He took 
the permit, looked at it, and said that he could not 
take it upon himself to admit on a permit for the 



house of detentioD. " Besides, it is late. Please come to- 
morrow. To-morrow at ten o'clock anybody may visit. 
You come to-morrow, and you will find the superiDtendent 
at home. Then you may see her in the general visiUng- 
room, or, if the superintendent gives you permission, in 
the oflSce." 

Thus, without having obtained an interview, Nekh- 
lyildov drove home again, A^tated by the thought 
of seeing her, Nekhlyildov walked through the streets, 
thinking not of the court, but of his conversaUons with 
the prosecuting attorney and the superintendents. His 
endeavour to get an interview with her, and his telling 
the prosecuting attorney of his intention, and his visit to 
two prisons so excited Mm that he was not able for a long 
time to compose himself. Upon arriving at home, he 
took out his long neglected diaries, read a few passages 
in them, and wrote down the following: 

" For two years I have not kept my diaiy, and I thought 
I should never return to this childisb occupation. It was, 
however, not a childish thing, but a converse with myself, 
with that genuine, divine self, which lives in every man. 
All this time my ego has been asleep, and I had no one 
to talk to; It was awakened by an unusual incident 
on the tweuty-^ghth of April, in court, while I was 
on the jury. I saw her on the defendants' bench, her, Ksr 
tyiisha, seduced by me, in a prison cloak. By a strange 
misunderstanding, and by my mistake, she has been sen- 
tenced to hard labour. I have just come back from the 
prosecuting attorney and from the jail. I was not per- 
mitted to see her, but I have determined to do everything 
in order to see her, to repent before her, and to atone for 
my guilt, even by marrying her. Lord, aid me! My 
heart is tight and rejoicing." 



Mablota coiild not for a long time fall asleep on that 
night; she lay with open eyes, and, looking for a long 
time at the door, which was now and then shaded by the 
sexton's daughter, who was pacing to and fro, was lost ia 

She was thinldng that she would under no condition 
marry a convict on the island of Sakhalin, but that she 
would arrange things differently. She would enter into 
relations with some official, with a scribe, or with a warden, 
or with some assistant. They were all prone to such 
things. " Only I must not be worn out, for then all ia 
lost." And she recalled how the counsel looked at her, 
and the presiding judge, and all the people in the court- 
house, who met her or purposely came to see her. She 
recalled what B^rta, who had visited her in the jail, had 
told her about the student, whom she had liked while 
living at Kit&eva's, and who, upon calling there, had 
asked for her, and was sorry for her. She recalled the 
brawl with the red-haired woman, and she was sorry 
for her; she recalled the baker, who had sent her out 
an additional roll. She recalled many persons, but not 
Nekhlyi^ov. She never thought of her childhood and 
youth, and especially of her love for Nekhlyildov. That 
was too painful. Those recollections lay somewhere 
deep and untouched in her soul. Even in her sleep had 
she never seen NekhljnJdov. She had not recognized 
him that morning at court, not so much because when 
she had seen him the last time he had been a military 
man, without a beard, with short moustache, and 



with short, thick, waving hair, whereas now he was a man 
of middle age, with a beard, b8 because she never thought 
of him. She had buried all her recollections of her 
past with him on that terrible, dark night, when he 
did not atop over at his aunts' upon his way from the 

Up to that night, while she had hoped that he would 
come to see them, she not only did not feel the buidea 
of the child which she was carrying under her heart, but 
often fnth rapturous surprise watched its soft and fre- 
quently impetuous motion within her. But with that 
night everything was changed. The future child from 
then on was only a hindrance. 

The aunts expected Nekhlyildov and had asked him 
to stop over, but he telegraphed to them that he could 
not because he bad to be in St. Petersburg on time. 
When Katyllsha learned this, she determined to go to 
the station in order to see him. The triuo was to pass ' 
there in the night, at two o'clock. Katytisha saw the 
ladies off to bed; she asked the cook's daughter, M&shka, 
to accompany her, put on some old shoes, covered herself 
with a kerchief, tucked up her skirt, and ran down to the 

It was a dark, runy, \rindy autumn night. The rain 
now splashed its large warm drops, now stopped. In the 
field, the road could not be seen underfoot, and in the 
forest everything was dark as in a stove, and Katyi^ha, 
who knew the road w^, Imi her way in the woods, and 
reached the small station, where the trun stopped only 
three minutes, not ahead of time, as she had expected to 
do, but after the second bell. Upon running out on the 
platform, Katyilsha immediately noticed him in the win- 
dow of a car of the first Class. There was a very bright 
light in that car. Two officers were sitting opposite each 
other on the velvet seats, and playing cards. On the 
little table near the window two stout, guttering candles 



wfire burning. He was sitting, in tightly fitting riding 
breeches and white shirt, on the arm of the seat, leaning 
agunst the back, and laughing at something. 

The moment she recognized him, she knocked at the 
window with her frosted hand. But jtiflt then the third 
bell rang out, and the train began slowly to move, — 
first backwards, — then one after another the carriages be- 
gan to move forwards in jerks. One of the card-players 
rose with his cards and looked through the window. She 
knocked a second time, and put her face to the pane. Just 
then the car at which she stood gave a jerk and began to 
move. She walked along with it, and looked through 
the window. The officer wanted to let down the window 
but could not do it. Nekhlyildov pushed him aside, and 
started to let down the window. The train was increas- 
ing its speed, so that Katyilsha had to run along. The 
tr^n went faster sl^Il, and the window at last was let 
down. Just then the conductor pushed her aside and 
jumped into the car. She fell behind, but still contin- 
ued to run over the wet boards of the platform: then the 
platform came to an end, and KatyAsha had to exert all 
her strength to keep herself from falling as she ran down 
the steps to the ground. She was still running, though 
the car of the First Class was idready far beyond her. 
Past her raced the cars of the Second Class; and then, 
faster still, the oars of the Third Class, but she still ran. 
When the last car with the lamps rushed by her, she 
was already beyond the watei^tower, beyond protec- 
tion, and the wind struck her and carried off the kerchief 
from her head, and on one side blew her garments against 
her running feet. The kercWef was borne away by the 
wind, but she still ran. 

" Aunty Mikh&ylovnal " cried the ^rl, barely catching 
up with her, " you have lost your kerchief I " 

Katytisha stopped and, tluvwing back her head and 
clasping it with both her hands, sobbed out aloud. 



" He is gonel " she cried. 

" He, aeated in a gaily lighted car, on a velvet seat, is 
plajring and drinking, — and I am standing here, in the 
mud and darkness, ia the rain and wind, and weeding," 
she thought to herself, and sat down on the ground and 
wept so loud that the girl was frightened and embraced 
her damp clothes. 
" Aunty, let us go homel " 

" A train will pass, — under the wheels, and the end 
of it," Katydsha thought in the meantime, without 
answering the girl. 

She decided she would do so. But juet then, as always 
happens in the first quiet moment after agitation, the 
child, his child, which was within her, suddenly jerked, 
and thumped, and then moved more softly, and then 
agiun thumped with something thin, tender, and sharp. 
And suddenly all that which a minute ago had so tor- 
mented her, so that it seemed impossible to continue 
to live thus, all her anger at him and her desire to have 
her revenge upon him, even though through death, 
all that was suddenly removed from her. She calmed 
down, got up, put on her kercluef, and walked home. 

Fatigued, wet, soiled, she returned home, and from that 
day b^an that spiritual change, from the consequences 
of which she became what she now was. From that 
' terrible night she ceased to believe in God and goodness. 
I Ere this she had believed in God and had believed that 
I others believed in Him; but from that night on she was 
I convinced that nobody beheved in Him, and that every- 
! f^ng which was said of God and His Law was deception 
and injustice. He, whom she had Idved, and who had 
loved her, — she knew that, — had abandoned h^, mak- 
ing light of her feelings. And yet he was the best man 
she had ever known. AH the others were worse stiU. 
Everything which happened to her confirmed her at 
every step in her view, Hia aunts, who were pious old 



women, sent her away when she was not able to serre 
them as before. All people with whom she came in 
contact wanted to get some advantage from her : women 
tried to gain money through her, while men, beginning 
with the country judge, coming down to the wardens of 
the prison, looked upon her as an object of pleasure. 
Nobody in the world cared for anything else. She was 
still more confirmed in this by the old autbor, with 
whom she lived in the second year of her free life. He 
told her straight out that in this — be called it poetry 
and (esthetics — consisted all happiness. 

Everybody lived only for himself, for his pleasure, and 
all words about God and goodness were only a deception. 
If ever questions arose such aa why everything in the 
world was so bod that everybody harmed everybody else 
and everybody suffered, one ought not to think of them. 
If you feel lonely, you smoke a cigarette or take a drink, 
or, still better, yon make love to a man, and it all di»- 



On the following day, it being a Sunday, at five 
o'clock in the mormng, when the customary whistle was 
blown in the women's corridor of the prison, KorabUva, 
who was not sleeping, awoke Mdslova. 

" Convict," M^lova thought in terror, rubbing her eyea 
and involuntarily inhahng the terribly stinking air of the 
morning; she wanted to fall asleep again, to pass into 
the realm of unconsciousness, but the habit of fear waa 
stronger than sleep, and she got up, drew up her legs, 
and b^an to look around. The women were all up, but 
the children were still asleep. The dram-shopkeeper 
with the bulging eyea softly pulled the cloak from under- 
neath the children, so as not to wake them. The riotous 
woman was han^ng out near the stove some rags that 
served as diapers, while the baby was yeUing in the arms 
of blue-eyed Fed6«ya, who was swaying with it and 
singing to it in her gentle voice. 

The consumptive woman, holding her chest, and with 
suffused face, waa coughing and, io the intervals, breath- 
ing heavily, and almost cr3nng. The red-haired woman 
lay awake, with her abdomen upwards, and bending 
under her etout legs, and in a loud and merry voice told 
the dream which Bhe had had. The old incendiary agaJn 
stood before the image and, continually repeating the 
same words in an undertone, crossed herself and made 
low obeisances. The sexton's daughter sat motionless 
on the bench and gazed in front of her with her sleepy, 
duU eyes. Beauty was curhug her coarse, oily black 
hoa about her finger. 



la the corridor were heard stepe of plashing prison 
Bhoes; the keys rattled, and there entered two convict 
privy-cleaners, in blouses and gray trousers that did not 
reach down to their ankles, and, with serious, angry looks, 
raising the stink-vat on the yoke, carried it out of the 
cell. The women went into the corridor, to the faucets, 
to wash themselves. At the water-basin the red-hured 
woman started a quarrel with & woman who had come 
out from another, a neighbouring cell. Agdn curses, 
shouts, complaints — 

" Do you want the career? " cried the warden, strik- 
ing the red-haired woman on her fat bare back in such a 
manner that the blow reechoed through the corridor. 
" Don't let me hear your voice agiun! " 

" I declare, the old fellow is a little wild to-day," sud 
the red-haired woman, looking upon that treatment of 
her as a special favour. 

" lively therel Get ready for the massl " 

M^ova had not had a chance to comb her hair when 
the superintendent arrived with his suite. 

" Roll-calll " cried the warden. From the other cells 
came other prisoners, and they all stationed themselves 
in two rows along the corridor, the women in the rear 
placing their hands on the shoulders of those in the 
front row. They were all counted. 

After the roll-call the matron came and led the pris- 
oners to church. Mdslova and Fed6eya were in the 
middle of the column, which consisted of more than one 
hundred women from ail the cells. They all wore white 
kerchiefs, bodices, and skirts, but now and then there 
was a woman in coloured garments. Those were women 
with their children, who were following thmr husbands. 
The whole staircase was taken up by that procession. 
There was heard the soft tread of the feet in the prison 
shoes, and conversation, and at times laughter. At the 
tumii^, M&slova caught sight of the angry face of hei 



enemy, B6cbkova, who was walking in front, and she 
pointed her out to Fedfisya. On amving down-stairs, 
the women grew silent and, making the sign of the cross, 
and bowing, walked through the open door into the 
empty church, sparkling with its gold. Thar places 
were on the right, and they, crowding and pressing each 
other, took up their positions. Soon after the women, 
entered the men in gray cloaks; they were transport con- 
victs, or those who were serving time in the prison, or who 
weretransportedbythedecreeof Communes; they cleared 
their throats, and placed themselves in compact masses on 
the left and in the middle of the church. Above, in the 
choir, stood the prisoners who had been brought there 
before; on one side, with half their heads shaven, Uie 
hard-labour convicts, who betrayed their presence by the 
clanking of their chains; and on the other, unebsven and 
without fetters, those who were confined pending trial. 

The prison church had been newly erected and fur- 
nished by a rich merchant, who had spent for this purpose 
several tens of thousands of roubles, and it was all aglesm 
with bright colours and gold. 

For some time silence reigned in the church, and one 
could hear only the clearing of noses and throats, the 
cries of infants, and occasionally the clanking of the 
chmns. But now the prisoners who stood in the middle 
began to move and, pressing against each other, left a 
path along which the superintendent walked up to the 
front, where he stationed hims^ in the middle. 


The divine service began. 

The divine service consisted in this: the priest, having 
donned a peculiar, strange, and very inconvenient cloth 
garment, cut small pieces of bread, which he placed in a 
vessel, and then into a bowl of wine, all the while pro- 
DouQcing various names and prayers. In the meantime 
the sexton, without interruption, hrst read and then sang, 
in rotation with the choir of the prisoners, all kinds of 
Church-Slavic songs, which were unintdligible in them- 
selves, but could be grasped even less on account of the 
rapidity with which they were read and sung. The con- 
tents of the prayers consisted mainly in wishing prosperity 
to the Emperor and his family. The prayers which 
referred to this were repeated several times, in conjunction 
with other prayers, or alone, while knediog. 

In addition, the sexton read several verses from the 
Acts of the Apostles in such a strange and tense voice 
that it was not possible to comprehend a thing; then the 
priest read very distinctly the passage from the Gospel 
of St. Hark, where it says how Christ, upon bdng reused 
from the dead, and before flying to heaven in order to be 
seated on the right hand of SKs Father, appeared Gist 
to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven 
devils, and then to his eleven disciples; and how he 
enjoined them to preach the Gospel to all creatures, pro- 
claiming at the same time that he who would not beheve 
should be damned, but that he who would believe and 
would be baptised should be saved, and, besides, should 
cast out devila, heal the sick by the laying on of hands, 



apeak with new tongues, take up serpents, and not die, 
but remuc alive, if they should drink deadly things. 

The essence of the divine service consisted in the 
HupposiUon that the pieces cut up by the priest and 
placed by him in the wine, with certain manipulations 
and pqayers, were changed into the body and blood of 
Qod. These manipulations consisted in the priest's evenly 
r^ing his hands, although the cloth bag, which be had 
on, very much interfered with this motion, then holding 
them in this attitude, kneeling down, and kissing the 
table and that which was on the table. But the chief 
action was when the priest picked up a napkin with both 
his hands and evenly and gently swayed it. over the dish 
and golden bowl. The supposition was that simulta- 
neously with this the bread and wine were changed into 
the body and blood; consequently this part of the divine 
Bervice was surrounded with special solemnity. 

" Praise the most holy, most pure, and most blessed 
Mother of God," thereupon loudly proclaimed the priest 
behind the partition, and the choir sang out solemnly 
that it was very good to glorify Her who had borne 
Christ without impiuring Her virginity, — the Virgin 
Mary, who, on that account, deserves greater honour than 
all the cherubim, and greater glory than all the seraphim. 
After that the transformation was thought to be complete, 
and the priest, taking off the napkin from the dish, cut 
the middle piece into four parts, and placed it first in the 
wine and then in his mouth. The idea was that he had 
eaten a piece of God's body and had dnmk a swallow of 

i His blood. After that the priest drew aside the curtain, 
opened the middle doors, and, taking the gilt bowl into 

\ his hands, went with it through the middle door and 
invited those who wished also to partake of the body 

' and blood of God, which was contained in the bowl.' 

, There were several children who wished to do so. 

First asking the children their names, the priest CBr&- 



fully drew out the bread from the bowl with a small I 
apoou, then stuck deep down the mouth of each child aj 
piece of wine-sopped bread; after which the sexton wiped [ 
the children's mouths and in a merry voice sang a songj 
about the children's eating God's body and drinking Hiaj 
blood. Then the priest carried the bowl behind the ', 
partition, and, drinking all the blood left in the bowl and 'j 
eating all the pieces of God's body, carefully Ucking his i 
moustache, and drying his mouth and the bowl, with I 
brisk steps marched out from behind the partition, in the | 
happieet frame of mind and creaking witii the thin heels t 
of his calfskin boots. -»• 

This ended the mun part of the Christian service. 
But the priest, wishing to console the unfortunate prison- 
ers, added a special service to what had preceded. This 
special service consisted in the priest's taking up a position 
before the black-faced and black-handed, brass and gilt 
supposed representation of that very God whom he had 
been eating, a representation illuminated by a dozen or so 
of wax tapers, and beginning in a strange and false voice 
to chant the following words: " Sweetest Jesus, glory of 
the apostles, Jesus, the martyrs' prtuse, almighty ruler, 
save me, Jesus my Saviour, Jeeus mine, most beautiful, 
me taking refuge In Thee, Saviour Jeeus, have mercy on 
me, on those who have borne Thee with prayers, on all, 
Jesus, on Thy saints, and on all Thy prophets, my 
Saviour Jesus, and give us the joys of heaven, Jesus, lover 
of taenf" 

Thereupon he stopped, drew his breath, crossed himself, 
and made a low obeisance, and all did the same. Obei- 
sances were made by the superintendent, the wardens, 
the prisoners, and in the balcony the chains clanked very 
frequently. " Creator of the angels and Lord of hosts," 
he continued, " Jesus most marvellous, the angels' wonder, 
Jesus most strong, the ancestors' redemption, Jesus most 
Bweet, the patriarchs' majesty, Jesus most glorious, the 



kin^' support, Jeeua moet bleeaed, the pnpheta' fulfil- 
ment, Jeeus most wonderful, the martyrs' strength, Jesus 
most gentle, the monks' joy, JeouB most merciful, the 
presbyters' sweetnees, Jesus most pitiful, the fastets' 
reatrunt, Jesus most suave, the delight of the swnted, 
Jesus most pure, the virgina' chastity, Jesus from eternity, 
the sionets' salvation, Jeeus, Son of God, have mercy on 
me," he finally reached a stop, repeating the word Jesus 
in an ever shriller voice; he held his silk-lined vestment 
with his hand, and, letting himself down on one knee, 
bowed to the ground, whereupon the choir sang the last 
words, " Jesus, Son of God, have mercy on me," and the 
prisoners fell down and rose agun, tossing the hur that 
was left on the unshaven half, and clattering with the 
fetters which chafed their lean legs. 

Thus it lasted for a long time. First came the praises, 
which ended with the words, " Have mercy on met " and 
then came new praises, which ended with the word " Hal- 
lelujah." And the prisoners crossed themselves and bowed 
at every stop; then they began to bow only every second 
time and even less, and aU were happy when the praises 
were ended, and the priest, heaving a sigh of rehef, closed 
his little book and went back of the partition. There was 
but one final action left: the priest took a gilt cross with 
enamelled medallions at its ends, which was lying on the 
large table, and walked with it into the middle of the 
church, first the superiuteudent came up and kissed 
the cross, then the wardens, then, pressing against each 
other and cursing in whispers, the prisoners came up to 
it. The priest, talking all the while with the superintend- 
ent, was sticking the cross and his hand into the mouths, 
and sometimes even into the noses, of the prisoners who 
were coming up, while the prisoners were anxious to kiss 
both the cross and the priest's hand. Thus ended the 
Christian divine service, which was held for the consolation 
and edification of the erring fellow men. 



It did not occur to one of those preeeat, b^inning 
with the priest and the auperiateudent and ending with 
M^ova, that the same Jesus, whose name the priest 
had repeated an endless number of times in a shrill 
voice, prusing Him with all kinds of outlandish words, 
had forbidden all that which was done there; that He 
had forbidden not only such a meaningless wordiness and 
blasphemous mystjficatian of the priestly teachers over the 
bread and wine, but that He had also in a most emphatic 
manner forbidden one class of people to call another their 
teachers; that He had forbidden prayers in temples, and 
had commanded each to pray in solitude; that He had t 
forbidden the temples themselves, saying that He came to 
destroy them, and that one should pray not in temples, j 
but in the spirit and in truth ; and, above everything else, i 
that He had forbidden not only judging [>eople and holding *, 
them under restrunt, torturing, disgracing, punishing 
them, as was done here, but even doing any violence to 
people, saying that He came to set the captives at liberty. 

It never occurred to any one present that that which 
was going on there was the greatest blasphemy and 
mockffliy upon that very Christ in the name of whom all 
this was done. It did not occur to any one that the fflt 
cross, with the enamelled medallions at the ends, which 
the priest brought out and gave the people to k^, was 
nothing else but the representation of the gibbet on wtuch 
Christ had been hung for prohibiting those very things 
which were done here in His name. It did not occur to 
any one that the priests, who ima^ned that in the form 



of the bread and wine th^ were eating the body of 
Christ and drinkiDg His blood, actually were eating Hia 
body and drinking His blood, but not in the pieces- of 
bread and in the wine, but by misleading those " httle 
ones " with whom Christ has identified Himself, and by 
depriving them of their greatest good, and subjecting 
them to the severest torments, by concealing from them 
the very Gospel of salvation which He had brought 
to them. 

The priest did with the calmest conscience all that he 
did, because he had been brought up from childhood to 
believe that this was the one true faith which had been 
beUeved in by all the holy men of former days, and now 
was believed in by the spiritual and temporal authorities. 
He did not believe that the bread was changed into the 
body, that it was good for the soul to pronounce many 
words, or that he had really devoured a piece of God, — 
it is impossible to believe in such things, -^ but he believed 
in the necessity of believing in this belief^ The main thing 
that confirmed him in hia ialth was the fact that for exer- 
cising all the functions of his faith he had for eighteen 
yeats been receiving an income, with which be supported 
his family, kept his son at a gymnasium, and his daughtea- 
in a religious school. 

The sexton believed even more firmly than the priest, 
because he had entirely forgotten the essence of the 
dogmas of this faith, and only knew that for the sacra- 
mental water, for the mass for the dead, for the Hours, 
for a simple supphcation, and for a supplication with 
songs, — for everything there was a stated price, which 
good Christians gladly paid; and therefore he called out 
his " Have mercy, have mercy," and sang and read the 
established prayers with the same calm confidence in its 
aeceesity with which people sell wood, fiour, and potatoes. 

The chief of the prison and the wardens, who had never 
known and had never tried to find out what the dogmas 



of the futh consisted in, and what all this meact which 
was going on in the church, believed that one must be- 
lieve in this faith because the higher authoritiee and the 
Tsar himself believed in it. BcBides, they dimly felt, 
though they would not have been able to explain why, 
that this faith justified their cruel duties. If it were not 
for this faith, it not only would have been harder for them, 
but even impossible to employ all their powen in order 
to torment people, as they were now doing with an entirely 
clear consci^ice. The superintendent was such a good- 
bearted man that he would never have been able to live 
that way if he had not found a support in his faith. It 
was for this reason that he stood motionless and strught, 
zealously made his obeisances and the signs of the cross, 
and tried to feel contrite as they sang " The Cherubim; " 
and as they began to give the communion to the children, 
he stepped forward, and with his own hands lifted a boy 
who was receiving the communion, and held him up that 

The majority of the prisoners, — irith the exception of 
a few who saw through the deception practised on the 
people of this faith, and who in their hearts laughed at it, 
— Uie majority believed that in these gilt images, candles, 
bowls, vestments, crosses, and repetitions of incompre- 
hensible words, " Jesus most sweet," " Have mercy," lay a 
mysterious power, by means of which one could obtain 
great comforts in this life and in the one to come. Al- 
though the majority of them had made several efforts 
to obtun the comforts of life by means of prayers, suppli- 
cations, and tapers, without getting them, — their prayers 
had remained unfulfilled, — yet each of them was finnly 
convinced that this was only an accidental fulure, and 
that this institution, approved by learned men and by 
metropolitans, was important and necessary for the life 
to come, if not for this. 

MMova believed the same way. like the rest, she 



experienced during the divine service a mixed feeling of 
awe and tedium, Slie was Btanding in the middle of the 
throng before the bar, and could not see any one but her 
companions; when the communicants moved forward, ahe 
advanced with Feddsya and eaw the superintendent, and 
behind the superintendent and between the wardens she 
Bpied a peasant with a white beard and blond hair, — 
Feddsya's husband, — who was looking at his wife with 
motionlesB eyes. All during the singing Ufislova was 
busy watching him and whispering to Fedfisya; she 
crossed herself and made the obeisances only when the 
net did ao. 

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NbkhiitCdot left the house early. A peasant was still 
driving in a aide street, and crjdog in a strange voice: 

" Milk, milk, milkl " 

The day before there had fallen the first warm spring 
rain. Wherever there was no pavement the grass had 
suddenly sprouted, the birches in the gardens were cov- 
ered with a green down, and the bird-cherries and poplars 
were spreading out thdr long, fragrant leaves; and in the 
houses and shops the double windows were b^ng removed 
and cleaned. In the second'hand market, past which 
Nekhlyildov had to ride, a dense throng of people was 
swarming near the booths, which were built in a row, and 
tattered people were moving about with boots under their 
arms and smoothly ironed piuitaloons and w^tcoats 
thrown over their shoulders. 

Near the inns there were crowds of people who were 
now free from their factory work: men in clean sleeve- 
less coata and shining boots, and women in brightly 
coloured silk kerohiefa over their heads and in overcoats 
with huge glass beads. Policemen, with the yellow cords 
of their pistols, stood on their beats, watching for some 
disorder to dispel the ennui which was oppressing them. 
Along the paths of the boidevard and over the fresh 
green sod children and dogs were romping, while the gay 
nurses were talking to each other, sitting on the benches. 

In the streets, they were etill cool and damp on the 
left hand, in the shade, but dry in the middle, the heavy 
froght wagons constantly rumbled over the pavement, 
and light vehicles clattered, and tramways tinkled. On 


206 B^nKRscTioiir 

all Bidee the air was shaken by the various sounds and 
the dins of the bells calling the people to attend Bervices 
similar to the one that was taking place in their prison. 
The dreased-up people were all going to their parish 

The cabman took NekhlyHdov not to the jail itself, but 
to tiie turn that led to it. 

A number of men and women, mostly with bundles, 
were standing there, at the turn, about one hundred paces 
from the prison. On the right were low wooden build- 
ings, and on the left a two-story house, with some kind 
of a sign. The immense stone structure of the jail was 
ahead, but the visitors were not admitted there. A 
sentry with his gun was walking up and down, calling 
out angrily at those who tried to pass beyond him. 

At the gate of the wooden buildings, on the right-hand 
side, opposite the sentry, a warden, in a uniform with 
galloons, was sitting on a bench, with a note-book in his 
hand. Nekhl3nldov also went up to him and gave the 
name of Katerina MMova. The warden with the gal- 
loons wrote down the name. 

" Why don't they admit yet? " asked Nekhlylidov. 

" They are holding divine service now. As soon as it 
is over, you will be admitted." 

Nekhlylidov went up to the throng of the persons 
waiting. A man in a tattered garment and crushed cap, 
with torn shoes on his bare feet, and with red stripes all 
over lus face, pushed himself forward and started toward 
the jail. 

" Where are you going? " the soldier with iiie gun 
shouted to him. 

" Don't yell sol " answered the ragged fellow, not in 
the least intimidated by the sentry's call. He went back. 
" If you won't let me, I can wait. But don't yell as 
though you were a generall " 

There was an approving laugh in the crowd. The vis- 



itore were mostly poorly clod people, aome of them aimply 
in t&tters, but there were also, to all appearances, decent 
people, both men and women. Next to Nekhlyildov 
etood a well-dressed, cleaD-«haven, plump, ruddy man, 
with a bundle, apparently of underwear, in his hand, 
Nekhlyddov asked him whether he was there for the first 
time. The man with the bundle ansiwered that he came 
every Sunday, and they started a conversation. He was 
a porter in a bank; he came to see his brother, who was 
to be tried for forgery. The good-natured man told 
Nekhlylidov his whole history, and was on the point of 
asking him for his, when their attention was distracted 
by a student and a veiled lady, in a light rubber-tired 
vehicle, drawn by a large, thoroughbred black horse. 
The student was carrying a large bundle in his hands. 
He went up to Nekhlylidov and asked him whether it 
was permitted to distribute alms, — bread-rolls which he 
had brought with him, — and how be was to do it. " I 
am doing it at the request of my fianc4e. This is my 
fianc^ Her parents advised us to take it down to the 

" I am here for the first time, and I do not know, but 
I think you ought to ask that man," siud Nekhlytidov, 
pointing to the warden with the galloons, who was sit- 
ting with his note-book on the right. 

Just as Nekhlyildov was conversing with the student, 
the heavy iron door, with a small window in the middle, 
was opened, and there emerged from it a uniformed offi- 
cer with a warden, and the warden with the note-book 
announced that the visitors would bow be admitted. 
The sentry stepped aside, and all the visitoiB, as though 
fearing to be late, started with rapid steps toward t^e 
door; some of them even rushed forward on a run. At 
the door stood a warden, who kept coimting the visitors 
as they passed him, saying aloud, " Sixteen, seventeen," 
and 80 00. Another wardeii« inside the building, touched 



each with hia huid and counted them as they paaaed 
through the next door, in ord^ that upon leaving the 
number should tally, and no visitor be left in the prison, 
and no person coi^ned be allowed to esci^. This 
teller eliq)ped Nekhlyddov's shoulder, without looking to 
see who it was that passed by, and this touch of the 
warden's hand at fiist offended Nekhlyildov, but he 
recalled at once what had brought him here, and he felt 
ashamed of his feeling of dissatisfaction and affront. 

The first i^artmeot they reached beyond the door was 
a large room with a vaulted ceiling and iron gratings in 
tiny windows. In this room, called the aseembly-room, 
Nefchlyddov quite unexpectedly saw a large representation 
of the crucifixion in a niche. 

" What is this for? " he thought, involuntarily connect- 
ing in his imagination the representation of Christ with 
hb^ated and not with confined people. 

Nekhlytidov walked slowly, letting the hurrying visitors 
pass by him, experiencing mixed feelings of terror before 
the evil-do rs who were locked up here, of compassion for 
those innooent people who, hke the boy of yesterday and 
like Katyi^ha, must be confined in it, and of timidity 
and contrition, before the meeting which awuted him. 
Upon leaving this first room, the warden at the other 
end was saying something; but Nekhlyudov was lost in 
thought and did not pay any attention to what he was 
saying; he continued to go in the direction where most 
visitors were going, that is, to the men's department, and 
not to the women's, whither he was bound. 

He allowed those who were in a hurry to walk idiead 
of him, and was the last to enter the hall which was used 
as the visiting-room. The first thing that struck him, 
when, upon opening the door, he entered the hall, was 
the deafening roar of hundreds of voices merging into 
one. Only when he came nearer to the people who, hke 
flies upon sugar, were clinging to the screen that divided 



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the room into two parte, he underBtood what the matter 
was. The room, with the windows in the back, was 
divided into two, not hj one, but by two wire screena 
that ran from the ceiling down to the floor. Between 
the screena walked the wardens. Beyond the screena 
were the prisoners, and on this mde, the visitors. Between 
the two parties were the two screens, and about eight 
feet of space, ao that it waa not only imposaible to tntne- 
mit any ioformation, but even to recognize a face, espe- 
cially if one were neai'Sighted. It waa even difficult to 
speak, for one had to cry at the top of one's voice in 
order to be heard. On both sides the faces were closely 
pressed against the screena : here wete wives, husbands, 
fathws, mothers, children, trying to see each other and to 
say what was necessary. But as each tried to speak 
in snch a way as to be heard by his interlocutor, and the 
neighbours were trying to do the same, their voices intet- 
feroj, and they had to shout so much the louder. It was 
this that caused the roar, interrupted by shouts, which 
had so sbnck NekhlytSdov as he entered the room. 

There was not t^e slightest possibility of making out 
what was said. It was only possible by their faces to 
guess what they were talking about, and what their relsr- 
tiona to each other were. Next to Nekhlyiidov was an old 
woman in a small shawl, who, pressing againat the screen, 
with quivering chin cried something to a pale young man 
with half of his hair shaven off. The prisoner, raising 
his eyebrows and frowning, listened attentively to what 
she was aayiug. Next to the old woman was a young 
man in a sleeveless coat, who, with shaking head, was 
listening to what a prisoner, with an agonized face and 
grayish beard, who resembled him, was saying. Farther 
away stood a ra^^ed fellow, who waa moving his hands 
as he spoke, and latching. Next to him a woman, in a 
good woollen kerchief, with a babe in her arms, waa sit- 
ting on the floor, and weeping, evidently for the flrst time 



seeing thiifc gny-h&ired msa, vbo was on the 0&.& side, 
in a prison Uoase, aod with a shaven head and in fetters. 
Beyond this woman stood the porter, with whom IMdi- 
lyiidoT had spoken ; he was shoating at the top of his 
voice to a bald-headed prisoner, with sporbhng eyes, on 
the other side. 

When KeklyiidoT understood that he would have to 
speak under these conditions, there sroae within him 
a feehug of indignation against the people who could 
hare arranged and maintained such a thing. He won- 
dered how it was that such a terrible state of affairs, such 
a contempt for all human feelii^s had not offended any- 
body. The soldiers, the superintendent, the visitois, and 
the prisoners acted as though they admitted that it could 
not be otherwise. 

NekhlyiidoT remained about five minutes in that room, 
ezperiendng a terrible feeling of melandioly, of powers 
lessoesB, and of being out with the whole world. A. moral 
seoBation of nausea, resembling seasickness, took poaaea- 
gion of him. 



" Snu. I iniurti do thai, for whidi I have come," he said, 
urging himBeU on. " What muBt I do now } " He began 
to look for somebody in authority, and, apon notidng 
a short, lean man with a moustadie, in ofEicer's stripes, 
who was walldng back of the crowd, he tamed to him. 

" Can yon not, deai sir, tell me," he eaid, with ^cceed- 
in^y strained civility, " where the women are kept, and 
where one may talk to them ? " 

" Do you want the women's deputmest 1 " 

"Yea; I shonld like to see one of the piisoners," 
NekblytEdov replied, with the same staained civility. 

"Ton ought to have said so when you were in the 
aaaembly-room. ^iVhom do you want to see ? " 

" I want to see Katerlna MtialoTa." 

" Is she a political prisoner ? " asked Uie assistant saper^ 

" No, she is simply — " 

" Has she been sentenced ? " 

" Yea, two days ago she was sentenced," humbly replied 
KekhlytEdov, fearing lest he spoO the disposition of Uie 
superintendent, who ajqiarently had taken interest in 

" If you wisli to go to the women's department, please, 
this way," said the saperintendent, having manifestly 
ooDcluded from NekhlyiidoVs appearance that he deaerved 
consideration. " Sid6rov," be addressed a mustachioed 
onder-ofGcer with medals, "take this gentleman to tlie 
women's department." 

• Yes, air." 

by Google 


Just then heartrending aobs were heard at &e soreen. 

EverTthing seemed strange to Nekhlyiidov, but strangest 
of all was it that he should be thankful and ondei obliga- 
tions to the superintendent and chief warden, to people 
who were doing all the cruel things which were com- 
mitted in that house. 

The warden led Kekhlyildov out (d the men's Timting- 
room into the corridor, and throi^h the opposite door 
took him into the women's visitors' hall. 

This room, like that of Uie men, was divided into three 
parts by the two screens, but it was consideraUy snutUer, 
and there were fewer visitors and prisoners in it; tlie 
noise and din was the same as in the mala department. 
The officer here also walked around between the screens. 
The officer was the matron, in a uniform with galloons on 
her sleeves and with blue binding, and a similar belt. 
Just as in the men's room, the faces on both sides dung 
closely to the screens: on this side, cit^ people in aU 
kinds of attires, and (m the other, the prisoners, — some 
in white, others in their own garments. The whole screen 
was occupied by people. Some rose on tiptoe, in (oda 
to be heard above the heads of the others ; others sat on 
the floor, conversing. 

Most noticeable of all the prisoners, both by her striking 
voice and appearance, was a tattered, hagganl gipsy, with 
the kerchief falling down from her curly hair, who was 
standing in the middle of the room on the other aide of 
the screen, near a post, and with rapid gestures ehonting 
to a gipsy in a blue coat with a tight, low belt. Next to 
the gipsy, a soldier was sitting on the ground, and talk- 
ing to a prisoner ; then stood, clinging to the screen, 
a young peasant with a light-coloured beu^, in bast shoes, 
with flushed face, evidently with difficulty restraining hia 
tears. He was talking to a sweet-faced blond prisoner, 
who was gazing at him with her bright, blue eyes. This 
was FediSsya and her husband. Near them stood a 



tettraed fellow, who was talkiiig to a slatternly, broad- 
faced woman ; then two women, a man, again a woman, 
— and opposite each a prisoner. M4sIova was not 
among them. But back of the prisoners, on the othw 
side, stood another woman, and Ndchlyiidov at once knew 
diat it was she, and he felt hia heart beating more strongly 
and his breath stepping. The decisive minute was ap- 
proaching. He went up to the screen, and recognized her. 
She was standing back of blue-eyed Feddaya, and, smiling, 
was listening to what ehe was saying. She was not in 
her cloak, as two days ago, but in a white bodice, tightly 
girded with a belt, and with high swelling bosom. From 
under the kerchief, just as in the court-room, peeped her 
flowing black hair. 

" It will be decided at once," be thought " How am I 
to call her ? Or will she come up herself ? " 

But die did not come up. She was waiting for KUra 
and did not suspect that this man came to see her. 

*■ Whom do you want ' " the matron who was walking 
between the screens, asked, coming up to Nekhlyddov. 

" Eaterfna M^lova," Nekhlyiidov said, with dif&cnlfy, 

" M^ova, you are wanted I " cried t^e matron. 

M^ova looked about her, and, raising her head and 
thrusting forward her bosom, with her expression of readi- 
ness, so familiar to NekhlyildoT, wrait up to the screen, 
poshing her way between two prisoners, and with a qaes- 
tioning glance of surprise gazed at NekblytJdoT, withoat 
iec(^(nizing him. 

But, seeing l^ hia attire ttiat he was a rich man, she 

"Do yoQwant me?" she said, potting her smiling faoe^ 
with its squinting eyes, to the screen. 

"I wanted to see — " Nekhlyiidov did not know 
whether to say " thee " or " you," and decided to say 
"you." He was not speaking louder than usnaL "I 
wanted to see you — I ^ " 



" Don't pull the wool over my eyea," cried the tattered 
fellow near him. " Did jaa take it or not ? " 

" I tell yon he is dying, — what more ? " Bomebodj 
Bhonted from the other side. 

Mislova could not make out what NekhlyifdoT was say- 
ing, bat the expression of his fa6e, as he was talking, sod- 
dmly reminded her of him. But she did not believe her 
eyes. Still, the smile disaj^teared from her face, and 
her brow began to be furrowed in an agonizing way. 

" I did not hear what you said," she cried, blinkiiig, and 
frowning more than before. 

" I came — " 

" Yes, I am doing what I ocght to do, and am repent- 
ing of my Bin," thought Nekhlytldov. 

The moment he thought that, the tears stood in his eyes 
and choked him ; he held ou t« the screen with his fingers, 
and grew silent, malring an effort to keep from sobbing. 

"I say: keep away from where you have no busi- 
ness — 'somebody cried on one side. 

" Beheve me for God's sake, for I tell you I do not 
know," cried a pris(Mier on the other side. 

Upon noticing his agitation, Mislova recognized him. 

" Tou have changed, hot I recognize you," she cried, 
without looking at him, and her flushed face suddenly 
lotted gloomier still 

" 1 have come to ask ftHgivenees of yoa," he cried in a 
load voice, without intonations, like a leeson learned by 

Having called out theee words, he felt ashamed, and 
looked around. But immediately it occurred to him that 
if he was ashamed, so much the better, because he most 
bear shame. And he contanned in a toad voice. 

" Forgive me ; I am terribly guilty toward you — "he 
shouted again. 

Sxe stood motionless, and did not take her squinting 
eyes away from him. 



He was imable to proceed, and went away from the 
screen, trying to check the sobs which were agitating his 
breaflt "" 

The Huperinteodftnt/the one who had directed Nekhly<!- 
dov to the wcmeu's department, aj^tarently interested in 
him, came in and, seeing Nekhlyiidov standing away from 
the screen, asked him why he did not speak with the tote 
he had asked for. Nekhlyiidov cleared his noae and, 
straightening himself and trying to assume an onocm- 
cemei look, said : 

" I can't speak through the screen, — I cant hear a 

The superintendent thought for awhile. 

" Well, we shall have her brought out for a short time." 

" lAiry& K^rlovna," he turned to the ma&on. " Bring 
Mftelova out here I" 



A KiNUTE later M£slova came out of the Bide doob 
Walking up with her soft tread close to NekhljnldoT, shtt 
stopped and looked at him with an apward gluice. Hw 
black hail, juat as two days before, stood out in curling 
ringlets ; her unhealthy, swollen, and white face was sweet 
and very calm ; only the sparkling, black, squinting eyes 
gleamed with unusual brilliancy from out her swollen 

" You may apeak here to her," said the superintendent, 
stepping aside. Nekhlyiidov moved up to the bench 
which stood against the wall 

Sdislova cast a questioning glance at the assistant super- 
inteudent, and then, as though shrugging her shoulders in 
surprise, followed Nekhlyildor up to the bench and sat 
down at his side, adjusting her skirt. 

" I know it is hard for you to f oigive me," began Nekh* 
lyildOT, but again stopped, feeling tJiat his tears impeded 
him, "bat if it is not possible to correct the past, I wish 
now to do all I can. Say — " 

•■ How did you find me ? " she asked, without replying 
to his question, and hardly glancing at him wi^ her 
squinting eyes. 

" O Lord, aid me I Teach me what to do I" Nekhlyd- 
dov kejA saying to himself, looking at her changed, bad 

" Two days ago I was a juror," he said, " when you were 
tried. Did you not rect^nize me ? " 

"No, I did not. I had no time to recognize people. 
And I did not look, either," she said 



' " Was there not & child ? " he asked, and felt his face 
being flushed. 

" Thank the Lord, it died at once " she answered curtly 
and angrily, taming her eyes away. 

"Why so? What did it die of?" 

" I vati ill myself, and almost died," she said, wmtoat 
raising her eyes. 

" How is it my aunts let you go ? " 

"Who would want to keep a chambermaid wit^ a 
baby? When thay noticed what the matter was, they 
aent me away. What is the use of mentioning it, — I do 
not remember anything, — I have forgotten it That is 
all ended." 

" No, not ended. I cannot leave it sa I now want to 
expiate my sin." 

"There is nothing to expiate. What has been, is a 
thing of the past," she said, and — a thing he had not 
expected — she suddenly looked at him and gave him a 
disagreeable, insinuating, and pitiable smile. 

MilUlovs bad not expected to see him, especially then 
and there, and therefore his appearance at first startled 
her and made hsr think of wh^ she had never thought 
before. In the first moment she dimly recalled that new 
charming world of feeliogs and thoughts which had been 
revealed to her by that attractive young man who loved 
her and who was loved by her, and then of his incom- 
prebmsible craelt^ and of the whole series of humiliations 
and Buffering which followed that magic happiness and 
which was its direct consequence. And she was pained. 
Bat not having the strength to analyze it all, she acted 
as she always did : she dispelled those recollections and 
tried to shroad them with the special mist of her dis- 
solute life. In the first moment she connected the man 
who waa sitting at her aide with the young man whom 
she had once loved, bat upon observing that that caused 
ber pain, she stopped connecting him with that youth. 



Now this neatly dressed, well-fed geDtleman, with the . 
perfumed beard, was foi her not that NekhlTiidov, whom 
she had loved, bat only one of those mec who, whea they 
needed it, made use of such creatures as she was, and 
whom a creature like her had to make use of for her 
greatest advantage. It was for t^ reason that she gave 
him that iusinaatlng smile. 

She woB silent, reflecting in whet manner to use 

" That is all ended," she said. " Now I am sentenced 
to hard labour." And her lipe quivered as she pronounced 
that terrible word. 

" I knew, I was convinced that you were not guilty," 
said Nekhlyiidov. 

" Of courae I am not Am I a thief, a robber ? " 

"They say in our cell that everything depends on a 
lawyer" she continued. " They say that a petition has to 
be handed in. Only they ask a lot of money for it — " 

" Tea, by all means," said Nekhlyiidov. " I have 
already talked to a lawyer." 

" Tou must not spare money, and get a good one," she 

" I will do everything in my power." 

A silence ensued. 

She again smiled in the same way. 

" I want to ask you — for some money, if you can let 
me have it Not much — ten roubles. That is aU I 
want," she suddenly said. 

" Yes, yes," NekhlyiSdov said in confusion, and taking 
ont his pocketbook. 

She threw a rapid glance at the superintendent, who 
was walking up and down the room. 

" Don't give it to me in his presence, or they will take 
it away from me." 

Ne^lyiidov opened the pocketbook the moment the 
saperint^dent tiuned away, but before he succeeded in 



handing Iier the ten-rouble bill, the supeiinteiident again 
turned hia face to him. He crumpled it in his hand. 

" This is a dead woman," Nekhlyiidov thought, looldng 
at her once sweet, now defiled and swollen face, and at 
the eparkliug, evil gleam of her black, squinting eyes, 
which were watching both the superintendent and his 
hand with the crumpled bilL A moment of heaitatioo 
came over him. 

Again the tempter who had been speaking to him in 
the night spoke up in Nekhlyiidoy's soul, as ever trying 
to lead him away from the question as to what he ought 
to do, to the question of what would result from his 
actions, questions of what was useful 

" You won't be able to do anything with this woman," 
that voice said. " You are only hangii^ a rock around 
yoor neck, which will drown you and will keep you from 
being useful to others. Give her money, all you have ; 
bid her farewell, and make an end of it once and for 
all I " he thought. 

Bat just then he felt that something exceedingly im- 
portant was going on in his soul, that his inner life was, 
88 it were, placed on a swaying balance, which l^ the 
least effort could be drawn over in one or the other direc- 
ti(nL He made that effort, and acknowledged that God 
whom he had felt within him the day before ; and that 
God raised His voice in his souL He decided to tell her 
everything at (mce. 

"Katyiisha, I have come to ask thy foigiveaiess in 
everythuig, but thou hast not answered me whether thou 
hast forgiven me, or whether thou wilt ever foigive me," 
he said, suddenly passing over to " thou." 

She was not l^tening to him, and only looked at his 
hand and at the superintendent. The moment the super- 
iotendent turned away, she swiftly stretched her hand 
out to him, grasped the money, and stack it behind her 



"Yoa are saying strange things," die said, smiling 
contemptuonsly, as he thought. 

Nekhl7i!doT felt that thete was in her something 
directly hostile to him, which kept her in her present 
attitude, and which prevented his penetrating into her 

Strange to say, this did not repel him, but attracted 
him to her with a greater, a spedel and new force. He 
felt that he must wake her apiritnally, that this was 
terribly hard, — but this very difficulty attracted him. 
He now experienced a feellDg toward her such as he had 
never before experienced toward her or toward anybody 
else. There was nothing personal in it : he did not 
wish anything of her for himself, but only that she 
should cease being what she was, that she awaken and 
become what she had been before. 

" Katytiaha, what nukes yon talk that way 1 I know 
you and remember you such as you were in Finov — " 

"What is the use recalling the past?" she said, 

" I recall it in order to smooth over and expiate my 
sin, Eatydsho," he began, and was on the point of saying 
that he wanted to marry her, but he met her glance and 
read in it something so terrible, and coarae, and repulsive, 
that he could not finish his sentence. 

Just then the visitors were beginning to leave. The 
superintendent went up to Nekhlyiidov and told him 
that the time for the interview was up. Mislova arose, 
waiting submissively to be dismissed. 

" Good-bye 1 I have to tell you many more things, but 
you see I cannot now," said Kekhlyifdav, and stretched 
out his hand. " I shall come again — " • 

" It seems you have said eve^lihing — " 

She gave him her hand, but did n<A press his. 

" No. I shall try to see you again where I may have 
a talk yritk you, and then I sh^ tell you something 



very importaot, whidi must be told to yoa," said Nekh- 

" Veiy well, come, then," she said, smilmg as she was 
in the habit of siuiliiig to men whom ehe wished to 

" Tou are Dearer to me than a sister," said Nekblyildov. 

" Strange," she repeated, and went behind tin scie«n, 
shaking her head. 




At his first meetiDg, Nebhlyddov expected that the 
momeot Katjilsfaa should see him and should bear of 
his iotentioD of serving her and of his repentance, ahe 
would rejoice and be contrite, and would be Katyiisha 
again ; to his terror he saw that there was no Katyusha, 
but only a MfCslova. This surprised and horrified hioL 

He was particularly surprised to find that Mislova not 
only was not ashamed of her situation, — not as a pris- 
oner, for of that she was ashamed, bat as a prostitute, — 
but that Bhe seemed to be satisfied with it, and even to 
pride herself on it This could not have been otherwise. 
Every person, to act, must consider his or her activity to 
be important sod good. Consequently, whatever the posi- 
tion (^ a man may be, he cannot help but form such a 
view of human life in general as will make bis activity 
appear important and good. 

It is generally supposed that^ a thief, a murderer, a 
spy, a prostitute, acknowledgii^ his profession to be bad 
must be ashamed of it. But the very opposite takes 
plac& People, who by fate and by their own sins — 
by error — are put in a certain condition, however irr^u- 
lar it may he, form such a view of life in general that 
their position appears to them good and respectable, bi 
order to support such a view, people instjn(^vely cling 
to that circle in which the conception which they have 
formed of life, and of their place in it, is accepted. We 
are surprised to find this in the case of thieves bragging 
of their agility, prostitutes of their debauch, murderers <^ 
their cruelty. But we are surprised only because tiie 



drde, the atmoepbeie of these people, is limited, and, 
diiefly, becsoBe we live outside that circle ; hot does not 
tlie some thing take {dace in the case of rich men bn^ 
ging of their wealth, that is, of robbery, of generals brag- 
ging of their Tictoriea, tbat is, of murder, and of rulers 
bragging of their power, that is, of vi(^nce ? We do not 
see in these people a corrupted conception of life, of good 
and evil, in order to justify their position, because the 
circle of people with such corrupt conceptions is larger, 
and we onrselves belong to it. 

Just ancli a view of life and of hei position in the 
woiid had been formed by M^lova. She was a prosti- 
tute who was condemned to enforced labour, and yet she 
had formed such a world conception that ebe was able to 
justify herself and even piide herself before people on her 

This world conception consisted in the conviction thatl 
the chief good of men, of all without exception, — of (dd 
and young men, of gymnasiasts, generals, uneducated and; 
educated men, — lay in sexual intercourse with attractive ' 
women, and for this reason all men, though they pre- 
tended to be busy wit^ other afTairs, in reaU'y desired 
only this. She was an attractive woman, who conld 
satufy or not satisfy £heir desire, — consequently abe 
was an important and necessary factor. All her past and 
present life bad been a confirmation of tbe justice of this 

For ten years, she bad everywhere seen, wherever she 
had been, beginning with Nekblyiidov and tbe old coun- 
try judge, and ending with the wardens of the prisons, 
tluit all men needed her ; she neither saw, nor noticed 
the men who did not need her. Consequently the whole 
world ptesented itself to her as a collection of people 
swayed by passion, who watched her on all sides, and 
who with all meana, with decepticoi, with violence, pur- 
chase, cunnii^, tried to get posaeatdon of hw. 



Thus M&lova ondustood life, and, ■vri&i each a com- 
prehensioD of tbe world, she voa not only not tbe leaat, 
bnt even an impottant, person. Mielova valued this con- 
ceptiim of life mote than anything else in the world ; 
Dor could she help valuing it, because if she had changed 
this conception <^ life she would have lost the impor- 
tance which this conception gave hw among men. And 
in order not to lose her significaDce in life, she instinc- 
tively clung to the circle of people who looked upon life 
just sa she did. When she noticed that Nekhlyiidov 
wished to take her into another world, she set herself 
\ against this, for she foresaw that in the world into which 
' he was enticing her she would have to lose that place in 
life which.gave her confidence and self-respect. For thia 
same reason she warded off every recollection of her first 
youth and of her first relations with Nekhlyildov. These 
recollections did not harmonize wit^ her present world 
conception, and so they had been entirely obliterated 
from her memory, or, to be more correct, they lay some- 
where untoncbed in her memory, but they were shut up 
and immured as bees immure the nests of the worms 
which are likely to destroy their whole labour, so that 
there should be no getting to them. Therefore, the 
present Nekhlyiidov was for her not the man whom she 
had once loved with a pure love, but only a rich gentle- 
man who could and must be made use off, and with 
whom she could have the same relations aa with all men. 
" No, I could not tell her the main thing," thoc^t 
Kekhlyddov, walking with the throng to the entrance. 
" I have not told her that I want to marry her. I have 
not yet told her, but I will," he thought. 

The wardens, standing at the doors, again counted the 
people twice, as they passed out, lest a superfiuous person 
leave the prison oc be left behind. He not only was not 
offended by the slap on his shoulder, but did not even 
notice it. 



KBKHLTfiDOV wanted to change his external life: to 
give up his large quarters, send away the servants, and 
move to a hotel But Agraf^na Petrdvna proved to him 
that there was no sense in makiog any change in his 
manoeT of life before winter ; no one would hire his qoai^ 
ters in the summer, and in the ineantinie one had to live 
and keep the furniture and things somewhere. Thus, 
all efforts of Nekhlyildor to change his external life (he 
wanted to arrange thii^ simply, in student fashion) 
came to naught Not only was everything left as of old, 
but in the house began an intensified activity of airing 
the rooms, of hanging out and beating all kinds of woollen 
and fur things, in which the janitor and his assistant, and 
the cook, and even Eom^y himself took part First they 
brought out and hung up on ropes all kinds of uniforms 
and strange fur things, which were never used by any- 
body ; then they carried out the rugs and furniture, and 
the janitor and his assistant, rolling up their sleeves over 
their muscular arms, began to beat these in even measure, 
and an odour of naphthalene was spread through all the 

Walking through the yard and looking out of the 
window, Nekhlyiidov marvelled at the mass of all these 
things, and how most of them were unquestionably use- 
less. The only use and purpose of these things, so 
Nekhlyddov thought, was to give a chance for physical 
ezercdae to Agraf^na PetnSvna, Kom^y, the janitor, and 
. . hie assistant. 

" It is not worth while to change the form of life now, 



while M&Blova's case hu not yet been passed apoD," 
thought Nekhljiidoy. " Besides, that would be too diffi- 
cult a matter. Everything will change of itself, whea 
she is released, or tiansported, in which case I will follow 

On the day appointed by lawyeor Fanirin, N^ekhlyddov 
drove to his house. Upon entering the magmficent 
apartments of the lawyer's own house, with immense 
plants and wonderful curtains is the windows, and, in 
general, with those expulsive famiahings which testify 
to money earned without labour, such as is found only 
with people who have suddenly grown rich, Nekhlyiidov 
met in the waiting-room a number of clients who, as in 
a physician's office, were waiting for their turns, sitting 
gloomily around tables with their illustrated magazines, 
which were to help them while away their time. The 
lawyer's assistant, who was sitting there too, at a high 
desk, upon recogniziDg Nebhlyiidov, came up to him, 
greeted him, and told him that he would at once announce 
him to his chief. But he had barely walked up to the 
door of the office, when it was opened, and there could 
be beard the loud, animated conversation of a middle- 
^ed, stocky man, with a red face and thick moustacbe, 
in an entirely new attire, and of Fan^n himself. On 
the faces of both was an expression such as one sees in 
the countenances of people who have transacted a very 
profitable, but not very dean business. 

" It ifl your own fault, my friend," said Fan^rin, smil- 

" I should like to find my way into peaudise, but my 
sins won't let me git there." 

" Very well, very well, I know." 

And both laughed an unnatural laugh. 

" Ah, prince, please come in," said Fanirin, upon notic- 
ing Nekhlyiidov, and, nodding once more to the departing 
merchant, he led Nekhlyiidov into his office, which was 


BBsmtBEcnoH 227 

fumiflhad in severe style. "Pleaae, have a cigarette," 
said the lawyer, aeatitig himaeU opposite Nekblytldov and 
represaing a smile provoked by the sucoeas of hia previous 

" Thank yon, I have come to find out about Mislova." 

" Tea, yes, in a minate. Oh, vhat rascals these fat- 
purses are ! " he said. " You have seen the fellow ? He 
has twelve miUiooe, — and yet he says ' giL' But if he 
can pull a twenty-five-rouble bill out of you, be will pull 
it out with his teeth." 

" He says, ' git,' and yon say, ' twenty-five-iouble 
bill,'" Nekhlyiidov thought in the meantime, feeling an 
nucontrollable disgust for this glib man, who by his tone 
wished to show him that he was of the same camp with 
Nekhlyiidov, but entirely apart from the rest of the 
dieota who were waiting for him, and from all other 

" He has tired me out dreadfully, — he is a worthless 
chap. I wanted to have a breathing spell," said the 
lawyer, as though to justify himself for not talkiug busi- 
ness. " Well, your aSut — I have read it carefully and 
'have not approved of its contents,' as Tnigteev says; 
Uiat is, he was a miserable lawyer, — he has omitted all 
the causes for annulment." 

" So what is your decision ? " 

" In a minute. Tell him," he turned to the assistant, 
who had just entered, " that it will be as I told him. If 
he can, it is all right ; if not, he does not have to." 

" But he does not agree to it." 

" He' does not have to," said the lawyer, and bis gay 
and gracious face suddenly became gloomy and mean. 

« And they say that lawyeni take money for nothing," 
he said, the previous suavity overspreading hia face. " I 
saved a bankrupt debtor from an entirely irregular acca- 
satim, and now they all crawl to me. But every suoh 
case means an immense amount of labour. As some 



autiior has said, we leave a piece of oar flesh in tiie ink- 

" Well, as I said, your case, or the case in which you 
are interested," he continQed, "has been miserably con- 
ducted ; there are no good caases for annulment ; still 
we ahsll try, and here is what I have written." 

He took a sheet of paper covered with writing, and, 
lapidly swallowing some formal words and pronouncing 
others with particular emphasis, b^as to read : " To the 
Criminal Department of Cassatioo, etc, such and such a 
ooe, etc, complaining. By the decree of the verdict, etc., 
of etc., a certain M^lova was declared guilty of having 
deprived Merchant Smyelki5v of his life by means of 
pcttsOQ, and by force of ait. 1,464 of the Code she has 
been sentenced to, etc, enforced labour, etc" 

He stopped. In spite of being accustomed to it, he 
evidently listened with pleasure to his own production. 
" This sentence is the result of so many important judi- 
cial mistakes and errors," he continued, with emphasis, 
"that it is subject to reversal In the first place, the 
reading of the report of the investigation of Smyelk<5v'B 
internal organs was, in the very b^inning of the trial, 
interrupted by the presiding judge, — that is one." 

" But the prosecuting attorney asked for the reading of 
it," Nekhlyiidov said, id surprise. 

"Makes no difference. The defence might have had 
cause to ask for it" 

" But there was no earthly use in it." 

" Still, this is a cause Further : In the second place, 
M^alova's counsel," he continued to read, " was interrupted 
during his .speedy by the presiding judge, just as he, de- 
siring to diaracterize M&lova's personality, was touching 
on the internal causes of her fall, on the ground that the 
counsel's words were not relevant to the case, whereas in 
criminal cases, as has repeatedly been passed upon by the 
Senate, the elucidation of the defendant's character and 



of his moral traito Id general are of prime importance, if 
for DOthing else than the correct determination of the 
qaestion of imputation, — that is two," he said, {^ancing 
at NekhlyddoT. 

" But he spoke so wretchedly that it was impoasible to 
understand him," said Nekhlyddov, even more astonished 
than befcffe. 

"The fellow is stupid, and, of course, could not eaj 
anythiug sensible," Fan&in said, laughing, " but still it is 
a cause. Well, next : In the third place, in bis final 
charge, the presiding judge, contrary to the categorical 
demand of par. 1, art. 801 of the Code of Crim. Jur., 
did not explain to the jaty of what juridical elements 
the concept of culpability is composed, and did not tell 
them that they bad the r^ht, in assuming as proven the 
fact that M^lova had administered the poison to Smyel- 
ki5v, not to ascribe to her any guilt in the act, if intent 
of murder was absent, and thus to find her guilty, not of 
the criminal intent, but of the act, as the result of care- 
lessness, From the coDsegueocee of which, contrary to 
M&lova's intent, ensued the meichast's death. This is 
the main thing." 

*■ But we oi^jht to have understood that ourselves. It 
was our error." 

"And, finally, in the fourth plaiJe," continued the 
lawyer, "the question of M^lova's guilt was given to 
Uie jury in a form which contained a palpable contradic- 
tion. MJsIova was accused of premeditated murder of 
Smyelk($v for purely selfish purposes, which appeared as 
the only motive for the murder ; whereas the jury in 
their answer rejected the purpose of robbery and M^lova's 
puticipation in the theft of the valoables, — from which 
it is manifest that it was their intention to refute the 
defendant's premeditation in the murder, and only by 
misunderstanding, caused by the incomplete wording in 
tiie charge of the presiding judge, did the^ not eziHWs 



it in proper form in their answer, and therefore such an 
answer of the jury unconditionally required the applies^ 
tion of arte. 816 and 808 of the Code of Grim. Jnr., 
that is, the explanation by the presiding judge of the 
error which had been committed, and their return for a 
new cousultatiou in regard to the question of defendant's 
guilt," read Fanfbin. 

" Why, then, did the presiding judge not do so ? " 

" I should myself like to know why," said Fanirin, 

" Then, you think, the Senate will rectify the error ? " 

"That depends upon who will be in the chair at the 
given moment. 3o here it is. Further I say: Such a 
verdict did not give the court any right," he continued, 
in a rapid tone, " to subject M^lova to criminal punish- 
ment, and the application in her case of par. 3, art. 771 
of the Code of Crim- Jur. forms a distinct and important 
violation of the fundamental principles of our criminal 
procedure. On the basis of the facts herein described I 
have the himour of asking, etc, to set aside, in accordance 
with arts. 909, 910, pu-. 2 of 912, and 928 of the Code 
of Grim. Jur. etc, and to transfer the case into another 
division of the same court for retrial — So, you see, every- 
thing has been done that can be done. But I shall be 
frank with you, — there ia little probability of any success. 
However, everything depends on the composition of the 
Department of the Senate. If you have any influence, 
make a personal appeal" 

" I know some people there." 

" Do it at once, for they will soon leave to cure their 
piles, and then you will have to wait three months. 
In case of a failure, there is stall left an aj^ieal to his 
Majesty. This also depends on wire-pulling. In that 
case I am ready to serve you, that is, not in the wire- 
pulling, but ID composing the petitaon." 

" I thank you. And your fee — " 



« M7 aasigtaiit will give you a clean copy of the appeal, 
oad he will tell you." 

" I wanted to ask you another thing. The proeeoating 
attorney has given me a permit to see that pemm in 
priaou ; bat there I was toU that I shonld need a special 
permiuicai from t^e governor, if I wished to see her at 
any other than the regular time and place. Is tlu^ 
necessary T" 

" Yes, I think so. But now the governor ia not here, 
and the vice-governor is performing his duties. He is 
such an all-around fool that you will scarcely get any- 
thing out of him." 

" Is it Masl^nnikov ? " 


" I know him," said Nekhlyildov, rising, in order to leave. 

Jost then there glided into the room, with a swift motioD, 
a fearfully homely, snub-nosed, boay, sallow woman, — 
the lawyer's wife, wlio apparently was not in the least 
abashed by her ugliness. She was clad in a most original 
manner, — she was rigged up in aometJiiug vedvety, and 
silky, and bright yellow, and gt«en, and her thin hair 
was dl pafTed up ; she victorioaaLy sailed into the waiting- 
room, accompanied by a lank, smiling man with an earthen 
hue on his face, in a coat with silk lapels, sjid a white 
tie. It was an author, whom Nekhlyddov knew by si^t. 

" Anat^," she proclaimed, opening the door. " Come 
to my apartmenL Sem^n Iv^ovich has promised to 
read his poem, and you must by all means read about 

" Please, prince, — I know you and consider an intro- 
duction superfluous, — come to our lit^nry mating ! It 
will be very interesting. Ajiat6l reads beautifully." 

"You see how many different things I have to do," 
said ADat<$l, waving his hands, smiling, and pointing to 
bis wife, meaning to say that it was impossible to with- 
stand such an enchantress. 



Nddilfildov diftDked the lawyer's wife, with a Bad and 
stem ezpreBsion and with the greatest dvility, for the 
hoaour of the mTibitJtui, but excused himself for lack of 
time, and went into the waiting-room. 

" How finical," the lawyer's wife said of him, when he 

In the waiting-room, the assistant handed Nekhlyiidov 
the prepared petition, and, to the que8ti<m about the fee, 
he said that Anat<31i Petr6vich had put it at one thousand 
roubles, adding that Anatdh FetrtSvich did not generally 
take such cases, but he had done so to accommodate him. 

" Who must sign the petition 7 " asked Nekhlyiidov. 

" The defendant herself may ; but if her signature ia 
difficult to get, Anat<51i P^.nSvich will do so, after getting 
her power of attorney." 

" I will go down myself and get her signature," said 
NekhlyddoT, happy to have a diance of seeing her befor« 
the appointed day. 



At the usual time the whistles of the wardeiis were 
aoanded along the corridors ; clftukiug the irou, the doora 
of the conidora and cells were opened ; there was a plash- 
ing of bare feet and of the heels of the prison shoes ; the 
privy-cleaners passed along the corridors, filhng the air 
with a nauseating stench ; the prisoners washed and 
dressed themselTes, and came out into the corridors for 
the rdl-call, after which they went for the boiling water 
to make tea with. 

During the tea, animated conversations were held in 
all the cells of the prison in r^ard to the two prisoners 
. who on that day were to be flogged with switches. One 
of these was an intelligent young man, clerk VasQev, who 
bad killed his sweetheart in a ht of jealousy. The fellow 
prisoners of his cell liked him for hia jollity, generosity, 
and fimmass in respect to the authorities. He knew the 
laws and demanded their execution. For this the prison 
officials did not like him. Three weeks before, a •waidea 
had struck a privy-cleaner for having spilled t^ liquid 
on his new uniform. Vasllev took the privy-cleaner's 
part, saying that there was no law which permitted him 
(0 strike a prisoner. " I wiU show you a law," said the 
warden, and called Yosflev names. Vasflev paid him 
hack in the same coin. The warden wanted to strike him, 
but Vasflev caught hold of his hands, holding them thus 
for about three minutes, when he turned him around and 
kicked him out. The warden entered a complaint, and the 
superintendent ordered Vasflev to be placed in a career. 

The careers were a series of dark store-rooms, whidi 


234 KasoBBBCnoN 

were locked from the outside by iron bais. In the dark, 
cold career there was neither a bed, nco* table, nor chair, 
BO that the person confined there had to sit or lie on the 
dirty floor, where he waa overrun t^ rats, of which there 
were a lai^ Dumber, wbidi were so bold that it was 
impoaaible in the darkness to save the bread. They ai/e 
it out of the hands of the prisonra?, and even attacked 
them, the moment they ceased to stir. Yasilev said that 
he would not go to the career, because he was not guilty 
of anything. He was taken there by force. He offered 
resifiUmcfl, and two prisoners helped him to get away 
from the wardens. The wardens came toge^er, and 
among them Petr^v, famous for his strength. The pris- 
oners were subdued and placed in the careers. A report 
was Immediately made to the governor that something 
like a riot had token place. A reply was received, in 
which it was decreed that the two instigators, VasQev 
and vagabond Neptfmnyashchi, should get thirty blows 
with switches. 

The castigation was to be administered in the women's 
visiting-room. All the inmates of the prison had known 
of this since the previous evening, and the impending 
castigation formed the subject of animated discussions. 

Eorabl^a, Beauty, FedtSsya, and MMova were sitting 
in their comer, and all of them, red in their faces and 
agitated, having drunk brandy, which now was continu- 
ally imbibed by M^ova, and to which she liberally 
treated her companions, were drinking tea and discussing 
the same matter. 

" He has not been riotous," said KorabWva of VasQev, 
biting off tiny pieces of sugar with all her sound teeth. 
"He only took his comrade's part, because it is against 
the law now to strike a person." 

" They say he is a good fellow," added Fedtfsya, with 
her long braids uncovered, who was sitting on a piece of 
wood near the bench on which the teapot was standing. 



"Ton oaght to tell liim, Mikh^ylovna," the flagwomau 
addreased HMovb, meaning NekhlyiidoT b; "bint" 

" I viU tell bim. He wilt do anything tor me," replied 
UfUloTa, smiling and toaaing hei bead. 

" But it will be a while b^ore be comes, and they Bay 
thej have just gone for them," said FediJsya. " It is 
terrible," she added, with a sigh. 

*■ I once saw them flogging a peasant in the office of 
the township. Fatiier-in-Jaw had sent me to t^e village 
edder; when I arrived there, behold — " and the flag- 
woman began a long story. 

The flagwoman's story was interrupted by the sound of 
voices and steps in the upper corridor. 

The women grew quiet and listened. 

" They have dragged bim away, the devils," said Beauty. 
" They will give him a terrible flogging, for the wardens 
are dreadfully angry at him ; he gives tiiem no rest." 

Everything quieted down up-stairs, and the flagwoman 
ended her story, how she had been frightened in the town* 
ship office, as they were flogging a peasant in the bam, 
and how all her entrails had felt like leaping out Beau^ 
theu told how ShcheglfSv had been flogged with whips, 
and how he had not uttered a soond. Then Feddsya took 
the tea away, and Korabl^va and the flagwomau b^an to 
sew, while Mislova sat up on the bendb, embracing her 
knees, and pining away from ennnL She was on the 
point of lying down to take a nap, when the matron 
called her to the office to see a visitor. 

"Do tell bim about us," said old woman Mensh6v to 
her, while M^lova was arranging her kerchief before the 
mirror, of which half the quicksilver was worn ofil " We 
did not commit the arson, but he himself, the scoundrel, 
aud the labourer saw it ; he would not kill a souL Tell 
him to call out MitiL Mftri will make it as plain to him 
aa if it were in the palm of his band. Here we are locked 
np, wheieaa we know nothing about it, while he, the scoon- 



diel, ia diflpotting with another man's wife, and staying all 
the time in an inn." 

" llkis ia against the law," Eoiabl^va confirmed her. 

"I will tell him, I certainly wiU," repHed M^ova. 
" Let me have a drink to brace me up," she added, wink- 
ing with one eye. Eorabl^ra filled half a cup for her. 
Mjalova drained it, wiped her lips, and in the happiest 
frame of mlDii, repeating the words, " To brace me up," 
Bhaking her head, and smiling, followed the matron into 
the corridor. 



K]iKHLTtfDOT liad long besD waitiDg for her in Gm 
vestibula Upon airiving at the prison, he rang the bell 
at the entrance door, and banded the warden of the da; 
the prosecuting attorney's permit 

" Whom do you want to see K 

" Pristmer M^ova." 

" You can't now ; the auperinteadent is busy." 

" Is he in the office ? " asked KekblyiidoT. 

" No, here in the visitorB' room," the warden replied 
with embarrassment, as Nekhlyiidov thought. 

" Is to-day reception-day ? " 

" Ko, there is some special buajnesa," he said. 

" How, then, can I see him ? " 

" When he comes out, you may speak to him. Wait 

Just then a sei^eant, in sparkling galloons and witil a 
beaming, shining face and a moustache saturated with 
tobacco smoke, came in through a side door and sternly 
oddreBsed the warden. 

" Why did you let him in here ? To the office — " 

" I was told that the superintendent was here," Kekh- 
lyddoT said, wondering at ^e unrest which was percepti- 
ble in the sergeant, toa 

Just then the inner door was opened, and perepiriog, 
excited FetrtSv came in. 

" He will remember this," he said, turning to the ser^ 
geant The sergeant indicated Nekblyddov by a glance, 
and PetnSv grew sil^it, frowned, and passed out through 
the bock door. 



238 BssUBBEcnoN 

« Who will nmember } Vfhj are tbaj all so embar- 
rassed'? Why did the sergeant make such a eigo to 
him 1 " thought NekhlyiidoT. 

"You cannot -wait hete. Please, come to the offioe," 
the sergeant again addressed NekhlyddoT, and NekhlTiidov 
vas about to go, when the eupraintendent entered throngh 
the back door, even more embaimssed than hia saboidi- 
nates. He was sighing all the time. Upon noticing 
Nekhlyiidov, he tamed to the warden. 

" Fed(Stov, bring Mislova from the fifth of the women to 
the otQce," he said. 

" Please, follow nle," he said to NekhlyifdoT. They 
went over a steep staircase to a small room with <Hie 
window, with a writing-desk, and a few chairs. The 
superintendent eat down. " Hard, hard duties," ho said, 
taming to Nekhlyildor, and taking out a fat ciga- 

* You are evidently tired," said Nekhlyiidov. 

" I am tired of this whole service, — the duties are 
Tery hard. You try to alleviate their lot, and it turns 
out worsa All I am thinking of is how to get away. 
Hard, hard duties." 

Nekhlyiidov did not know what that difficulty of tlie 
superintendents was, but on that day be noticed in him a 
peculiar, gloomy, and hopeless mood, which evoked his 

" Yes, I suppose it is very hard," he said. " But why 
do you execute this duty ? " 

" I have no other means, and I have a family." 

" But if it is hard for you — " 

" Still, I must tell you, I am doing some good, so far as 
in my power lies; I alleviate whoever I can. Many 
a man would do differently in my place. It is not an 
easy matter to take care of two thousand peofde, and such 
people t One must know how to treat them. I feel like 
piling them. And yet I dare not be too iodnlgent." 



The snperintendeiit told of a receot brawl between the 
prisooers, whi^ had ended in murder. 

His story waa mtermpted b; the arriTal ai iligkem, 
preceded by a warden. 

NekhlfiidoT saw her in the door, before she noticed the 
euperint^dent. Her face was red. She walked briskly 
iMck of the warden, and kept smiling and shaking her 
head. Upon observing the superintendent, she glanced 
at him with a frightened expression, but immediately 
regained her composure, and boldly and cheerfully 
addressed Nekblyddov. 

" Good morning," she said, in a singsong voice, and 
smiling ; she shook his hand Grmly, not as at die prerioos 

" I have brought you a petition to sign," said Nekh- 
lyifdoT, somewhat surprised at the bolder manner with 
which she now met bim. " The lawyer has written this 
petition, and now you have to sign it before it is sent to 
St. Petersburg." 

" Very well, I sbaB sign it One may do aoytbing," 
she said, blinking with one ^e, and smiluig. 

Nekhlyiidov drew the fcdded sheet out of his pocket 
and went up to the table. 

" May she sign it here ? " Kekhlytidov asked tlie saper- 

"Come here and ait down," saul the supeiintendent. 
" Here is a pen. Can you write 1 " 

" I once knew how," she said, and, smiling and adjust- 
ing her skirt and the sleeve of her bodice, sat down at 
the table, awkwardly took up the pen with her small, 
energetic hand, and, laughing, glanced at Xekhlyttdov. 

He showed her where and what to write. Carefully 
dipping and shaking off the pen, she signed her name. 

" Is this all ? " she asked, glancing now at Nekhlyddov, 
now at the superintendent, and placing the pen now on 
the inkstand and now on some papers. 



"I have somethmg to tell joa," said Nekhlyddor, 
taking the pen out of her hand. 

" Very well, tell it," she said, raddenly becoming se- 
tions, as thon^ meditatjng about somethiD^ or minting 
to fall aaleep. 

The superintendent arose and went out, and Kekh- 
lyildoT was left alone with her. ,/ 



Tbx vaiden who had broaght M^ov^.sat down on the 
window-eill, at a distance from the talrAe. For Nekh- 
lyiddoT the dedsive moment had arrived. He was 
contmoally reproaching himself for not having told hw 
the main thing at their first meeting, namely, that he 
wished to many her, and so he decided to tell her now. 
She was sitting at one side of the table, and NekhlyiidoT 
sat down opposite her, on the other sid& The room was 
light, and Nekhlyddoy for the first time clearly saw her 
face, dose to him; he saw the wrinkles near her eyes 
and lips and swollen eyelids, and he felt even more pity 
for her than before. 

Leaning over the table, so as not to be heard by die 
warden, a man of Jewish type, with grayish side-whiskers, 
who was sitting at the window, — ^e only ooe in the 
room, — -he said: 

" n the petition does not hear froit, we shall appeal to 
his Majesty. We shall do all Uiat can be done." 

" The main thing would be to have a good lawyer — •" 
she isterrapted him. " My counsel was an all-around 
fooL He did nothing but make me compliments," she 
said, smiling. "If they had known then that I was 
acquainted with you, things would have gone differently. 
But 08 things are, everybody thinks that I am a thief." 

" How stnnge she is to-day," thooght Nekhlyiidov, and 
was on the point of saying something when she began to 
speak agsin. 

" This is what I have to say. There is an old woman 
cmfined witii us, and all, you know, ate marvelling at 




hen. Such a fise old wonum, and yet she is imprisoned 
for BOthing, and bo Ib her soo, wd all IcBow Uiat they ars 
not goilty ; th^ are accused of Tocendiarism. She beard, 
yoa kn^w, that I am acquaintedfWith yon," said Mtislova, 
taming her head and looking at him, " so she said, ' Tell 
him about it, that he may call out my son, who will 
tdl him the fact.' Menshdv is th^ nama WeU, will yoa 
do it ? Yoa k^w, she is such a charming old woman : 
anybody can sec^iat she is innoc^t. My dear, do some- 
thing for them," she %tdd, glahcing at him, lowering her 
eyes; and smiling. 

" Very well, I shall find out and do. what I can," said 
Nekhlyiidov, wondering ever more at her ease. " But I 
want to speak bo you about my affair. Do you re- 
member what I told you the last time I " he said. 

" You said many things. What did you say then ? " 
she said, smihng aU the time, and turning her head now 
to one side and now to another. 

" I said that I came to ask yonr forgiveness," he said. 

" What is the use all the time askmg to be forgiven T 
What good will that do ? Yoa had better — " 

" That I want to atone for my guilt," continued Kekh- 
lyddov, ** and to atone not in words, bnt in deeds. I have 
decided to marry you — " 

Her face suddenly expressed affright. Her eqnintiog 
ag^es stood motionless and gazed at him. 

" What do you want that for ? " she said, with a scowL 

" I feel that I ought to do so before Grod." 

" What Qod have you f onnd there ? You are not talk- 
ing the right thing. God ? What Crod I You ought to 
have thought of God then — " A% said, and, opening her 
mouth, stopped. 

Ne^IySdov only now amelled her strong breath of 
Uqum*, and understood the cause of her agitation. 

" C^ljp yourself," be said. 

" l^ere is nothing to calm myself about ; yoa think 



that I am dranh So I am, bat I bnow what I am say- 
ing I " she spoke rapidly, with a purple blnah. " I am a 
convict, a whore, but you are a gentleman, a prince, and 
you have no bueinesB aoiling yourself witb me. Go to 
your prinoeaBea ; my price la a red bank-notei" 

" However cruelly you may speak, you cannot ^y all 
that I feel," Nekhlyildov aaid, softly, all in a trembla 
" You cannot imagine to what extent I feel my guilt 
toward you 1 " • ^ 

" Feel my guilt — " she mocked him, ' with inalio& 
*■ Then you did not (eel, but stuck one hundred roubles 
in my bosom. That is your price — " 

" I know, I know, but what ia to be done now T " said 
Nekhlyildoy. " I have made up my mind that I will not 
leave you. I will do what I have told you I would." 

" And I say you will not do so," she cried, laughing out 
loud. ^ 

" Xatyiisha 1 " he began, Umching her hand. 

"Go away from me. I am a convict, and you are ' 
a prince, and yoa have no business here," she exclaimed, 
all transformed by her anger, and pulling her hand away 
from him. 

" Yoa want to save yourself through me," Ae continued, 
hastening to utter everything that was rising in her sooL 
"Yoa have enjoyed me in this world, and yoa want to get 
your salvation through me in the world to come ! I loatha 
you, and your glasses, and your fat, accaised mag. Go 
away, go away I " she taied, springing to her feet with an 
energetic morion. 

The warden walked ap to them. 

" Don't make such a scandal It will not do — " 

" Leave her alone, if you please," said KekhlyiidoT. 

" X just wanted her not to forget herself," said the 

" No, just wait awhile, if you please," said Kekhtyddov. 

The warden walked back to the window. 



M^ora sat down again, loweiing her Ayes and tightlf 
dasping her small hands with their fingers crossed. 

NekblyiidoT was standing over her, not knowing what 
to do. 

" YoQ do not beliave me," he said. , 

" That 70U will many me \ That will nevei happen. I 
will hang myself rather than many you 1 So there yoa 
have it." 

" Still I will servB yon." 

" That is yoor affair. Only I do not need anything 
from yon. I am telling you tjie truth," she said 

" Why did I not die then ? " she added, bnrstiug out 
into pitiful tears. 

Nekhlyildov coold not speak, for her tears were com- 
manicated to him. 

She raised hei head, looked at him, as though io sur- 
' prise, and began with her kerchief to diy the tears that 
were coursing down her cheeks. 

The warden now came ap and reminded them that the 
time had expired. 

M^sbva got up. 

" Yoa are excited now. If I can, I shall be here to- 
morrow. In the meantime think it over," said Nekhlyii- 

She did not reply, and. without looking at him, went 
out with the warden. 

" Well, girl, yon will have a fine time now," Earabl^va 
said to M&lova, when she returned to the cell " He is 
evidently dreadfully stuck on you. Be on the lookout 
while he comes to see you. He will release you. Rich 
people can do everythii^." 

" That's so," said the flagwoman, in her singsong voice. 
" Let a poor man many, and the night is too short ; bnt 
a rich man, — let him make ap his mind for auj^thing, 
and ereryt^iing will happen as he wishes. My darling, 
we once had such a respectable gentleman who — " 



* Well, did 70a speak to him about my aSut ? " the 
old woman asked. 

Mislova did not reply to her companions, but lay down 
on the bench and, fixuig her squinting eyes upon the 
corner, lay thus until evening. An agonizing work waa 
going on within her. That which Nekhlyddov had told 
ber brought her back to the world, in which she had suf- 
fered, and which she had left, without understanding it, 
and hating it. She now lost the obliTion in which she 
had been living, and yet it was too painful to live with a 
clear memory of what bad happened. 



" So tluB it is, this it is," thought Nekhlyildov, npcm 
coming av^y from the jail, and dow for the first time 
grasping his whole guilt. If he had not tried to atone, to 
expiate bis deed, he voald never have felt the extent of 
his crimn; moreover, she would not have become ixm- 
scious of the whole wrong which was done her. Only 
now everything had come to the aurface, in aU its terror. 
He now saw for the first time what it was he had done 
with the soul of that woman, and she saw and compre- 
hended what had been done to her. Before tiaa, Nekhlyif- 
dov had been playing with his sentiment of self-adulation 
and of repentance, and now he simply felt terribly. To 
cast her off, that, he felt, he never could do, and yet he 
could not imagine what wonld come of his relations with 

At the entrance, Nekblyildov was approached hy a 
warden, with crosses and decorations, who, with a (usa- 
greeable and insinuating face and in a mysterious manner, 
handed him a note. 

" Here is a note to your Serenity from a person — " he 
said, giving Xekhlyddov an envelope. 

" What person ? " 

" Bead it, and you will see. A political piiBooer. I 
am a warden of that division, — so she asked me to give 
it to you. Although this is not permitted, yet hnman- 
ity — " the warden said, in an unnatural voice. 

KekhlyildoT vras amazed to see a warden of the polit- 
ical division handing him a note, in the prison itself, almoat 
in view of everybody. He did not yet know that tbis war- 



den waa also a spy, but he took the note aod read it as 
he came out of tLe jail The note was written with a 
pencil, in a bold band, in reformed orthography, and ran 
aa f oliaWB : 

"Having learned Uiat you are visiting the prison in 
iBtereBt of a criminal prisoner, I wanted to meet you. Ask 
for an interview with me. You will get the permission, 
and I will tell you many important things, both for your 
prot%^ and for our group. Ever grateful 

" Yt&bjl Bogod6khov8Kl" 

Vy^ra Bogodilkhovaki had been a teacher in the wilder^ 
nesses of the Government of N<5vgorod, whither Nekhlyti- 
doT had gone to hunt with some pomrades of his. Tim 
teacher had tamed to him with the request to give her 
mon^ with whidi to attend the higher courses. Nekblytl- 
dov luid given her the money and had forgotten all about 
it Now it turned out that this lady was a political crim- 
inal, and in prison, where, no doubt, she had heard of his 
affair, and now proposed her services to him. 

How easy and simple everything had been theiL And 
how hard and complicated everything was now. Nekh- 
lyddov vividly and with pleasure thought of that tame 
and of his acquaintance with Vy^ra Bogodilkbovski. 
That happened before the Butter- week, in the wilderness, 
about dxty versts from the nearest railroad. The chase 
had been successful ; they had killed two bears, and were 
at dinner, before their departure, when the proprietor of 
the cabin in which they were stopping came in and 
announced that the deaeon's daughter had come to see 
Prince Nekhlyiidov. " Is she pretty ? " somebody asked. 
" Please, don't," said Nekhlytldov, looking serious ; he 
rose from table, wiped his mouth, and wondering what 
the deacon's daughter could wish of him, went into the 
landlord's room. 



The girl was there. She wore a felt hat and a fur 
coat ; she voa venous, and had a thin, homely face, hut 
her ^es, with the browB arching upwards, were beautiful. 

" Vy&a Efi^movna, speak with him," aaid the old 
hostess ; " this is die prince. I shall go ont" 

" Wluit can I do for ;ou ? " said NekhlyildoT. 

"I — I — Yon see, you are rich, you squander money 
aa trifles, on the chase, I know," began t^e girl, dread- 
fully embarrassed, " and I want only one thing, — I want 
to be useful to people, and I can't becaase I know 

Her eyes were sincere and kindly, and the whole ex- 
pression, both of her determinatioD and timidity, was so 
pathetic that Nekhlyiidov, as sometimes happened with 
him, at once put himself in her place, and he understood 
and pitied her. 

"What can I do for you?" 

" I am a teacher, but shonld like to attend the higher 
coufsea. They won't let me. Not exactly they wont 
let me, but they have no means. Give me the necessary 
money, and I will pay you back when I am through 
with my studies. I have been thinking that rich people 
bait bears and give peasants to drink, — and that idl that 
is bad. Why could they not do some good, too ? All I 
need is eighty roublea And if you do not wish to do 
me the favour, well and good," she said, angrily. 

" On the contrary, I am very much obliged to you for 
givii^ me this opportunity — 1 shall bring it to you in 
a minnte," said Nekhlyiidov, 

He went into the vestibule, and there met bis compan- 
ion, who had heard the whole conversation. Without 
replying to the jokes of his comrades, he took the mon^ 
out of his poucl^ and brought it out to her. 

" Please, please, don't thank me for it. It is I who 
must be thankfuL" 

It. now gave Xekhlyifdov pleasure to think of all that; 



it gave him pleasoie to think how he come vtiry Dear 
quarrelling with ao officer who wanted to make a bad 
joke abont it; and how another comrade defended him; 
and how, on account of that, he became a cloee friend of 
his; and how the whole chaae had been sncceBfiful and 
happy ; and how good he felt as they were retuming in 
the uight to the railroad station. The processioQ of two- 
horse sleighs moved in single file, noiselessly trotting 
along the narrow road through the forest, with its tall 
trees here and its bushes there, and its firs shrouded in 
thick layers of snow. Somebody, flashing a red fire 
in the darkness, lifted a fragrant cigarette. 6sip, the 
bear driver, ran from sleigh to sleigh, knee-deep in 
the snow, straightening things out, and telling about the 
elks that now walked over the deep snow, gnawing at 
Uie aspen bark, and about the bears Uiat now lay in their 
hidden lairs, exhaling tiieir warm breath through the 
air-holes. Nekhlyiidoy thought of all that, and, above 
all else, of the blissful consciousness of his health and 
strength and a life free from cares. His lungs, expand- 
ing against the fur coat, inhaled the frosty air ; upon his 
face dropped the snowflakes from the branches which 
were touched by the horses' arches ; and on his soul 
there were no caree, no regrets, no fear, no desires. How 
good it all was I And now ? Ixad, how painful and 
oppressive I 

Obviously Vyira Efr^movna was a revolutionist, and 
now confined in prison for revolutionist affairs. He 
ougbt to see her, especially since she promised to advise 
him how to improve Mflslova's situation. 


Upon awakening the next morning, Kekhlyildov re- 
ceUed everything that had happened ^e day before, and 
he was honified. 

Still, QOtwi^LBtaoding hia terror, he decided, more firmly 
ttian ever before, to continae the work which he had 

Witlt this feeling of the coQaciousnesa of hia daty, be 
left the hoase, and rode to Masl^anikov, to ask for the 
permission to visit in the jail, not only M^Iovb, but also 
the old woman MensbtSv and her son, for whom M&lova 
had interceded. He also wished to be permitted to see 
Ty^ Bogodiikbovaki, who might be useful to MtUlova. 

Nekhlyiidov used to know Masl^nnikov in the army. 
Mael^nn^ov was then t^e regiment's treasurer. He was 
a very good-hearted, moet obedient officer, who knew 
notfaii^ and wanted to know nothing bat the r^ment 
and the imperial family. Now Nekblyddov found him 
as an administrator, who had exchanged the regiment for 
a Government and its office. He was married to a rich 
and vivacious woman, who compelled him to leave his 
military service for a civil appointment. 

She made fun c^ him and petted him like a dodle 
animal Nekhlyildov had once been at their house the 
winter before, but he found the couple so uninteresting 
that he never called again. 

Maaldnnikov beamed with joy when he saw Nekhlyii- 
dov. He had the same fat, red face, and the same cor- 
pulence, and the same gorgeous attiie that distinguished 
him in the aimy. Thrae it had been an ever dean uni- 



torn, wliich fitted over his shoulders and breast acoord- 
iDg to the latest demands of taehion, or a fatigae coat. 
Here it was a civil officer's dress, of the latest fashion, 
vhich fitted just as snugly over his well-fed body and 
displayed a broad chest. He was clad in his vice-uniform. 
Notwithstanding the disparity of their years (Masl&mi- 
kov was about forty), they spoke " thou " to eat^ other. 

" Well, I am glad you have come. Let us go to my 
wife. I have just t^ minutes free before the meeting. 
My chief is away, and so I rule the GovemmeDt," he 
8aul with a pleasure which he could not conceal 

" I have come on business to you." 

" What is it ? " Masl^nnikor said, as thoa^ on his 
guard, in a frightened and somewhat severe tone. 

" In the jail there is a person in whom I am very much 
int«iested " (at the word " jail " Masl4nnikov's face looked 
sterner still), " and I should like to meet that person, not 
in the general reception-room, but in the office, and not 
only on stated days, but oftener. I was told that this 
depended on you." 

" Of course, tnon cher, I am ready to do anything I can 
for you," said Masl&mikov, touching his knees witii both 
hands, as though to mollify his majesty. " I can do that> 
but, you see, I am caHph only for an hour." 

" So you win give me a pcomit to see her ? " 

" It is a woman ? " 


"What is she there for?" 

" For poisooing. But she ia irregularly condemned." 

" So there you have a just court ; Us n'en font point 
^autres," he said, for some reason in French. " I know 
yon do not agree with me, but what is to be done ? <^eat 
mon opinion bien arrStSe," he added, expressing an opinion 
which he had for a year been reading in various forms in 
the retrogiade conservative papers. " I know you are 



" I do not know whether I un a liberal or anytihing 
else," KekblyitdoT said, smiling ; he was always surprised 
to find that he was supposed to belong to some party and 
to be called a liberal because, in judging a man, he used to 
say that all are equal before the law, that people ought 
ncA to be tortured and flogged, especially if they had not 
been tried. " I do not know whether I am a liberal or not, 
but I am sure that the courts we now have, whatcvei 
tboT faults may be, are better tiian those we used to 

" Who is yonr lawyer ? " 

" I have applied to Fanirin." 

" Ah, Fan^rm I " said Mssl^mikov, frowning, recall- 
ing how, the year before, that Fannin had examined 
him as a witness at court, and how for half an hour he 
had with the greatest politeness subjected him to ridicule. 

" I should advise you not to have anytiiii^ to do with 
him. Faii<[rin est un hovwru tarS." 

" I have also another request to make of you," Kekh- 
lyddov said, without answering him. " I used to know a 
girl, a school-teacher, — she is a very pitiable creature, 
and she also is now in jail and wants to see me. Can 
you give me a permit to see her, too ? " 

Masl^nuikoT bent his head a little sidewise and fell 
to musing. 

" Is she a political ? " 

* So I was told." 

" You see, interviews wif^ political prisoners are allowed 
only to relatives, but I will give you a general permit 
Je aait gue vova n'abuserez pas — 

" What is her name ? Your prot^gfe — Bogodiikhov* 
ski? ElUettjoUet" 


Mad^nnikov shook his head in disapproval, went np 
to the table, and upon a sheet of paper with a printed 
heading wrote in a bold hand : " The bearer of this. Prince 



Dmitri Ivinovidi Nekhlyddoy, is herewith permittad to 
see in the phsoo office the inmate of the caatle Burgess 
M^slova, and also Assistant Surgeon Bogodilkbovski," he 
added, and finished with a sweeping floimsh. 

" Yott will see what order they keep there. It is very 
difficnlt to keep order there, because everything is crowded, 
especially with transport convicts ; but I watch the whole 
buHinesB carefully, and I love it. You will find them all 
in good condition, and they are satisfied. One must know 
how to treat Uiem. The other day there was an unpleas- 
ant affair, — a case of disobedience. Anybody else would 
have at once declared it to be a conspinu^, and would 
have made it hard for many. But with us everyt^iing 
passed quite well One mast show, on the one hand, 
great care, and on ^he other, a firm hand," he said, com- 
preesing his white, plump hand, which stuck out from 
the white, stiff shirt-cleeve with its gold cuff -button, and 
displaying a turquoise ring, " care and a firm hand." 

" I don't know about t^it," said Nekhlyildov. " I was 
tbete twice, and I felt dreadfully oppreaaed." 

" Do yon know what 1 Yon ought to meet Countess 
Pisaek," continued talkative MasUnnikov ; " she has 
devoted heiBelf entirely to this matter. EUe /ait leav- 
eoap de bien. Thanks to her, and, perhaps, to me, I may 
say so without false modesty, it was possible to change 
everything, and to change it in such a way that the 
terrible things that were there before have been removed, 
and that the pri^ miners are quite comforhible there. You 
will see for yourself. But here is Fantfrin, I do not know 
him personally, and in my public position our paths 
diverge, — he is positively a ^d man, and' he takes the 
liberty of saying such things in court, such things — " 

" I thank yon," said N^hlyiidov, taking the paper ; 
without listening to the end of what he had to say, h« 
bode his former comrade good-bye. 

" Won't you go to see my wife 1 " 



" No, joa must pardon me, bat I am bosy now.' 

" Bow Ib that i She will not f oigive me," said Masl^n- 
nikoY, accompauymg his former companion as far as the 
first knding of the staircase, jast as he did with peo|te 
not of the first, but of the second importance, snch as he 
considered Nekhlyiidov to be. " Do go in for a minate I * 

But Nekhlyildov remained firm, and just as the lackey 
and porter rushed up to tiekhljifdov and, handing him 
his overcoat and caae, opened for him the door, in frcmt 
of which stood a policeman, he said tliat he could not 
under any circumstances juat now. 

" Well, then, come on Thursday, if yon please. That is 
her reception-day. I shall tell her you are coming," 
Masl^nnikov caied down the stairs to hun. 



HAvnra on that day goae from Maal^nnihoT atadght 
to the prisoD, NekUytldov directed his 8t«p8 to the 
familiar apartments of the superintendent A^in, as be- 
fore, the sounds of the miserable piano were heard ; now it 
was not the rhapsody that was beiiig played, but dementi's 
Etudes, again with unusual power, distinctness, and rapid- 
ity. The chambermaid with the bandaged eye, who 
opened the door, said that the captain was at home, and 
led Nekhlyiidov into a small drawing-room, with a divan, 
a table, and a large lamp with a rose-coloured paper diade 
bnmt on one side, which was standing on a wooUeD 
embroidered napkin. The superintendent, with a care- 
worn, gloomy face, entered the room. 

" What is it, if you please ? " he said, bnttoning the 
middle button of his uniform. 

" I saw the vice-governor, and here is the permit," 
said Nekhlyiidov, handing him the paper. " I should 
like to see Mdslova." 

" M^rkova ? " asked the superintendent, not heii^ able 
to bear well throngh the sounds of the music. 

" M^Iova." 

"Oh, yes! Oh, yes I" 

The superintendent arose and walked up to the door, 
from which were heard dementi's roulades. 

" Manisya, stop for just a minute," he said, in a vmoe 
which showed that the music was the cross of his life, 
" for I can't hear a word." 

The piano was silenced ; dissatisfied steps were heard, 
and somebody peeped through the door. 



The saperioteDdent seemed to feel a lelief ftom the 
cessation of that music: he lighted a cigarette c^ waak 
tobacco, and offered one to Nekhlyiidov, who dedioed it. 

" So, aa I said, I should like to see M&slova." 

" That 7011 may," said the BuperinteudeDt. 

" What are you doing there ? " he addressed a little girl 
of five or six yean of age, who had entered the room 
and was walking toward her father, taming all the time 
in each a way as not to take her eyes off Nekhlyildov. 
" If you don't look out, you will fall," said the superintend- 
ent, amihng as he saw the child, who was n<^ looking 
ahead of hei, catch her foot in the rug, and mo to him. 

" If I may, I should like to go there." 

" It is not convenient to see Mfblova to-day," said the 


« It is your own fault," said tlie supenQtendent, with a 
slight smile. " Frince, don't give her any money. If yon 
wish, give it to me for her. Everything will belong to 
her. But you, no doubt, gave her money yesterday, 
and she got liquor, — it is impossible to root out this - 
evil, — and she has been so drunk to^lay that she is in a 
riotous mood." 

"Is it possible?" 

" Truly. I bad even to use severe measures, and to 
transfer her to another celL She is otherwise a peaceful 
woman, but don't give her any money. They are such a 
lot — " 

Nekhlyiidov vividly recalled yesterday's scene, and he 
again felt terribla 

"And may I see Yy^ Bogod^khovski, a political 
prisoner 1 " asked Nekhlyifdov, after a moment's silence. 

" Yes, you may," said the superintendent, embracing 
the little girl, who was all the time watching I^ekhlyii- 
dov ; he rose, and, gently pushing the girl aside, went into 
the antediamber. 



^6 snperiQtendeDt had not yet sacceeded in patting 
on his overcoat, which was handed to him hy ibe aerrast 
wU^ the bandaged eye, and getting out of tlie door, 
when Glementi'B dear-cat roulades b^n to ripple once 

"She was in the conservatory, bat there were dis- 
orders t^ere. She has great talent," said the aaperin- 
tendent, descending d)» staircase. * She wants to appear 
" *. in concerts." 

The auperintendent and Xekhlyddov walked over to 
tiie jaiL The gate immediately opened at the approach 
of the supraintendent. The wardens, saluting him by 
patting their bands to their visors, followed him with 
their eye& Four men, with heads half-shaven, and carry- 
ing some vats with something or other, met them in the 
anteroom, and they all pressed against the wall when 
they saw him. One especially crouched and scowled, bis 
black eyes sparUing. 

" Of course the talent has to be developed and must 
not be buried ; but in a smoU house it is pretty hard," 
the superintendent continaed the conversation, not paying 
the subtest attention to the priscners ; dragging along 
his weary 1^, be passed, accompanied by Nekhlyddov, 
into the ossembly-room. 

" Who is it you wish to see ? " 

" Vy&a BogoddkhovskL" 

" Is she in the tower ? Yon will have to wait a Uttle," 
he turned to Nekhlyildov. 

" And can I not in the meantime see the prisoners 
Menshliv, — mother and son, accused of arson ? " 

"That is from oell twenty-one. Very well, I shall 
have them come out" 

" May I not see MenshtJv in Ms cell ? " 

" Ton wOl be more comfortable in the asaembly'^oonL* 

* No, it would interest me more there." 

"What intenst can you find ihenl" 



Just ibea ttie dandyish aesietaiit came oat of the side 

" Please, tAke the fvihce to Menshdv's cell. Cell tw^itf- 
one " the eupermtendent said to his assistant, " and then 
I shall have her out in the ofiSce ; I shall have her out. 
What is her name ? " 

" Vy&a Bogodiikhovski," eaid Nekhlyildov, 

The asaistaixt saperintendent vas a blond young officer, 
Tith blackened moustache, who was spreading around 
him an atmoaphere of eau de Cologne. 

" Pleaae, follow me," he turned to Nekhlyildov with a 
pleasant smile. "Are you interested in our establish- 
ment ? " 

" Yes ; and I am also interested in that man, who, bo I 
waa told, is qoite innocent." 

The assistant ahn^ged his shoaldera. 

"Yes, such things happen," he answered calmly, po- 
litely letting the visitor pass before him into the stinkmg 
corridw. " Often they lie. If you please ! " 

Hie doors of some cells were open, and a few prisoners 
were in the corridor. Barely nodding to the wardens and 
looking askance at the prisoners, who hugged the wall 
and went into their cells, or stopped at the door and, 
holding their arms down theii 1^, in soldier fashion 
followed the officer with their eyes, the assistant took 
Nekhlyiidov through one corridor, then to another on the 
left, which was barred by an iron dooi. 

This corridor was darker and more malodoroos than 
the first. Padlocked doors shut off this corridor at both 
ends. In these doors there were Kttle loopholes, called 
" eyelets," about an inch in diameter. There was no one 
in the corridor but an old warden with a sad, wrinkled face. 

" Where is Menshdv ? " the assistant asked the warden. 

" The eighth on the left." 

" And are these occupied t " asked Kekhlyiidor. 

" They are all occupied but one." 



" MA.T I look in ? " asked ITekhlyifdov. 

"If yoa please" the assistant said, vitb a pleasant 
smile, and tamed to the warden to ask him something. 

KekhljiSdoT looked into one loophole : a tAll yoang 
man, vith a small black beard, wearing nothing but his 
nnderclothes, was rapidly walking op and down ; upon 
hearing a rustling sonnd at the door, be looked np, 
frowned, and proceeded to walk. 

Nekhlyiidov peeped into another loophole. His ej6 
met another luge frightened eye, which was looking 
through the hole, and he hturiedly stepped aside. Upon 
looking tbrongh a third loophole, he saw a man of dimin- 
ative size, with his head covered by a cloak, all rolled up 
in a heap and asleep. In a fourth cell sat a broad-faced, 
pale man, with his head drooping low, and his elbows 
resting npon his knees. When he heard the stepe, he 
raised his head and looked toward the door. la his 
whole countenance, but especially in his large eyes, was 
on expression of hopeless pining. Evidently it did not 
interest him to know who it was that was peeping into 
his cell Whoever it may have been, he did not expect 
anything good from him. Nekhlyildov felt terribly ill at 
ease ; he ceased looking in, and went np to cell twenty- 
one, where Mensh<Sv was confined. The warden tnmed 
the key and opened the door. A young, venoas fellow, 
with a long neck, with kindly round eyes and a small 
beard, was standing near his cot ; he hurriedly put on his 
cloak and, with a frif^tened face, looked at those who 
bad entered. Ifekhlyildov was particularly atmck by his 



kindly round eyes, tliat glided vith an interrogatiTe and 
frightened glance from Imn to the wai'deo, to the assistant, 
and back again. 

" ThlB gentleman wants to ask yoa about your case." 

" I thaok yon mo^ humbly." 

" I have been told about your caee," aaid ITekhly^dov, 
walking to the back of the cell and stopping near the 
dirty, latticed window, " and should like to hear about it 
from you." 

MenahiSv also walked up to the window and began at 
once to talk, at first looking timidly at the assistant, but 
then with ever increasing boldness. When the assistant 
superintendent left the cell ior the cmridor, to give some 
orders there, he regained his courage altc^ther. To 
judge from the language and manner, it was the story of 
a most simple-minded and honest peasant lad, and it 
seemed especially out of place to Nekhlyildov to hear it 
from the mouth of a prisoner in prison garb and in joiL 
Nekhlyddov listened to him, and at the same time 
looked at the low cot with its straw mattress, at tha 
window with the strong iron grating, at the dirty, moist, 
and daubed walls, at the pitiable face and form of the 
oofortunate, disgraced peasant in prison shoes and cloak, 
— and he grew sadder and sadder ; be tried to make him- 
self believe that what the good-hearted man was telling 
him was not true, — so terrible it seemed to bim to think 
that a man could be seized for being insulted, and clad 
in prison garb, and be put in such a horrible place. And 
still more terrible it was to think that this truthful story, 
and the peasant's kindly face, should be a deception and 
a he- According to the story, the village dram-shop- 
keeper soon after the peasant's marriage had alienated 
his wife's affections. He invoked the law. But the 
dram-shopkeeper bribed the authorities, and he was 
everywhere acquitted. He took his wife back by force, 
bat she ran away l^e following day. Then he came and 



demanded his vif e. The dnim-shopkeeper said that she 
was not there (he had, however. Been her as he came in), 
and told him to leave at once. He did not go. The 
diam-shopkeeper and his labourer beat him until blood 
flowed, and on the following day ihe dram-ehopkee^ier'B 
house and outbuildings were consumed by fire. He and 
his mother were accused of incendiariBm, whereaa he was 
then at the house of a friend. 

" And you have really not committed the arson ! " 

" I did not ae much as think of it, sir. He, the scoun- 
drel, must have done it himself. They said that he had 
but lately insured his property. He said that I and 
mother hiul threatened him. It is true, I did call him 
names, for my heart gave way, but I did not set fire to 
the house. I was not near it when the fire started. He 
, purposely did it on the day after I and mother had been 
there. He set fire to it for the sake of the insuranoe, 
and then he accused ub of it." 

" Is it possible ? " 

" I am telling you the truth, before Qod, sir. Be io 
place of my own father I " he wanted to bow to the 
ground, and Nekhlyiidov with difficulty kept him from 
doing sa " Get my release, for I am being ruined for no 
cause whatsoever," he continned. Suddenly his cheeks 
b^an to twitch, and he burst into tears ; he rolled op 
the sleeve of his doak and began to dry his eyes with the 
sleeve of his dirty shirt. 

" Are you through ? " asked the assistant superintend* 

"Tea. Don't lose courage. I shall do what I can," 
said Nekhlyddov, and went out 

MeufduSv was standing in the door, so that the warden 
poshed it against him, as be closed it While the warden 
was kx^ing the door, he kept looking throogh the peep- 


Walkino back through the broad conidor (it was 
dinner-time and all the cells were open), throngh crowds 
of men dressed in,light yellow cloaks, short, wide trousers, 
and prison shoes, who were watching him with curiosity, 
Nekhlyiidov experienced atrai^ feelings of compassion 
for Uie people who were confined, and of terror and dis- 
may before those who had placed them there and held 
them in restraint, and of a certain d^ree of shame at 
himself for looking so calmly at them. 

In one corridor somebody rushed up to a cell and there 
struck the door with his shoes, and its inmates rushed 
out and baned Nekhlyildov's way, bowing to him. 

"Your Honour, I do not know what to name you, 
please, try and get a decision in out casa" 

" I am not an ofBcer, I know nothing." 

" It makes no difference. Tell somebody, — the author* 
ities," said he, with provocation. " We have committed 
no crime, and here we have been nearly two montlis.'' 

« How is that ? Why ? " asked Nekhlytldov. 

" We have simply been locked np. lliis is the second 
month we have be^ in jail, and we do not know why." 

" That is so," said the assistant saperintendent. " These 
people were arrested for not having any passports. They 
were to be sent to their Government ; but the prison there 
was burnt, so the GovemTnental office asked us not to 
send them. We have despatched all the others to their 
respective Govemments, but these we are keeping." 

" Only for this ? " said Nekhlyiidov, stopping at Om 

by Google 


A tjuoog of Bome forty men, all of them in priwMi 
cloaks, surrounded Nekhlyiidov and the asaistaat. Sev- 
eral voices began to speak at once. The assistant stopped 

" Let one of you speak." 

From the crowd stood out a tall, reapectable-Iooking 
peasant, of about fifty years of »g&. He explained to 
Kekhlyildov that they had all been taken up and con* 
fined in prison for having no passports, that is, they had 
passports, but they were about two weeks overdue. Such 
overught happened every year, and they usually were 
left unmolested ; but this year they had been arrested, and 
this was the second month they had been kept as crimiuals. 

"We are all stone-masons, — all of us of the same 
art^.^ They say that the Governmental prison has 
burnt down, but what have we to do wit^ it ? Do us (he 
favour in the name of God 1 " 

Nekhlytidov listeaed, but he hardly understood what 
the respectable old man was telling him, because all hia 
attention was arrested by a large, dark gray, many-l^ged 
loose that was creeping through the hair down the cheek 
of the respectable stone-mason. 

" Is it possible ? Only for this 1 " said Nekhlyddov, 
addressing the assistant 

" Tes, they ought to be sent away and restored to their 
places of residence," said the assistant. 

^B assistant bad just finished his sentence, when a 
smaU man, also in a prison doak, pushed himself forwatd 
through the crowd and, strangely contorting his mouth, 
b^an to say that they were tortured here for nothing. 

" Worse than dogs — " be bt^an. 

"Well, yon had better not say anything superfluous. 
Keep quiet, or, you know — " 

" What have I to know ? " retorted the small man, in 
desperatitnL " We are not guilty of anything." 



" Shut up I " cried the superior officer, and the small 
man grew silent 

" What is this, indeed ? " Nekhlyildov said to himself, 
as he left the cells, accompanied b; the hundreds of ejres 
ot those who were looking out of the doors, and of the 
prisoners in the corridor, as though he were driven through 
two lines of castigating men. 

" la it possible eDtirely innocent people are kept here ? " 
said Kekblyiidov, upon coming out of the corridor. 

" What is to be done ? But, of course, they lie a great 
deoL Hearing them, one might think that they were all 
innocent," said the aaaistaut superinteudent 

" Sut these are DOt guilty of anything." 

" I shall admit that these are not. But they are all 
a pretty bad lot. It is impoaaible to get along with them, 
without severity. There are euch desperate people amoug 
them, tliat it will oot do to put a finger into their months, 
"nius, tor example, we were compelled yesterday to pun- 
ish two t£ them." 

"How to punish?" asked Kekhlyddov. 

"They were flogged with switches, according to io- 
Btaiction — " 

" But corporal punishment has been abolished." 

"Not for those who are deprived of their ri^ta. 
They are subject to it." 

Nekhlyiidov recalled everything he had seen the day be- 
fore, and he understood that the punishment had been in- 
flicted just at the time that he had been waiting, and he was 
overcome with unusual force by that mixed feeling of <»iri- 
osity, pining, dismay, and moral nausea, which was pass- 
ing into a physicid state, and by which be had been 
overcome on previous occasions, but never so powerfully 
88 now. 

Without listening to the asststAut superintendent w 
looking around him, he hastened to leave the corridors 
and to go to the office. The superintendent was in the 



corridor, and, bcdng bnaj villi something else, had fra- 
gotten to call Vy^ra BogodilkhovakL He did not think 
of it until Nekhljildov entered the office. 

" I shall send tot her at once, while yon, please, be 
MStad," he said. 



Thi office coDsisted of two rooiUB. In the fitst, which 
had a large, protruding, dilapidated stove and two diity 
windows, stood in one coroer a black apparatus for the 
measarement of the prisonere' height, and in the other 
hung the CQStomary appurtenance of a place of torture, — 
a hago image of Christ. In this Sret room stood eereral 
wardens. In the other room, some twenty men and 
women were sitting along the walls and in groape, and 
talking in an undertone. Near the window stood a 

The superintendeot sat down at the desk and offered 
NekhljtidoT a chur which was standing near it. Nekh- 
lyiidov sat down and began to watch the people in the 

First of all his attention was attracted by a young man 
in a short jacket, with a pleasant face, who, standing 
before a middle-aged woman with black eyebrows, was 
epeaking to her excitedly and gesturing with his hands. 
Near by sat an old man in blue spectacles and listened 
motionless to what a young woman in prison garb was 
telling him, while he held her hand. A boy, a stadeot 
of the Real-Qymnasium, with an arrested and frightened 
expression on his face, looked at the old man, without 
taking his eyes off. Not far from them, in the comer, 
sat two lovers : she wore short hair and had an energetic 
face, — a blond, sweet^aced, very young girl in a fasbicn- 
able dress ; he, wiUi delicate features and wavy hair, was 
a beantiful youUi in a rubber blouse. Tbey were seeded 
ia the comer, whispering and evidently melting in love. 



Kearest to the table sat a gray-haired woman, in a bladi 
dnsB, — apparently a mother: she had her eyea rivetad 
on a conBumptive-looldng young man in the same kind of 
a bloaae, and wanted to say something to him, bat could 
not speak a word for tears : she began and stopped again. 
The young man held a piece of paper in faia hand, and, 
evidently not knowing what to do, with an angry face 
now bent and now crumpled it Near them eat a plump, 
mddy, beautiful girl, with very bulging eyea, in a gray 
dress and pelerine. She was seated next to the weeping 
mother and tenderly stroked her shoulder. Everything 
about that girl was beaatifnl : bar large, white hands, her 
wavy, ahort-cut hair, her strong nose and lips ; but the 
chief charm lay in her kindly, truthful, ^eep-like, hazel 
eyes. Her beautiful eyea were deflected from faer mother's 
face just aa Nekhlyiidov entered, and met his glance. 
But she immediately turned them away, and began to tell 
her mother something. Not far from the loving pair aat 
a swarthy, shaggy man with a gloomy face, who was in 
an angry voice saying aomething to a beardless visitor, 
resembling a Castrate Sectarian. 

' Nekhlyddov sat down near the superintendent and 
looked around him with tense curiosity. 

His attention was distracted by a close-cropped little 
boy, who came up to him and in a thin voice oc^ed him : 

" Whom are you waiting for ? " 

Nekhlyildov was surprised at the question, but upon 
lotting at ihe child and seeing his serious, thoughtful face, 
vitb his attentive, lively eyes, seriously re[^ied to him 
tiiat be waa waiting for a lady he knew. 

" Is ahe your aiater ? " asked the boy. 

" No, not my sister," Nekhlyiidov answered, surprised. 
" But with whom are you here i " he questioned the boy. 

" I am with mamma. She is a political prisoner," said 
the boy. 

" Mdriya Fivloma, take Kdlya," said the superintend- 

' C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


ent, appoKDtly fisding Nekhlyiiclov'a coavenfttion with 
tin hoj to be illegal 

i&jinja P&vlovna, that same beautiful girl with the 
sheep-li^e eyes, who had attracted N^ekhlyiidov'B atten- 
tion, aroBe to her full, tall stature, and with a stroi^, 
broad, almost manly gait, walked over to Nekhlyildov 
and the child. 

" Haa he been asking yoa who you are ? " she asked 
Nekhlyiidov, ^htly snuliug and trustfully looking into 
his eyes in such a simple mauner as though there could 
be DO doubt but that she always bad been, now was, and 
always ought to be in the simplest and kindliest fraternal 
relations with everybody. 

" He waots to kuow everything," she said, smiling in 
the boy's face with such a kind, sweet smile that both the 
hoy and Nekhlyddov smiled at her smile. 

" Yes, he asked me whom I came to see." 

"M^ya P^vlovna, it is not allowed to speak with 
strangers. You know that," said the superintendent. 

"All right, all right," she said, and, with her large 
white band taking hold of K61ya's tiny hand, while he 
did not take his eyes off her face, returned to the mothtir 
of the consumptive man. 

" Whose b<^ is this 7 " Nekhlyiidov asked the supei- 

"The son of a politick prisooer. He was bom here 
ID the prison," said the superintendeat, with a certain 
satisfaction, as though diaphiying a rarity of faia institu- 

'* Is it possible 1 " 

" Kow he and his mother are leaving for Siberia." 

" And this girl ? " 

" I can't answer you," said the superintendent, shrug' 
ging his shoulders. ■■ Here is Vy^ Bogodilkhov^" 



THSOnOH the back door, with a nervous gait, entered 
Bhort-hoired, haggard, sallow little Vy^ EMmoTna, with 
her immense, kindly ejea. 

" Thank you for coming," she aaid, preeaing Nakhlyd- 
dor's hand. " Did you remember me ? Let tu sit down." 

" I did not expect to find you thns." 

* Oh, I feel so happy, so happy, that I do not even 
wish for anytjiing better," said Yy^ra Efrdmovua, as 
always, looMng with her immense, kindly, round eyes 
at Nekhlyifdov, and turning her ydlow, dreadfully thin, 
and venous neck, which stuck out from the miserable- 
looking, crumpled, and dirty collar of her bodice. 

Kekhlyddov asked her how she had gotten into such a 
plight. She told him with great animation about her 
case. Her speech was interlarded with foreign words 
about the propaganda, about disorganization, about groupa 
and BectioQB and sub-sections, of which abe was appar^ 
ently quite sure everybody knew, whereas Nekhlyiidov 
had never heard of them before. 

^le spoke to him, evidently fully convinced that it was 
very interesting and agreeable for him to hear all the 
secrets of the popular causa But Nekhlyiidov looked at 
her miserable neck and at her scanty dishevelled hair, 
and wondered why she was doing aU that and telling 
him about it. He pitied her, but in an entirely diCTer- 
ent manner from that in which he pitied peasant Men- 
sh<5v, who was locked up in a stinkii^ prison for no cause 
whatsoever. He pitied her more espet^aUy on account of 



the erident confusioQ which existed in her mind. She 
obvioualy considered herseU a heroine, ready to sacrifice 
her life for the success of her cause, and jet she would 
have found it hard to explain what her cause consisted in, 
and what its success would be. 

The affair of which Vy^ra Efr^movna wished to speak 
to KekblyiiduT was this : hei componioD, Shilstova, who 
did not even belong to her Bub^(roap, as she expressed 
herself, had been arrested five months before at the same 
time with her, and had been confined in the PetropclTlovsk 
fortress because at her room books and papers which bad 
been given into her safe-keeping had been found. Vy&ra. 
Efr^movna considered herself in part guilty of Sbiistova's 
incarceration, and so she begged Nekhlyidov, who had 
influence, to do eveiythii^ in his power to obtain her 
releasa The other thing for which ehe asked him was 
diat he should obtain a permiasion for Gar^vich, who waa 
confined in the Petrop^^vlovsk fortress, to see his parents 
and provide himself with scientific books, which he Deeded 
for his learned laboars. 

NekhlyiidoT promised he would endeavour to do all ia 
his power, as sood as he should be in St. Petersburg. 

Yy^ra Efr^movna told her story as follows : upon fin- 
ishii^ a course in midwifery, she had fallen in with the 
party of the « Popular Will," and worked with them. At 
first everything went well : they wrote proclamations and 
made propaganda at factories; later, a prominent mem- 
ber was seized ; documente were discovered, and they 
b^an to arrest everybody. 

" I was taken, too, and now we are being deported — ' 
she finished her story. " But that is nothing. I feel in 
excellent spirits, — in Olympic transport," she said, smil- 
ing a pitiable smile. 

Kekhlytfdov asked about the girl with the sheep-like 
eyea Vy^ra Efr^movna told him that she was the 
daughter of a general, that she had long been a member 



of the revolationary party, and that bIiq was ameted for 
claiming to have shot a gendanne. 

She had been living in conspirators' qoarterB, where 
there was a typographic machine. When they were 
searched at night, the inmates of the quarters decided to 
defend Uiemaelves, whereapon they put out the hghte 
aod began to destroy the compromising matter. The 
police forced an entrance, when one of the conspirators 
shot and mortally wounded a gendarme. At the inquest 
she said that she had fired the shot, notwithstanding the 
fact that she had never held a pistol in her hand and 
would not have killed a spider. And thus it remained. 
Now she was being deported to hard labour. 

" An altruistic, a good soul," Yy^ra Efr^movna said, 

The third thing that Yy^m Efr^ovna wanted to talk 
about was concerning McCalova. She knew, as everybody 
else in the prisoD knew, M^ova's history and Nekhlyil- 
dov's relaticoie with her, and advised him to try to obtain 
her transfer to the political prisoners, or to a position, at 
least, as atJ«ndant in the hospital, where now a large 
namber of sick people were confined and workers were 

Nekblyildov thanked her for her advice and told her 
tiiat he would try and make use of it 



Theib convereation was interrupted by the saperio- 
tendent, who arose and anDouuced that the time (or the 
iDtemewB was up, aod that people had to leave. Nekh- 
lyiidov got up, hade Vy&^ Efrfmovna good-bye, and 
walked over to the door, where he stopped to see what 
was going on before him. 

" Gentlemen, it is time," Baid the superintendent, now 
rising, and now sitting down again. 

The superiotendent's demand only evoked a greater 
animation in all those who were in the room, both pris- 
oners and visitors, but nobody ev«i tbou^i^t of leaving. 
Some remained sitting and conversing. Others began to 
say farewell and to weep. The leave-taking of the mother 
from her consumptive son was especially touching. The 
young man kept twisting a piece of paper, and his face 
grew ever more stem, so great was the effort which he 
was making not to be infected by his mother's feeling. 
But the mother, bearing that it was time to leave, lay on 
hie shoulder and sobbed, snuifling with her nose. The 
girl with the aheep-like eyes — NekhlyiSdov involuntarily 
followed her — stood before the weeping mother and was 
telling her some consoling words. The old man in the 
blue spectacles was standir^ and holding bis daughter's 
hand, nodding his head to what she was saying. The 
young lovers arose and, holding hands, were long looking 
into each others' eyes. 

"These alone are happy," pointing to the lovers, said 
the young man in the short jacket, who was standing near 



Nekhlyddov and like him watcliiiig those who were 
taking leave. 

BoQg conscioos of the looks of Nekhlyildov and of the 
young man, the lovera, — the young man in the rubber 
blouse and tlte blond sweet-faced girl, — extended their 
linked bands, bent bock, and be^ui to circle around, 
while laughing. 

" They will be married this evening, here in the j&il, 
aod then she will go with him to Sibena," said the young 

« Who ifl he I " 

" A hard labour convict. Thouf^ they are making 
merry now, it is too painful to listen," added the young 
man in the jacket, hearing the sobs of the consumptive 
man's mother. 

"Gentlemen I Please, pleasa Do not compel me to 
take severe measures," said the supOTintendent, repeating 
one and the same thing several times. " Please, please 
now," be said, in a feeble and undecided voice. " How ia 
this ? Time has long been up. This wont do. I am 
telling yon for t^e last time," be repeated, reluctantly, 
DOW puffing, and now patting out his Maryland cigarette. 
It was evident that, however artful and old and habitual 
the proofs were which permitted people to do wrong to 
others, without feeling ^emselves responsible for it, the 
snperintendent could not help noticing that he was one 
of the causes of that sorrow which was manifested in 
QAb room ; and this obviously weighed heavily upon 

Finally the prisoners and visitors began to depart : 
some through the inner, others through the outer door. 
The men in the rubber blouses, and the consumptive man, 
and the swarthy and shaggy man passed out ; and then 
Miriya P^vlovna, with the boy who had been bom in 
the (ffison. 

The visitors, too, began to leave. With heavy tread the 



old man in the blue spectacles veot oat, and Kekhlyddov 
followed him. 

"Yes, those are marvellous conditions," said the talka- 
tiTe young mao, as though continuing the interrapted 
conveniation, while he descended the staircase with Kekh- 
lyiidov. " Luckily, the captain is a good man, and does 
not stick to rules. At least they get a chance to talk to 
each other and ease their souls." 

When Nekhlfiidov, conversing with M6d;^ntsev, — so 
the talkative young man introduced himself to him, — 
reached the vestibule, the superintendent, witii a wearied 
face, accosted him. 

" If yon wish to see Mftelova, please come to-morrow," 
he said, apparently wishing to be kind to Nekhlyddov. 

" Very well," said Nekhlyiidov, hasteoiing to get out 

Terrible, it was evident, was tii% innocent Buffering of 
MenshtSv, and not so much the physical suffering as the 
dismay, the distrust of goodness and of God, which he 
must eiperience, seeing the cruelty of men who tor- 
mented him without cause; terrible were the diagraoe 
and torments imposed upon the hundreds of people, 
innocent of crime, simply becaiue their papers were not 
properly written ; terrible were these befogged wardens, 
who were occupied with torturing their fellow men and 
were convinced that they were doii^ a good and important 
work. But more terrible yet was that aging and enfeebled, 
kind superintendent, who had to separate mother from 
son, father from daughter, — people who were just like 
him and his children. 

"What is this for?" Nekhlyildov asked himself, ex- 
perienini^ more than ever that senaatlon of moral naoeea, 
passing into a physical feeling, which overcame him in 
prison, and findmg no answer. 



On the following; day Nekhlyifdov went to the lawyer, 
to wliom be commanicated Mendi^v's affair, asking him to 
take the defence. The lawyer listened to him and said 
^at he would look into the case, and if ererything was as 
Nekhlyiidov told him, which wea very probable, he woold 
take the defence without fuiy remuoeration. Nekhlyiidov 
also told bim of the 130 men who were held there by 
misunderstanding, and asked him on whom the matter 
depended, and who was to blame for it. The lawyer 
was silent for a moment, evidently wishing to give an 
exact answer. 

" Who is to blame ? Nobody," be said, with deter- 
mination. " Ask the prosecuting attorney, and be will 
tall you that the governor is to blame ; ask the governor, 
and he will tell you that it is the prosecuting attorney. 
Nobody is to blame." 

" I will go at once to Masl&inikov and tell him." 

" Well, that is ubsIbbs," the lawyer retorted, smiling. 
** He is 8uch a — he is not a relative or friend of yours ? 
— such a, with your permission, snch a stick and, at the 
aame time, such a cunning beast." 

Recalling what Masl^unikov had said about the lawyer, 
he did not reply ; bidding him good-bye, he drove to Mas- 
Uimikov's house. 

Nekhlyiidov had to ask Masl^nnikov for two things : 

for Mfislova's transfer to the hospital, and for the ISO 

passportless people who were innocentjy confined in jaiL 

No matter lu>w hard it was for him to aak from a man 




whom he did not respect, it was the aolj meana of teach- 
ing his aim, and he luid to employ it. 

As he drove np to Masl&m^ov'B house, he saw several 
carriages at the entrance: there were buggies, calashes 
and barOQches, and he recaUed that this was the reception- 
day of Maal^nnikov'B wife, to which Masl^nnikov bad 
aaked him to come. As Nekhlyildov approached the 
house, be saw a barouche at the entrance, and a lackey, 
in a hat with a cockade and in a pelerine, helping a lady 
from the threshold of the porch into it, while she caught 
the train of her dress in her arm and displayed her black 
thin ankles in low shoea Among the other carriages 
which were standing there, he recognized the covered 
landau of the Eorch^na. The gray-haired, ruddy-faced 
coachman respectfully and politely took off his hat, aa 
to a well-known gentleman. Nekhlyiidov had not yet 
finished asking the porter where Mikhafl Iv^ovich (Mas- 
l&mikov) was, when he appeared on the carpeted staircase, 
seeing off a very distinguished guest, such as he accom- 
panied not only to the knding, but way down. The very 
distinguished military guest was, in descending, telling in 
French about the lottery and heU for the benefit of the 
asylums, which was being planned in the cit^, expressing 
bis opinion that this was a good occupation tot women ; 
" They are happy, and money is collected I 

" Qii'elUs g'amuseni et que U hon Dieu Us hinitte. Ah, 
Nekhlyiidov, good day. What makes you so scarce 1 " he 
greeted Kekhlyildov. " AUai priaenter vous devoirs A ma- 
dame. The Eorch^oB are here. St Nadine Sukshev- 
den. Toutee Us jolies femmea de la viUe," he said, placing 
and slightly raising his military shoulders under the over- 
coat with the superb golden (^loons, which was handed 
him by the lackey. " Au revoir, tooji cker." He pressed 
Masl^nikov's hand. . 

" Come np-staira. How g^d I am," Masl^nnikov spoke 
excitedly, linking his hand in KekhlyiidoVs arm and, in 



ijdte of hiB corpulence, rapidly drawixig him np-etairs. 
Masl^nikov was in an extremely joyful agitation, the 
caose of which was the attention which had heen bestowed 
upon him by the diatinguiBbed person. Every sach atten- 
tion caused Masl^nnikov the same rapture that is produced 
in a docile little dog, whenever its master strokes, pats, 
and scratchte it behind its ears. It wags its tail, crouches, 
winds about, lays down its ears, and insanely mns about 
in drclee. Masl^nnikoT was ready to do the same. He 
did not notice Nekhlyiidov's serious countenance, did not 
listen to him, and kept dragging bim to the drawing-room, 
so that there was no possibility of refusiog, and Xekblyii- 
doT went with him. " Business afterward ; I shall do 
anything you please," said MasMnnikov, crossing the 
parlour with Nekhly^dov. " Announce to Mrs. General 
Masl^nnikov that Prince Nekhlyiidov is here," he said to 
a lackey, during his walk. The lackey moved forward at 
an amble and passed beyond them. " Vous n'avez qu'il 
ordonner. But yon must by all means see my wif& I 
caught it last time for not bringing you to her." 

Tlie lackey had announced them, when they entered, 
and Anna Ign^vna, the vice-governor's wife, Mrs. Gen- 
eral, as she called herself, turned to Nekhlyiidov, with a 
beaming smile, from amidst the bonnets and beads of 
those who Burroiinded her at the divan. At the other 
end of the drawing-room, at a table with tea, ladies were 
sitting, and men, in mihtary and civil attire, were stand- 
ing, and from there was beard tiie uninterrupted chatter 
of masculine and feminine voices. 

" Enfin ! Have you given us up ? Have we off«ided 
you in any vkj T " 

With such words, that presupposed an intimacy be- 
tween her and Nekhlyiidov, although it had nevw existed 
between them, Anna Iga^tevna met the newcomw. 

" Are you acquunted t Are you 1 Madame ByeUv- 
ski, Mikhail Iv^ovich ChemSv. Sit down near me. 



" iSiasy, venez done i iwtre table. On wm» apportera 
votn thi — And you — " she Etddressed an officer who 
was taMng to Miasy, apparently having forgotten his 
name, "please, come here. Will yon have some tea, 
prince ?" 

" I shall not admit it for a minute, not for a minute, — 
she simply did not love him," said a feminine voice. 

« But she did love cakes." 

" Eternally those stupid jokes," laughingly interposed 
another lady, shining in her silk, gold, and precious 

" Ceat excellent, — these wafBes, and so light. Let me 
have some more I " 

" How soon ahall yon leave ? " 

" To-day is my last day. It ia for this reason that I 
have come." 

" The e^iritig is so charming, and it is so nice now in 
the comitry 1 " 

Missy, in a hat and in a dark striped dress, which 
clasped her slender waist without any folds, as though 
she had "beea. bom in it, was very pretty. She blushed 
when she saw Nekhlyifdov. 

" I thought that you bad left," she said to him. 

" Almost," said Nekhlyiidov. " I have been kept back 
by bualDess. I have even come here on busineas." 

"Gome to see mamma. She is very anxious to see 
you," she said, and, being conscious of telling an untruth, 
and of his knowing it, she blushed even more. 

" I shall hardly have the time," gloomily replied Nekh- 
lyiidov, trying to appear as though he had not noticed 
her blush. 

Missy frowned angrily, sbrngged her shoulder, and 
tamed to the elegant officer, who seized the empty cup 
oat lA her hand, and, catching with his swotd in the 
obaiis, gallantly carried it to another table. 

" Too muet contribute something for the home." 



" I do not refuse, but want to keep all my liberaU^ 
until the lottery. There I will show up in all my 
strength. " 

"LimIc out" wae heard a voice, accompanied by a 
manifestly f^gned laughter. 

The receptdon-day was brilliant, and Anna Ignftevna 
was in raptures. 

" Allka has told me that you are busy about the 
{oisons. I understand that," she said to Nekhlyiidov. 
" Mika " (that was her stout husband, Masl^nnikov) " may 
have other faults, but you know how good he is. All 
these unfortunate prisoners are his children. He does 
not look at them in any oUier light. It at d^une 
lonU — " 

She stopped, being unable to find words which would 
have exfovsaed the bonti of that husband of hers, by 
whose order men were flexed ; she immediately turned, 
smiling, to a wrinkled old woman in lilac ribbons, ^o 
had just entered. 

Having conversed as much aa was necessary, and as 
insipidly as was necessary, in order not to violate the 
proprieties, Nekhlyiidov arose and walked over to Mas- 

" Can you listen to me now ? " 

" Oh, yes ! What is it t Come this way t" 

They went into a small Japanese cabinet, and sat 
down by the window. 



" Well, je miis h voue. Do you want to smoke ? Oalj 
wait, — we must make no dirt here," he said, bnoging 
the ash-tray. " Well ? " 

" I have two flings to talk aboat" 

" Indeed t " 

Masl^nuikov's face became gloomy and sad. All the 
traces of the ezcitemeot of the little dog, whom its mas- 
ter has scratched behind its ear, suddenly disappeared. 
From the drawiog-room were borne voices. A woman's 
voice said : " Jamais, jamais je ne croirai," and another, 
from the oUier end, a man's voice, was telling something, 
repeating all the time : " La Comtesse Vbrontoff, " and 
" Victor Apraksine." From a third side was heard only 
the rumble of voices and laughter. Maal&mikov listened 
to what was going on in the drawing-room, and at the 
same time to what Nekhlyddov was saying. 

" I have come f^in in behalf of that woman," said 

" Yes, the one who is sentenced, bnt innocent. I know, 
I know." 

" I should like to ask yon to have her transferred as a 
servant to the hospital I was told that that could be 

Masl^nnikov compressed his lips and meditated, 

" Hardly," he said. " Still, I shall take it under ad- 
visement, and shall wire you to-morrow about it." 

" I was told that there were many sick people there, 
and that help is needed." 



" AU right, all right I shall let 70a know in any 

" If yon please," said Nekhlyifdov. 

In ^e drawing-room was heard a graieral, and even 
natural, laugh. 

"Yictor is doing that," said MaBl^nnikov. "He ia 
remarkably clever when he is in his proper mood." 

" Another thing," said Nekhlyiidov. " There are 130 
people in the jail ; they have heeo kept there for more 
than a month for nothing else but because their pass- 
ports are overdue." 

He told what the cause of their detention waa. 

" How did you find out about that ? " asked Masl&uii- 
kov, and his face suddenly expressed unrest and dissatis- 

'- 1 was on my way to one who is awaiting trial, vhea 
I was surrounded in the corridor by these men, who 
asked me — " 

" To whom that is awaiting trial did you go ? " 

" To a peasant who is innocently accused, and for whom 
I have employed counseL But that is another matter. 
Is it possible that these men are kept in prison for no other 
reaaon than that their passports are overdue and — " 

" That is the prosecuting attorney's affair," Masl^nikov 
angrily interrupted Nekhlyiidov. " You say that trials 
are speedy and just ! It is the duty of the prosecuting 
attorney's assistattt to visit the jail and to find out whether 
the prisoners are detained there lawfully. But they do 
nothing but play vint." 

" So you can't do anything ? " gloomily said Nekhlyiidov, 
tUnVing of what the lawyer had said about the govern- 
or's throwing it on the prosecuting attorney's shoulders. 

" Tea, I will do it 1 will institute an investigation at 

" So much tiie worse for her. Cest u» aouffre douleur," 
was heard the voice of a woman in the drawing-room, 



who, apparently, was quite mdifferent to what she was 

" So much the better. I will take this one," was heard 
from the o^er aide the playful voice of a man and the 
playful laughter of a woman, who was refusing something. 

" No, no, for nothing in the world," said a feminine 

" I will do it all," repeated Masl^nnikov, putting out 
his cigarette with Ms white hand with the turquoise ring. 
" And now let us go to the ladies." 

"Another thing," said Nekhlyiidov, without entering 
tiie drawing-room, but stopping at the door, " I was told 
that some men had received corporal punishment io jail 
yesterday. Is that true ? " 

Hasl^nnikov grew red in his face. 

" Ah, that, too ? So, mon cher, you must positively not 
he admitted ; you meddle with everything. Gome, come, 
Annette is callii^ us," he said, taking him under hia arm, 
and expressing the same kind of excitement as after the 
attention of the distinguished person, but this time it was 
not an excitemeot of joy, but of trepidation. 

Nekhlyiidov tore his arm away from him, and, without 
bidding any one good-bye or saying a word, with a melan- 
choly expression in hie face, crossed the drawing-room 
and the parlour, and went past the officious lackeys, 
throi^h the antechamber, and out into the street. 

" What is the matter with him ? What have you done 
to him ? " Annette asked her husband. 

" This is (k la franfaise," somebody remarked. 

" Not at all A la /ranfaiee ; it is ^ la zoviov." 

" Yes, he has always been like that." 

Somebody arose ; somebody arrived ; and the twittering 
went on as before : the company used the incident with 
Nekhlyiidov as a convenient subject for conversation on 
the present )(>ur/d% 

On the day fcdlowing his visit to Mad^nnikoVs bouse, 



Nekhlyifdov t«ceived from him, on heavy, smooth pftper, 
with a coat of arms and seals, a letter in a magnificent 
firm handwriting, informing him that he had written to 
the hospital physician about MfUlova's transfer, and that, 
in all likelihood, his wish would be fulfilled. It con- 
cluded with " Your loving elder comrade," and below Uie 
signature, " Masl^nnikov," was mode a wonderfully aitdstic, 
le^e, and firm Sourish. 

" Fool I " NekhlyiUov could not restrain himself from 
saying, especially because in the word " comrade " he felt 
Utat Masl^nnikov condescended to him ; that is, he saw 
that, notwithstanding the fact Chat he was execatii^ a 
morally exceedingly dirty and disgraceful function, he 
considered himself a very important man, and thoi^ht, if 
not to flatter, at least to show that he was not overproad 
of his majesty, in that ne called himself his comrade. 



It ia ooe of the most deep-rooted and wide-apreeMl 
supenitdtionB that eveiy man has lA well-defined proper- 
ties, that a man is good or bad, clever or stupid, enet:getic 
<H- apathetic, and so forth. People are not such. We 
may say of a man that he is oftener good than bad, ofteuer 
clever than stupid, oftener eQei:getic than apathetic, and 
vice versa ; but it would be wrong to say of one man that 
he is good or clever, and of an^er, that he is bad or 
stupid. Yet we always classify people in this manner. 
This ia wrong. Men are lite rivers : the water is the 
same in aU ; but every river is either narrow, or swift, or 
broad, or still, or clean, or cold, or turbid, or warm. Even 
thus men ara Each man carries within him t^e germs of 
all human qualities, and now manifests some of these, and 
now othen, and frequently becomes unlike himself, and 
ytt remains one and the same. With some people tbese 
changes are extremely sudden. To this category Nekhlyii- 
dov belonged. Changes took place within him both from 
physical and s^aritual causes. Just such a change had 
ocOTrred in him now. ^ 

That sensation of solemnity and joy of renovation, 
whi<^ he had ezperienoed after the trial, and after the 
first interview with Katyiisha, had completely disappeared, 
and had after the last meeting given way to terror, even 
3i^ust for her. He had decided not to leave her, not to 
change his determination of manying her, if only she 
would wish it, but the thought of it was hard and painful 
to him. 



On the day after his visit to Masl^nnikov'a house, he 
again drove to the prisoo, in order to see her. 

The superintendent granted him an interview, bnt not 
in the office, and not in the lawyer's room, but in the 
women's viaitiog-halL Notwithstanding his kind-heart- 
edness, the superintendent was more reserved than before 
with Kekhlyiidov ; obviously his talks with Maal^nnikov 
had resulted in an inatruction to use greater precaution 
with that visitor. 

"You may see her," he said, "only in regard to the- 
money, please, do as I have asked you. As to the 
transfer bo the hospital, as his Excellency had written, — 
that was possible, and the physician was willing. Only 
she herself does not want to go. She says : ' I have no 
desire to carry out the vessels of those nasty fellows.' 
Prince, they are a dreadful lot," he added. 

Nakfalyiidov did not reply, and asked for the interview. 
The superintendent sent a warden after her, and Nekh- 
lyiidov went with him to the empty visiting-hall of the 

M^lova woe already thera She came out from behind 
the screen, quiet and timid. She went up close to Nekhlyii- 
dov, and, glancing beyond him, said : 

" Forgive me, Dmitri Iv£novioh ! I said many bad 
things the other day." 

" It is not for me to foigive you — " Nekhlyddov 

" But BtUl, I b^ you, leave me alone," she added, and 
in the dreadfully squinting eyes with which she looked at 
bun Nekhlyddov again read a sbiiined and evil ex- 

" Why should I leave you ? " 

"Just do!" 

"Why so!" 

She again cast the same malicious glance at bim, as he 



"It is like this," she said. "You leave me, — I tell 
you the bvth. I coD't Leave me altogether," she said, 
' with quivOTing lips, growing sileot " I am telling you 
the truth. I shall prefer h^iging myself." 

Nekhlyildov felt that in that refusal of hers there waa 
hatred for him, and unforgiven offence, but at t^e same 
time something else, — sometbir^ good and sigui£canL 
This confirmation of her former refusal, made while in a 
calm Btate, at once destroyed all doubts in Nekhlyitdov's 
soul, and brought him back to his former serious solem- 
nity and contrite condition in relation to Katydsba. 

" Eatyilsha, as I have told you before, so I tell you 
now," he said, with especial seriousness. " I ask you to 
marry m& But if you do not wish to do so, and as long 
as you do not wiah, I shall, as before, be in the place 
where you ore, and I wiU travel to the place to which you 
will be deported." 

" That is your affair, and I sha'n't say anything more 
about this," she said, and again her Ups began to 

He, too, was silent, feeling that he had not the strengtii 
to Bpeak. 

" I am now going to the country, and then to St. Peters- 
burg," he said, regaining at last his composure. " I shall 
there look after your — after our aSair, and if God grants 
it, the sentence shall be reversed." 

" If they do not reverse it, it will be all the same. I 
deserve it for something else, if not for this," she said, and 
he saw what a great effort she was making to restrain her 

" WeU, did you see Menshi^v ? " she suddenly asked 
him, in order to conceal her agitation. " Is it not so, 
they are not guilty t " 

" Tes, I ttdnk sa" 

" What a charming old woman," she said. 

He told her everything he had found out from Men- 



BhtJv, BDd asked her whether she did not Deed anything, 
to which she replied that she did not want anything. 

They were again eilent. 

" Well, in reference to the hospital," she suddenly said, 
looking at him with her squinting eyes, " if you wish, I 
will go there, and I will atop drinkiDg — " 

NekhlyddoT looked her gently in the eyes. Her eyes 
were smiling. 

" That is very good," was all he could say, and he hade 
her good-bye. 

" Yes, yes, she is an entirely different person 1 " thought 
Nekhlyildor, experiencing, after his previous misgivings, 
an altogether new, never before experienced feeling of 
confidence in the invincibleness of love. 

Upon returning after this meeting to her malodorous 
cell, M^lova took off her cloak and sat down in her 
place on the benches, dropping her hands on her kaeea 
In die cell were only consumptive Vladfmirskaya with 
her suckling babe, old woman M«ish6v, and the flag- 
woman with the two children. The sexton's daughter 
had been declared mentally deranged the day before, and 
taken to the hospital. All the other women were wash- 
ing clothes. The old woman was lying on the benc^ and 
sleeping; the children were in the corridor, the door to 
which was open. 

Yladimirskaya with the babe in her arms and the flag- 
woman with a stocking went up to M^lova. 

" Well, did you see him ? " they asked. 

M&lova sat on the high bench, without saying a word, 
and dangling her feet, which did not reach down to the 

" Don't mope ! " said the flagwoman. " Above every- 
thing else, don't lose your courage, Katyilaha. Well?" 
she said, rapidly moving her fiogers. 

M^lova made no reply. 



"Our women have gone to wash the clothes. Thej 
Bald that to-day there would be great almBginng. They 
have brought a lot, they say," said VladfrnirBkaya. 

"Vinishkal" the flagwoman cried through the dow. 
" Where are you, you little urchin ? " 

She took out one knitting-needle, and, Bticking it into 
the ball of thread and the stocking, ehe went into the 

Joat th^i was heard the noise of steps and of women's 
conversation in the corridor, and the inmates of the cell, 
wiUi their shoes over their bare feet, entered, each of 
them carrying a roll, and some of them even twa Fed^tsya 
at once went np to M^ova. 

" What is it 7 la something wrong ? " asked Fed<5sya, 
looking lovingly at MfUlova with her clear bine eyes. 
"Here is somethii^ with our tea," and she put away the 
rolls on the shelf. 

" Has he given up the idea of marrying you ? " said 

" No, be has not, but I do not want to," said M^ora. 

" Yon are a silly girl I " KorablSva said, in her bass. 

" If you are not to live together, what good would it do 
yon to get married ? " said FediSsya. 

" But your husband is going along with you," said the 

" Yes, we are lawfully married," said Feddsya. " But 
what use is there for him to bind himself lawfully, if he 
is not to live with you ? " 

" What a silly woman ! What f or ? If he should 
marry her, he would cover her with gold," 

" He told me that he would follow me, wherever I 
might be sent," said HiEslova. " If he will go, he will ; 
and if not, I sha'n't beg him." 

- " Now he is going to St. Petersburg to look after my 
casa All the ministers there are his relatives," she con- 
tinued, " only I have no use for them." 


BBSUBssonoK 289 

" Of conise ! " Eorabl^a suddenly interpoaed, opening 
np het bag, and evidently thinldiig of something else. 
** Shall we have some liqaor ? " 

" I shft'n't drink aoy," answered M^ova. " Diink 





In two weeks the case would probably come up ia the 
Senate, and by that time NekUyildov intended to be in 
St FetflTsbarg, in cider, in case of a failure in the Senate, 
to petition his Majesty, as the lawyer, who bad written 
the appeal, had advised him to do. Should the appeals 
remain fmitlesa, for which, in the lawyer's opinicsi, he 
ought to be prepared, as the causes for annulmeDt were 
rather weak, the party of the convicts to be deported, of 
which number M^lova was one, might leave in the first 
days of June ; therefore, in order to be ready to follow 
Mtlalova to Siberia, which was NekhlyiidoVa firm inten- 
tion, he had to go down to his Tillages, to arrange bis 
afihirs there. 

First NekblyddoT went to Knzmfnskoe, his nearest, 
large black-earth estate, bom which he derived his chief 
income. He had lived on this estate during his child- 
hood and youth ; then, when he was a grown man, he 
had been there twice, and once, at his mother's request, 
he had taken a German superintendent there, with whom 
he had examined the whole property ; consequently he 
had long been acquainted with the condition of the estate 
and with the lelations the peasants bore to the office, that 
is, to the landed proprietor. They were such that the 
peasants were in complete dependence on the offic& 
Kekhlyddov had known all this since his student days, 
when he had professed and preached Henry G«oiga'B 



doctrioe and, on account of this doctrine, had diatribated 
hia land amoiig the peasants. 

It is true, after his militaiy service, when he became 
accustomed to spending twenty thousand a year, all this 
knowledge ceased being obligatory in his life and was 
forgotten. He did not question himself whence the 
money came which his moUier gave him, and tried n«t 
to think of it. But his mother's death, the inheritance, 
and the neceesity of managing his estate, that is, the 
land, again roused in him the question of the ownership 
of land. A month before, NekhlyiJdov would have said 
to himself that he was not able to change Uie existing 
order of thii^s, that it was not be who managed the 
estate, — and would have more or less acquiesced, since 
be was living far away from his property, from which he 
received the money. But now he decided that, althou^ 
he was confronted with a journey to Siberia and with 
complicated and difficult relatione with the world of pris- 
ons, for which money would be needed, he could not leave 
affairs in t^eir previons condition, but that he ought to 
change them, even though he suffer from that 

He determined not to work .the land himself, but to 
give it to the peasants at a low rental, which would 
ensure their independence from the landed proprietor in 
general. Frequently, upon comparing the condition of 
the landed proprietOT with the owner of serfs, Nekhlyildov 
considered the transfer of the land to the peasants as 
against the working of it by means of hired labour 
as being a parallel case to the action of the serf-owners, 
when they allowed the peasants to substitute a yeu'ly tax 
for the manorial labour. It was not a solution of the 
question, but a step in that direction : it was a transition 
from a coarser to a less coarse form of violence. It was 
this that he intended to do. 

Nekhlyildov arrived at Kuzm^BSkoe about midnight. 
Simplifying his life aa much aa-'possible, he had not tele- 



graphed about his arrival, but took at the station a two- 
horse tarant^. The driver was a young fellow in a 
nankeen sleeveless coat, whidi was girded along the 
folds beneath tbe'Iong waiat; he sat ia'driver's fashion, 
sidewise, on the box, and was only too glad to talk to 
the gentleman, since, while they were talking, it gave the 
foufidered, limping, white shaft-horse and the lame, weak- 
kneed off horse a chance to go at a pace which pleased 
them very much. 

"A superb German," said the driver, who had lived 
in the city and read novels. He was sitting half-turned 
toward the passenger, and was playing with the whip- 
handle, which he cau^t now from above, and now from 
below ; he was evidently making a display of bis culture. 
" He has provided himself with a cream-coloured three- 
span, and when he drives out with his lndy, it makes you 
feel small," he contiuaed. " In winter, at Christmas, 
there was a Christmas tree in the laige house, — I then 
took some guests there ; it was ]ight«d with an electric 
spark. You could not find the like of it in the whole 
Government 1 He has stol&n a lot of money I And why 
not ? Everything is in his power. They say he has 
bought himself a fine estate." 

Nekhlyiidov had thought that he was quite indifferent 
to the way the German was managing and using hia 
estate. But the story of the driver with the long waist 
was disagreeable to him. He enjoyed the beautiful 
day, the dense, darkling clouds, which now and then 
shrouded the sun ; and the field of spring grain, over 
which the peasants were walkii^ behind their ploughs, in 
order to plough down the oats ; and the thickly sprouting 
verdure, over which the skylarks hovered ; and the forests, 
which DOW, with ^e exception of the late oaks, were cov- 
ered with fresh foliage ; and the meadows, on which the 
various-coloured herds of cattle and horses could he seen ; 
and the fields, upon which be saw the ploughmen, — hut 



no, no, he thought of something unpleasant, and when he 
asked himself what it was, be recalled the story of the 
driver about how the German had been managing his 
Euzminskoe estate. 

Upon arriving at Euzmfnskoe and beginning to work, 
N^hlyiidov forgot that feeliug. 

The examination of the office books and the conversa- 
tion of the clerk, who naively pointed out the advantages 
of the small peasant plots, surrounded by the manorial 
lands, only cooGrmed Nekhlyiidov in his desire to give 
up &e estate, and transfer all the land to the peasants. 
fVom these office hooks and from his talk viih the clerk 
he discovered that, as before, two-thirds of the beet cul- 
tivable land were worked by faired labour and improved 
machinery, while the remaining third was cultivated by 
ttie peasants at the rate of five roublBs the deayatfna; 
that is, for five roubles a peasant was obliged three times 
to plough up, three times to harrow, and to sow in the 
desyat^a, that is, to perform labour which at the cheapeBt 
hired rate would cost ten roubles. Similarly the peas- 
ants paid for everything they needed out of the office at 
Hbe tughest rate in labour. They worked for the mead- 
ows, (or the timber, for the potato greens, and nearly all 
of them were in debt to the office. Thus they paid for 
the outlying fields, whidi were let to the peasants, four 
times as much a desyatfna as it possibly could bring by 
figuring at five per cent interest. 

Nekhlyddov had known all that before ; but he now 
learned it as something new, and he only marvelled how 
it was that he and all other people in similar conditions 
could have helped seeing the almormality of such rela- 
tdons. The proofs which the superintendent adduced that, 
if he let the peasants have the land, the whole inventory 
wonld be rained, t^t it would not be possible to sell it at 
one-fourth its value, after the peasants had exhausted the 
Und, that, in general, fTekhlyddov would lose a great deal 


bbbubbkctioh 296 

through this traDsfer, — only confirmed him in bis bfllief 
that be was doing a good act by giving the peasants the 
laud and depriving himself of a great part of his income. 
He decided to settle the matter at once, during his present 
stay. The superintendeut was to harvest aud sell the 
grofriog grain, and to sell all the chattels aud unneces- 
sary buildings. For the preseot, he asked the superin- 
tendent to (»11 together for the next day the peasauts of 
the tbiee villages, which were surrounded by the estate 
of Kuzminakoe, in order to announce to them his inten- 
tion and to come to an agreement in regard to the land 
which he was to give them. 

With a pleasant consciousness of his firmness in the 
face of the superintendent's proofs and of bis readiness 
to sacrifice in favour of the peasants, Nekhlyiidov left 
the office. Reflecting on the business which was before 
him, he walked around the house, along the flower-beds 
which uow were n^lected (there was a well-kept flower- 
bed opposite the superintendent's house), over the lawn- 
tennis ground, now overgrown with chicory, and over the 
avenue of lindens, where he used to go out to smoke his 
dgar, aud where three years before pretty Miss £irfmov, 
who had been visiting them, bad coquetted with him. 
Having tboi^bt out ^le points of the speech which he 
intended to make to the peasants on the following day, 
Nekhlyiidov went over to the superintendent's, and, having 
considered with him at tea how to liquidate the whole 
estate, quite calm and satisfied with the good deed which 
he was about to do to the peasants, he entered the room of 
the large house, which was always used tar the reception 
of guestfl, and which now was prepared for him. 

In this small apartment, with its pictures representing 
various views of Venice, and a mirror between two win- 
dows, was placed a clean spnug bed and a table with 
a decanter of water, with matches, aud a Ught-eztinguisher. 
On a large table near the mirror lay his open porti^mteau, 



in vhich could be seen hia toilet-case and a few books 
which he had taken along : one of these, in Rusaian, was 
an essay on the investigation of the laws of criminally ; 
there were also one German and one English book on the 
same subject. He wanted to read them during bia free 
moments, while travelling from village to village ; but it 
was too late now, and he was getting ready to go to sleep, 
in order to prepare himself early in the morning for the 
explanation with the peasants. 

In the room there stood in the comer an antique chair 
of red wood, with incrustations, and the sight of this 
chair, which he remembered having seen in his mother's 
sleeping-room, suddenly evoked an unexpected feeling in 
Nekhlyiidov. He suddenly grew sorry for the house, 
which would dow go to ruin, and for the garden, which 
would become a waste, and for the forests, which would be 
cut dowD, and for all those stables, barns, implement sheds, 
machines, horses, cows ; though t^ey had not been got by 
him, he knew with what labour they had been got together 
and maintained. Before, it had appeared to him easy to 
renounce it all, but now he was sorry not only for all this, 
but also to lose the land and half the income, which 
might be so useful to him. And at once he was assailed 
by the reflections that it was not wise or proper to give 
the land to the peasants, and to destroy his estate. 

» I must not own land. But if I do not own land, I 
cannot maintain all this estate. Besides, I am now bound 
for Siberia, and therefore neitho- the house nor the estate 
would be of any use to me," said one voice. " That is so," 
said another voice, "but in the first place, you are not 
going to pass all your life in Siberia ; and if you marry, 
there may be children. And you have received the estate 
in good order, and ought to transmit it in the same condi- 
tion. There are certain duties to the land. It is very 
easy to give it up and ruin it, but very ditficnlt to start 
it anew. But, above everyUiing else, you must well 



ooasider what it la you Intend to do with your Ufe, nod 
you moat take yoar meamres in regard to yoor property 
in accordance with this decsi^ion. And is your determiDa- 
tioQ firm } Then again, are you acting sincerely in con- 
formity with your conscience, or do you do bo for the sake 
of people, in order to boast before them J " KekhlyildoT 
asked himself, and could not help confessing that the 
opinions of people had an influence upon bis decision. The 
longer he thought, the more did questions arise before 
bim, and the more insolvable they became. 

In order to free himself from tiiese thoughts, he lay 
down on his fresh bed and wanted to fall asleep, in ordOT 
to solve on the morrow, when his head would be clear, 
all those questions in which he had become entangled 
now. But he could - not sleep for a long time. Through 
the open windows poured in, together with the fresh air 
and moonlight, the croaking of frogs, which was inter- 
rupted by the singing and whistling of the nightingales 
far away in the park, and of one near by, under the win- 
dow, in a spreading lilac bush. Listening to the sounds 
of the frogs and nightingales, Nekblyildov thought of the 
music of the superintendent's dai^hter ; he also recalled 
the superintendent of the prison, and M^lova, whose 
lips had quivered like the croaking of the frogs, when 
she said, "Leave me altogether." Then the German 
BupeTinteodent of tiie estate was going down to the frogs. 
It was necessary to hold him back, but he not only 
slipped down, but even became M^lova herself, and 
began to reproach, " I am a convict, and you are a prioce." 
* No, I will not submit," thought Nekhlytldov, awakening, 
and he asked himself : " Well, am I doing right or wrong ? 
I do not know, and it does not make any difference to 
me. It makes no difference. But I must sleep." And 
be himself began to slip down where the superintendent 
and MfleJova had gone, and there everything was ended. 


Oh the following d&j Nekblyildov awoke at nine 
o'clock. The young office clerk, who waa attending him, 
apon hearing him Btir, brought him his shoes which shone 
as never before, and dear, cold spring water, and an- 
nounced to him that the peasants had assembled. Nekh- 
lyildov jumped up from bed and shook off his sleepi 
There was not even a trace left of his last day's feeling 
of r^pret at giving ap his land and estate. He sow 
thought of it with surprise. He now was rejoicing in 
his act, and involimtarily proud of it. Through the 
window of his room he could see the lawn-tennis ground, 
overgrown with chicory, where the peaaauts, at the 
supenstendeDf s request, had gathered. 

The frogs had not been croaking in vain. The weather 
was gloomy ; a still, windless, warm rain had been dii^ 
zling since morning, and it bung in drops on the leaves, 
branches, and grass. Throng the window burst not only 
the odour of Uie verdure, but also ^e odour of the earth 
crying for moisture. While dressing, Xekhlyildov several 
tames looked out of the window aod watched the peaBants 
coming together in the open space. They walked up one 
after another, took off their caps, Emd stood in a circle, 
leaning over their sticks. The euperintendent, a plump, 
muscular, strong young man, in a short frock coat, with 
a green standing collar and immense buttons, came to tell 
N'ekhlyifdov that all had come, but that they would wait, 
while Xekhlyildov had better drink some tea or coffee, 
for both were ready. 

" No, I prefer to go down to them at once," said Nekh- 



IjnIdoT, experiencing, quite unexpectedly to MmBelf, » 
feeling of timidity and shame at the thought of ■ 1^ 
conversation which he was to have now with the peasanta. 

He was about to falfil that wish of the peasants, of 
which they did not even dare to dream, — to give Uiem 
land at a low price, — that is, he was going to do them a 
kindness, and yet he felt ashamed of somethii^. When 
Nekblyiidov approached the peasants gathered there, and 
the hload, cuily, bald, and gray heads were bared, he 
became so embarrassed that he did not know what to say. 
The rain continued to drizzle and to settle on die hair, 
the beards, and the nap of the peasant caftans. The 
peasants looked at the master and waited for him to say 
something, while he was so embarrassed that he could 
not utter a word. This embarrassing silence was broken 
by the calm, self-confident German superintendent, who 
regarded himself as a connoisseur of the Sussian peasant, 
and who spoke Kusaian beautifully and correctly. This 
strong, overfed man, just like Nekhlyiidov, presented a 
sbiking contrast to the lean, wrinkled faces and the thin 
shoulder-blades of the peasants, which protruded under^ 
naath their caftans. 

" The prince wants to do you a favour, and to give you 
land, — mly you do not deserve it," said the superin- 

" Why do we not deserve it, VasQi EMydi ? Have 
we not worked for you T We are much satisfied with the 
defunct lady, — the kingdom of heaven be hers, — and 
Ae young prince is not going to abandon us," began a 
red-haired orator. 

" I have called you together in order to give you land, 
if yon so wish it," said Nekhlyiidov. 

The peasants were silent, as though not comprehend- 
ing, or not believing. 

" In what sense do you mean to give the land ? " said a 
middle^ged peasant in a sleeveless coat 



"To let it to you at a low rental, for yonr own UBe." 

" That is very fine," aaid an old man. 

" If only the price will be within our reach," said an- 

" Why should we not take the land t " 

« This is our business, — to make a livii^ off the land." 

" It will be easier for you. All you will have to do 
is to receiTe the money, and no trouble I " were heard 
some voices. 

" It is yon who are causing the trouble," said the Ger- 
mau. « If you only worked and kept order." 

" It is impossible for us, Vasfli Kiilych," interposed a 
sbarp-Dosed, lean old man. " You say, ' Why did you 
let your horse into the grain,' but who has let him ? I 
work day in, day out, with the scythe, and maybe fall 
asleep at night, and he is in your oats, and then you flay 
me alive." 

" If you only kept things in order." 

"It is easy for you to talk about order, but that is 
above our strength," retorted a tall, black-haired, bearded, 
not very old mau, 

" I have told you to put up fences." 

" Well, give us the timber for it," protested an insignif- 
icant, small peasant at the rear. " I wanted to fence in 
last summer, when you stuck me into jail for three 
months to feed the lice. That's the way I have fenced 

" What is he talking about ? " Nekhlyildov asked his 
BUperintenden t. 

" Dtr ersie Dieb im Dorfel' the superintendent said in 
German. " He, has been cav^jht every year in the woods. 
Learn to respect other people's property," said the super- 

" Do we not respect you ? " said an old man. " We 
cannot help respecting you, because we are in your power, 
and you twist us into ropes." 



" Well, my fnend, you are not the people to be w<ffsted ; 
it is you who are doing the woratiog." 

" Of course, we do the worsting I Last year you 
slapped my face, and so it was left Apparently it does 
no good to try to get justice out of a rich man." 

" Do as the law tells you to," 

Manifestly this was an oratorical bout, in which the 
participants did not exactly see what tbey were taUdng 
about and to what purpose. On the one aide, one could 
perceive anger restrained by fear, and on the other, Uie 
consciousness of saperiority and power. XekhlyildOT was 
pained by what he heard, and tried to return to the nutt- 
ter in hand, — to establish prices and determine the periods 
of payments. 

" How is it then about the land I Do you want it ? 
And what price will you set upon it, if it is all given to 
you ?" 

" It is your article, so yon set a price." 

Nekhlyildov mentioned a price. Although it was mndi 
lower thau what was paid in the neighbourhood, the peas- 
ants, as ia always the case, began to haggle and to find 
the price too bigL N^ekhlyiidov had expected that his 
proposition would be accepted with joy, bat there was no 
apparent expression of pleasure. Nekhlyiidov could see 
that this proposition was advantageous to them, because 
when the question arose who was going to take the land, 
whether the whole Commune, or by partnership, there be- 
gan bitter contentions between those peasants who wanted 
to exclude the feeble and the poor payers from participa- 
tion in the land, and those who were to be excluded. 
Finally, thanks to the superintendeot, a price and periods 
of payment were agreed upon, and the peasants, convers- 
ing loudly, went down-hill, toward the village, while 
Kekhlyiidov went to the office to sketch the conditions 
with the superintendent. 

Everything was arranged as Kekblyildov bad wished 



and expected : the peasante received t^eir land ai thirty 
per cent. leas th&n was aaked in the neighbourhood ; his 
income from the land was cut almost into two, but that 
was mora than enough for Nekhlyildov, especially in con- 
junction with the sum which he leceived for the timber 
which he had sold, and which he was to n^ from the 
sale ot the chattels. Everything seemed to go well, and 
yet KekhlytidoT felt all the time ashamed of sometJiing. 
He saw that the peasants, notwithstanding the thanks 
^ich some had ez^oessed to him, were dissatisfied and 
had expected something more. It turned out that he 
had lost a great deal, and the peasants did not receive 
what they had expected. 

On the following day the contract was signed, and, 
accompanied by the sdect old men, who had come to 
see him, Nekhlyiidov, with the unpleasant feeling of 
something unfiDished, seated himself in the Buperintend- 
ent's superb " three-span carriage," as the driver from the 
station had called it. Bidding the peasanta good-bye, 
who shook tb&i heads in surprise and dissatisfaction, he 
left Ua the station. The peasants were dissatisfied. 
Nekhlyiidov was dissatisfied with himself. What it was 
be was dissatisfied with he did not know, but he for 
oome reason felt all the time sad and ashamed. 



Fbom Knzmfnskoe Nekhl^iidov west to the estate 
which he bad inherited (rom his atmts, the one where ha 
had become acquainted with Katyiisha. He intended to 
arran^ matters with the land there jnst as at Kuzmfnskoe, 
and besidea, to find oat whatever he could about Katyilaha 
and her child and his, whether it was true that it died, and 
how it died. He arrived at Pinovo early in the morning. 
The first thing he was struck by, as he drove into the 
courtyard, was the sight of abandonment and decay that 
was on all the buildings, bat especially on the house. The 
sheet-iron roof, which at one time had been green, not 
having been painted for a long time, waa now red with rust, 
and several sheets were curled up, apparently by the wind ; 
the boards with which the house waa lined had in spots 
been pulled off by people, wherever the boards came 
off easily by turning away the rusty nails. Both the 
front and back porches, especially the memorable one 
from the back, had rotted and were broken, and nothing 
but the croBB-beama were left Some windows were nailed 
ap with boards, and the wii^;, in which the clerk lived, 
and the Idtcheoi and stable, — ererytiiing waa gray and 

Only the garden did not look forlorn ; on the contrary, 
it had spread out and grown up and was now in full 
bloom ; beyond the fence could be seen, like white douda, 
blooming cherry, apple, and plum trees. The clump of 
lHae bushes was flowering just as it bad fiowered twelve 
years before, when Nekblyrfdov had played the " burning " 
catching game with sixteen-yearold Katyiisha, and had 



fallal utd stung himself in the nettles. The laic^ which 
had been planted by Stffya IvAnovna near the house, and 
which then had been not higher than a post, was now a 
large tree, of the size of building timber, and all clad 
in yellowish-green, fluffy needles. The river was within 
its banks and dinned at the mill in the sluices. In the 
meadow, beyond the river, was pasturing a mixed many- 
coloured herd of peasant cattle. 

The clerk, a seminarist who had not finished his couise, 
met NekhlyiidoT in the yard, continually smiling ; he 
invited him to the office, and, again smiling, as though 
promising something special by that smile, went behind 
the partition. Here there was some whispering, and then 
all grew silent The driver having received a gratuity 
drove out of the yard, with tinkling belle, and then every- 
thing became completely stilL Theo a barefoot girl in 
an embroidered shirt, with fluff-rings in her ears, ran post 
the window ; after the girl ran a peasant, clattering with 
the hobnails of his heavy boots over the bard patL 

Nekhlyildov sat down near the window, looking at the 
garden and listening. A fresh spring breeze, bearing 
the odour of the ploughed-up earth, came in through the 
small double-winged window, softly agitating the hadi on 
his perspiring brow, and some notes lying on the vrindow- 
sill, which was all cut up with a knife. On the river, 
" tra-pa-tap, tra-pa-tap," plashed, interrupting each other, 
the washing-beetles of the women, and these sounds ran 
down the dam of the river, that shoi.B in the sun ; and 
one could hear the even faSl of th? water at the mill ; 
and past the ear flew a fly, bnzring in a frightened and 
melodious manner. 

And suddenly NekhlytJdov recalled that just in the 
same manner long ago, when he was young and innocent, 
he had heard here on the river t^ese sounds of the wash- 
ing-beetles over the wet clothes, throu^ the even din of 
the mill ; and just in the same manner the spring breeze 



had agitated the hair on his damp brow and the ootea on 
the cut-np window-aill ; and just aa frightened a fly had 
flown past his ear, — and he felt himself, not the eighteen- 
year-old yonth, which he had been then, but possessed of 
the same Iredineas, purity, and a future full of great 
possibilitieB, and at the same time, as happens in dreams, 
he knew that that was no more, and be felt terribly sad. 

*' "When do you wish to eat ? " the clerk asked him, 
Htniling . 

" 'Whenever you wish, — I am not bongry. I ahall 
walk down to the village." 

" Would yon not like to go into the house 1 Every- 
thing is in good order inside. You will see that if on 
the outside — " 

" No, later. But tell me, if you please, is there here 
a womao by Uie name of Matr^na Xh^rina 1 " (That was 
Eatyiisha'a annt.) 

"Certainly. She is in the village. I can't man^ 
her. She keeps a dram-shop. I have upbraided and 
scolded her for it, hut when it comes to writing an accu- 
sation, I am sorry for her : she is old, and has grand- 
children," said the clerk, with the same smile, which 
expressed both a deeire to be pleasant to the master, and 
also a conviction that Ndfblyiidov understood matters as 
well as he. 

" Where does she live ! I should like to go down to 
see her." 

" At the edge of the village, — the third hut from the 
other end. On the left hand there is a brick cabin, and 
next to the brick cabin is her hut. I had better take yon 
down," said the dork, with a smile of joy. 

" No, thank you. I shall find her. In the meantime, 
please, send word to the peasants to come together : I 
want to speak to them about the land," said Nekhlyiidov, 
intending to arrange everything here as at Kuzmfnskoe, 
and, if possible, on that very day. 



Upon emergiiig bom the gate, Kekhlyiidov met on the 
bard-trodden path acroaa tiie pasture, which was over- 
grown with plantain and wild rosemary, the peasant giil, 
with rapidly moving, stout, bai« feet, in a motley apron, 
with fluff-rings in her ears. She was now returning. She 
swayed her left hand across her path, while with her 
right she clutched a red cock to her body. The cock, 
with his wavy red crest, seemed to be quiet, and only 
rolled his eyea, and now stret<died and now drew in one 
of his black 1^, catching with hia claws in the girl's 
apron. As she was coming nearer to the maatei, she 
slowed down and chained her run to a walk ; when 
she came abreast of him, she stopped and, swaying her 
head back, bowed to him ; she moved on with the cock, 
when he had passed her. Coming down to a well, Nekb- 
lyiidov met an old woman, who on her stooping shoulders, 
covered with her dirty, rough shirt, was carrying full, 
heavy buckets. The old woman carefully let them down 
and bowed to him with the same back swing of her head. 

Beyond the well began the village. It was a clear, 
warm day, and at ten o'clock it was already hot, while 
the gathering clouds now and then veiled the sun. 
Through the whole street was borne a sharp, pungent, and 
not disagreeable odour of dnng, which was proceeding 
from the carts that were climbing up-hill along a shining, 
smooth road, but more especially from the dug-up manure 
{oIbs of the yards, past the open gates of which Nekhlyd- 
dov was going. Thepeasants, who were walking up the hill 



back of the wagons, were barefooted, and their trousen 
and shirta were daubed with the manure liquid ; they were 
looking back at the tall, Btoot gentlemaa, in a gray hat, 
which glistened in the sun with its silk baod, as he was 
walking up the village, at every second stop teaching the 
gronnd with bis strnuDg knotty cane, with a sparkling 
knob. The peasants, who were retumiDg from ^e Geld, 
shakily on the seats of their empty caits, which came 
down at a gallop, took off their caps and with surprise 
watched t^e UQUsual man who was walking up their 
street, while the women walked out of the gates or upon 
the porches and pointed him out to each other, aod 
followed him with their eyes. 

At the fourth gate, past which Nekhlyiidov happened 
to pass, he was stopped by a cart that was just coming 
out with a squeak from the gate ; it was packed high 
with manure, and had a mat on top to sit on. A six- 
year-old boy, excited at the ride which he was going to 
have, was following the wagon. A young peasant, in 
bast shoes, making long strides, was driving the horses 
out of the gate. A long-le^ed, bluish-gray colt leaped out 
of the gate, but, becoming frightened at ITekhlyiidoT, 
pressed close to the cart and, hurting its l^s against the 
wheels, jumped ahead of its distressed and slightly 
neighing mother, that was pulling the heavy wagon. The 
other horse was being led out by a lean, Hvely old man, who 
was also barefoot, in striped trousers and a long, dirty 
shirt, witti protruding shoulder-blades. 

When the horses got out on the hard road, which was 
bestrewn with tnfto of manure, gray, as though burnt, 
the old man turned back to the gate and bowed to 

" Are you the nephew of our ladies 1 " 

« Tea, yes." 

"I welcome you upon your arrivaL Have you come 
to see ust" said the talkative old man. 



" Yea, yea — Well, how are you gettii^ along ? " said 
Nekhlyiidov, not knowing what to say. 

" What kind of a life is it that we lead ? The very 
worst kind," the talkative old man aaid. in a flingsong, 
drawling way, as though it gave him pleaaure to tell iL 

" Why ia it bad ? " Baid NekhlyiidoT, walking into the 

" What kind of a life is it ? The very worst kind," said 
the old man, going with Nekhlyiidov to the penthouse, 
which was (leaned oat to the gronod. 

Nekhlyiidov went after him under the penthouse. 

" There they are, twelve souls," continued the old man, 
pointing to two women, who, with receding kerchiefs, 
perspiring, their akirts tucked up, with bare calves soiled 
half-way up with the manure, were standing with pitch- 
forks on the platform which was not yet cleaned out from 
the dang. " I have to buy six puds every month, and 
where am I to get it ? " 

" Haven't you enough of your own ) " 

" Of my own ? " said the old man, with a contemptuous 
smile. " I have enough land for three aoula, and this 
year I have only harvested eight ricke, so that there was 
not enoi^h to last until Christmas." 

" What do you do, then ? " 

" We do like this : I have hired out one as a labourer, 
and have borrowed money from you, gracious air. I boi^ 
rowed it before Shrovetide, and the taxes are not yet paid." 

" What are your taxes ? " 

"From my farm they are seventeen roubles for four 
months. Qod preserve us from sach a life! I do not 
know how to turn about." 

" May I go into your house ? " said Nekhlyitdov-, moving 
through the small yard, and passing from the cleaned-up 
place to the untouched, bat forked-over, saffron-yellow, 
strong-smelling layers of manure. 

"Why not! Step in," said the old man, and, with 



A]^d etiidefl of his bare feet, that preased the liquid 
nutmue between their toes, numing ahead of NekhlTiidoT, 
he opened the door for him. 

The womeQ adjusted the kerchiefs on tbeii heada, let 
down their skirts, and with terrified cuiiosity looked at 
the clean master, with the gold cnfF-battons, who was 
walking into their house. 

From the but rushed out two little girls in shirts. 
Bending and taking off his bat, Nekblyiidov entered the 
vestibule and the dirty and narrow room, which smelted 
of some Bour food, and which was occupiad by two looms. 
Near the oven stood an old woman with the sleeves of 
her lean, venous, sunbtirut arms rolled up. 

" Here is our master, and he is visiting us," said the 
old man. 

" You are welcome," kindly said the old woman, rolling 
down her sleeves. 

"I wanted to see how you ate getting along," said 

" We live just as you see. The hut is ready to tumble 
down any time, and it will kUl somebody yet. But the 
old man says that it is good. So we Jive, and rule over 
things," said the vivacious old woman, nervously }erkiog 
her head. " 1 am getting ready to dine. I have to feed 
the workii^ peopl&" 

"What are you going to have for dinner T " 

"For dinner? We have good food. First course — 
bread with kvas ; the second — kvas with bread," said the 
old woman, grinning with her half-wom-off teeth. 

" No, without jokes, show me what it is you are goii^ 
to have for dinner to-day." 

" What we shall eat ? " said the (dd man, laughing. 
" Our food is not complicated. Show it to him, old 

The old woman shook her head. 

" So you want to see our peasant food. You are a 



cnrioQB gentlemsn, as I look at 7011. Eb wants to know 
eTetything. I told you, bread and kras, and soap made 
of goutwort, which the women bionght yesterday, — that's 
the soop, and then, potatoes." 

" And that is all ? " 

" What else is there to be ? We wash it down with 
milk," a&id the old woman, laughing, and looking at the 

The door was open, and the vestibule was full of people, 
boys, girls, women with their babea, watching the strange 
master who was examining the peasant food. The old 
woman was evidently proud of her ability to conferee 
with the master. 

"Yes, sir, it is a bad, bad life we lead," said the old 
man. " Whither are you goii^ 7 " he shouted at those 
who were standii^ in tlie door. 

" Good-bye," said Nekhlyiidov, experiencing uneasiness 
and shame, as to the cause of which he did not give him- 
self any account. 

" We thank you moat humbly for having visited ua," 
said the old man. 

In the vestibule, the people, pressing against each other, 
made way for him, and he went into the street and walked 
up the hill. He was followed by two barefoot boys from 
the vestjbnle : one (d these, the ^der, was in a dirty, once 
white shirt, and the other, in a worthless, faded, rose- 
coloured sbiit. Kekhlytidov looked back at them. 

" Whither are you going now 1 " asked the boy in the 
white shirt. 

"To Matr&e Kh([rina," he said. "Do yon know 

The little fellow in the rose-coloured shirt landed oat 
for some reason, while the elder seriously asked : 

" What Matrina ? An old woman ? " 

■ Yes, an old woman." 

" 0-ob," he drawled oat. " That is Sem&i's wife, at tha 



edge of the village. We ahall take joa there. Come, 
F^ya, let as take him there I " 

" And the horses ? " 

*• Maybe it won't hurt." 

F^ya agreed with him, and ibsj want all thiw ap 
the street 


ITBERLTlhtOT was mote at ease with the hoya than 
with Che grown people, and he talked to them tm the way 
np. The little boy is the roae-^uloured shiit stopped 
lauf^ling, and spoke as cleverly and clearly as the elder 

" Who ifi poorest of all here ? " asked Nekhlyildov. 

" Who is poor ! Mikh&yla is poor, SemSn Mak^v, and 
then M^rta is mighty poor." 

" And A nfayft, — ahe is poorer stilL Anlsya has not 
even a cow, and ahe has to go a-begging," said little F&iya. 

" She has no cow, but there are only three of them, 
while there are five of them at Uirfa's house," insisted 
the elder Ix^. 

« But she is a widow," the rose-coloured boy defmded 

" Tou say Anfsya is a widow, bat Mirfa is as good as a 
widow," continued the elder boy. " It is all the same as 
though she did not have a husband." 

" Where is her husband ? " asked Nekhlyiidov, 

" In jail, feeding hce," said ihe elder boy, using the 
customary expression. 

" Last summer he cut down two little hirches in the 
manorial forest, so he was locked up," hastened to say 
the little rose-coloured boy. "He has been there these 
six months, and the woman has to beg, for herself, three 
children, and a poor old woman," he explained at great 

"Where does she live?" asked Nekhlyddov, 

" In this very house," said the boy, pointing at the hut, 



in front of which a white-haired little child, who waa 
barely holding himself on his crooked legs with ita 
tumed-out knees, was standing, with a swinging motion, 
OQ the path over which NekhlyddoT was walking. 

" Vifika, where are yon running, you httle urchin ? " 
cried a woman in a dirty gray ^irt, which looked as 
though it were covered with aahes, as she came running 
out of the hut. She rushed with a frightened face in 
front of Nekhlyildov, picked up the child, and carried 
him into the house. 

It looked as though she were afraid lest Nekhlyifdov 
should do him some harm. 

That was the woman whose husband was locked up in 
jail for having taken the birches out <A Nekhlyttdov's 

" Well, and Matr^a, is she poor 1 " aaked Nekhlyiidoy, 
as they were coming close to Matr^na's hut. 

" Not at all poor : she traffics in liqaor," the slim roee- 
coloured boy answered resolutely. 

Upon reaching Matr^a's hut, Nekhlyiidov dismissed 
the boya, and entered the vestibule, and then the house. 
Old Mstr^a's cabin waa about fifteen feet square, so that 
on the bed, which was back of the oven, it was not pos- 
sible for a tall man to stretch himself. " On this very 
bed," he thought, " Eatydsha bore the child and then lay 
ilL" Nearly the whole room was occupied by a loom, 
which the old woman was putting away with her elder 
granddaughter's assistance, just as NeUilyiidov, having 
struck his head against the low door, entered. Two other 
grandchildren rushed headloi^ after the master, and 
stopped in the door, taking hold of the crosapieoe with 
their hands. 

" Whom do you want ? " angrily asked the old woman, 
who was in bad humour on account of the loom that was 
giving her trouble. Besides, as she secretly sold liquor, 
she was afraid of all strangers. 



" I am the proprietor. I should hke to talk with 70U." 

The old womao was silent and looked fixedly at him ; 
then she suddenly became traneformed. 

" Ah, yon, deer sir, and I, foolish woman, did not rec- 
ognize you. I thought it was some transient," she said, 
in a feignedly kind voice, "Ah, yon, my dear-eyed 

" I should like to talk to you without witnesses," said 
Nekhlyiidov, looking at the open door, where the children 
stood, and beyond which was a haggard woman, with a 
lean, sickly, i»le, continually smiling baby, in a ^ull-cap 
made of rags. 

" What is it you have not seen ? I will show you ! 
Just let me have my crutch," med the old woman at 
those who were standing in the door. " Please close the 


The diildren went away, and the woman with the 
babe dosed the door. 

"I was wondering who it is has come. And behdd, 
it is the master. My golden one, my precious beauty," 
said the old woman. " And so you have deigned to come 
to see me. yon precious one ! Sit down here, your 
Ser^ty, right here on the bendi," she said, wiping (M 
the bemch with her apron. " I was wondering what devil 
it was that was coming here, and behold, it was your 
Serffliity, the good master, the benefactor, our protector." 

Nekhlyiidov sat down ; the old woman stood in front 
of him, supported her cheek with her right hand, with 
bei left hand caught hold of the elbow of her right arm, 
and began to spe^ in a singsong voice : 

" Yon have grown old, your Serenity ; yon used to be 
like a pretty flower, and now ? Evidently yoo, too, have 
known sorrow 1 " 

" I came to ask you whether yon remember Eatyiisha 

"Katetfnal How could I forget her — she is my 



niece. Of coarse I remember her; I haye wept so numy 
tears for her. I know all. Who, my dear, is not Jlnful 
before God, and not guilty, toward the Tsar? A young 
thing, — she drank tea and coffee, — well, the uncleaa 
one tempted her, for he is strong, and the sin was com- 
mitted. What is to be done ? If you had abaodoned 
her, but no, you gave her a good reward, a whole hun- 
dred roubles. And what did she do? She could not 
comprehend it. If she had listened to me, she might 
have lived welL Though she is my niece, I must say, 
she is not a sensible girl I bad found such a fine place 
for her, but she would not submit, end cursed the master. 
It is not right for us to curse masters. Well, she was 
dismissed. Then, she might have lived at the house of 
the forester, but ahe did not want to." 

" I wanted to ask about the child. She bore him is 
your house, I think. Where is the child ? " 

" I had, dear sir, well provided for the child. She was 
very ill, and thought she would not get up. I had the 
child baptized, as is proper, and sent him to a foundlii^ 
house. Beally, what was the use of tormenting an angelic 
little soul, when the mother was dying. Others leave 
the child without feeding, and it dies ; but I thought that 
it was not ri^t, and so I took the trouble, and sent him 
to the foundhng house. There was some money, and so 
be was taken thera" 

" Did he have a number ? " 

"He did, only be died. She said that he died the 
moment she came there." 

« Who is ahe ? " 

"That woman who used to live at Sbon5duoe. That 
was her busiaesa. MaUnya was ber name, — she is dead 
now. She was a clever woman — and that's the way she 
did it. If a child was brought to her, she kept it in her 
house, and fed it. And she fed it until the time for 
taking it away. When there were three or four, she took 



tlieni away. She did it very cleverly : she had a large 
cradle, io Uie shape of a double bed, so that the children 
could be placed either way. And there was a handle 
attached to it. So she woold place four of them with 
their heads apart, so that t^ey should not hurt each other, 
and with their fe^ together, and thus she took the four 
away. She stuck suc^g rags into their mouths, so the 
dear little things were content." 

" Well, and then ? " 

" Well, so she took Katerina's child and kept him for 
about two weeks. He b^an to ail in her house." 

" Was he a nice child ? " asked Kekhlyiidov. 

" So nice that he oi^ht to have had better care, but 
that was not possible. He was just like you," added the 
old woman, blinking with her old ^e. 

" What weakened him so ? I suppose he did not get 
the right food." 

" What feeding could it be ? Consider that it was not 
her child. All she cared for was to get him there alive. 
She said that be died the moment she reached Moscow 
with him. She brought a certificate about it, all in 
proper shape. She was a clever woman." 

That was all Nekhlyiidov was able to find oat about 
hia child. 





Having again struck his head against the doors c^ the 
house and of the vestibule, Nekhlyrfdov emerged in the 
street. The dirty white and the rose-coloured boy were 
waiting for him. A few more had joined them. There 
wera also waiting a few women with their suckling babes, 
and among them was the woman who lightly held in her 
arms the aneemic child with the ekiill-«ap made of rags. 
This child did not cease smiling strangely with its whole 
old-looking face and twirling strainedly its large fingers. 

Kekhly^dov knew that this was a smile ^ sufTering. 
He asked who this woman was. 

" This is that very Anisya of whom I have told you," 
said the elder boy. 

Nekhlyiidov turned to Anfsya. 

" How BTB yon getting along ? " he asked. " What do 
you live cai?" 

"How do I live? I b^," said Anisya, and burst out 

The old-looking child melted into a smile, twisting its 
worm-like little feet 

Kekhlyildov drew out his pocketbook, and gave the 
women ten roubles. He had not made two steps when 
he was overtaken by another woman with a child, then 
by an old woman, and again by another. They all 
spoke of their poverty, and asked to be helped. Nekhlyd- 
dov distributed the sixty roubles in small bills which he 
had in his pocketbook, and, with a terrible gnawing 
in his heart, returned home, that is, to the wing of the 



The clerk, smilii^, met Nekhlyddov -with the inf<»ma- 
tioQ that die peasants would gather in the evening. 
NekblyiidoT tiianked him, and, without entering the 
rooms, went to stroll throi^h the garden over the over- 
grown paths, which were strewn with the white petala of 
the apple-bloseoms, thinking over everything he had seen. 

At first everything near the wing was quiet, but later 
Nekhlyiidor beard two angry contending voices of women, 
through which now and then sounded the calm voice of 
the amiling clerk. Kekhlyiidov listened. 

"I can't make out why you are pulling the cross off 
my neck," said one furious feminine voice. 

"She JQst ran in," said another voice. "Give her 
hack to me, I say. Don't torment the cow, and keep the 
milk away from the children." 

" Fay, or work it ofT." said the calm voice of the clerk. 

Ne^yiidov came out of the garden and went up to 
the porch, where two dishevelled women were standing, 
one of them apparently in the last stages of pregnancy. 
On the steps of the porch stood the clerk, w^h his hands 
in the pockets of his linen ulster. Upon noticing the 
master, ^e women grew silent and began to fix the ker- 
chiefs which had sUpped off their heads, and the clerk 
took his hands out of bis pockets and smiled. 

The trouble was, as the clerk explained it, that the 
peasants purposely let the calves, and even the cows, out 
on the manorial meadows. Thus two cows belonging to 
these women had been caught in the meadow and had 
been driven in. Now the clerk demanded thirty kopeks 
a cow, or two days work from each of the women. But 
the women declared that, in the first place, the cows had 
just ent««d there ; that, in the second, they had no 
money ; and that, in the third, for the promise to work off 
the fine, they demanded the immediate return of the cows 
that had been standing since morning in the hot sun 
without food, and lowing pitifully. 



" How often I have asked them in all kindness," said 
the Bmiling clerk, looking at Kekhlyiidov, aa tjiough 
appealing to him as to a witnera, "to look after their 
cattle when they drive them out to pastore I " 

" I jnst ran down to look at my baby, when tiiey ran 

" Then don't go away, when yoit are supposed to watcb 
the cattle I " 

" And who will feed the baby ? Yon won't give them 
the breast." 

" If she had really cropped the meadow, her belly 
would not pain her now, but she had barely gone in," 
said the other. 

" They have pastured off all the meadows," the clerk 
addressed XakUyiidoT. "If they are not to be fined, 
there will be no hay at all." 

" Oh, don't sin," cried the woman wiUi child. " Mine 
have never gone there before." 

" But they have now, and so pay, or work it oiF," 

" I will work it <^, only let the cows go, and don't 
starve them," she cried, angrily. " As it is, I have no test, 
neither by day nor by night. My mother-in-law is sick. 
My husband is on a spree. I have to attend to every- 
thing, and I have no strength. Choke yourself with your 
working off." 

Nekhlytidov asked the derk to release the cows, and 
himself went to the garden to finish his reflections, but 
there was nothing to think about. 

Everything was so dear to him that he could not help 
wtnderii^ how it was that pec^le, and he himself in- 
cluded, had not seen loi^ ago what was so manifestly 
clear. The people are dying by starvation, and are used 
to this process of starvation ; among them conditions of 
life, adapted to tiiis starvation, have formed themselves : 
the dying off of the children, hard labour for the women 
whidt surpasses their strength, insufBciency of food for 



all, espedally for the older men. And thuB the people 
Blowly arrive at a state when they no longer see ita whole 
terror, and do not complain of it. Therefore we r^ard 
this condition as natural, and think that it ought to be 

Now it was as clear as da; to him that the diief cause 
of the people's suffering, as perceived and pointed out by 
the peasants tbeniselves, consisted in the fact that tiie 
landed proprietors had taken away the land from which 
they could provide for their needs. At the same time, it 
waa exceedingly clear that the children and old peo^ 
died because they had no milk, and they had no milk 
hecause there was no land on which to pasture their cows 
and harvest their grain and hay ; it was exceedingly clear 
that all the suET^ing of the people, or at least the chief 
and nearest cause of that suffering, came from the fact 
that the land which fed them was not in their hands, 
but in the hands of men who, making use of the right to 
that land, lived by the labours of the people And the 
land, which was so necessary to the peasants that they 
starved for the lack of it, was worked 1^ these very 
people, who were reduced to extremity, in order that the 
grain might be sold abroad, and that the owners of the 
land might be able to buy themselves hats, caoes, car- 
riages, bronzes, and so on 

This waa now as clear to him as that horses which are 
shot up in an enclosure where they have browsed off all 
the grass will be lean and starving, unless they be per- 
mitted to nse the land where they may find food for 
themselves. A^d that was terrible, and could not and 
ought not to be. And means ought to be found to do 
away with thid, or at least he himself ought not to take 
part in it 

" I shall certainly find a way," he thought, walking up 
and down, in the nearest avenue of birches. " In learned 
societies, governmental institutions, and newspapers we 



talk about the canaes of the people's impoverishment, and 
about the means fot timix npliftiiig, except the one cettain 
means, which t^ people wiJl onqaeationably surest, and 
which is that the land which has been taken from them 
be rebtrned to them." He vividly recalled the funda- 
mental doctrine of Henry George, and his former enthusi- 
asm for it, and he wondered how it was he hod fo^otten 
it alL " The land cannot be the object of private owner- 
ship ; it cannot be the object of purchase and sale, any 
more than water, air, and the sun ara Everybody has the 
same right to the land and to the privileges which it be- 
stows." And he anderatood now why he felt eo ashamed 
as he was arranging matters at Kuzmlnskoe. He hod 
been deceiving himself. Though be knew that man had no 
right to the land, he assumed it in his own cose, and pre- 
sented the peasants with a port of that which, in the 
depth of his soul, he knew be hod no right to. 

He would not do that here, but would change his Euz- 
minakoe procedure. He thought out a project, which 
was that he would give the land to the peasants at a stated 
rental, which rental was to be the peasants' property and 
to be used tor die payment of taxes and for public needs. 
This was not the Single-tax, but the nearest possible ap- 
proach to it uudex present conditions. The chief thing was 
that he renounced his right of private ownership of land. 

When he came back to the house, the clerk, smiling 
most joyfully, invited him to dine, at t^e same time ex- 
pressing his fear lest the food, which had been prepared by 
his wife with the help of the girl with the fluff-rings in 
her ears, should be cooked and broiled too much. 

The table was covered with a rough cloth ; an em^ 
broidered towel took the place of a napkin ; and on the 
table stood an old Saxon ware soup-bowl, with a broken 
handle, in which was potato soup with that cock which 
had been protruding now one black leg and now another, 
and which now was cut and even chopped into small 



'pieces, in many placea stdll covered with feathers. After 
the soap came tiie same cock with singed feathers, and 
cheese dumphngs with a large quantity of batter and 
Bt^^. Although all that was not very palatable, Nekh- 
lyiidov ate it, without knowing what he was eating, for 
be was so occupied with his thought, which had at once 
dispelled the gloom that be had brought with him from 
the village. 

The clerk's wife peeped through t^e door, while tiie 
frightened girl, with the fluff-ringa in her ears, was carry- 
ing in a dish, and the cleik himself, proud of his wife's 
art, kept smiling ever more joyf uUy. 

After dinner, Kekhlytidov with difficulty got the clerk 
to sit down, and in order to verify his plans to himself 
and to have somebody to whom to teU that which so in- 
terested him, he informed him of his project of giving the 
land to the peasants, and asked him for his opinion on 
the matter. The clerk smiled, trying to look as though he 
had thought so himself for a long time, and as thoi^h 
he were glad to hear it ; in reality, he did not understand 
a word, apparently not because Nekblyiidov did not ex- 
press himself clearly, but because from this project it 
appeared that Nekblyiidov was renouncing his advantage 
for the advantage of others ; wbeieas the truth that every 
man cared only for his own advantage, to the disadvantage 
of other people, had taken such firm root in the con- 
sciousness of the clerk that he omcluded that he bad not 
understood Nekhlyiidov right when he told bim that the 
whole income from the land was to form the common 
c^iital of the peasants. 

" I see. So you will get a certain per cent, from that 
capital," he said, beaming with intelligeoice. 

" Xot at all Understand that I am giving all the land 

" But theia yon will have no income," said the clerk, no 
longer smiling. 



" No, I sha'c't. I renounce it." 

The clerk heaved a heavy s^h, and then once more 
began to snule. He saw that Nekhlyiidov was not quite 
sane, and immediately set out to discover in the project of 
Nekhlyiidov, who was giving np his land, a chance for his 
own personal advantage; he tried to comprehend that 
project in the sense of being able himself to make nse of 
the land which was to be given away. 

But when be saw that that was not possible, he felt 
aggrieved, and ceased taking any interest in the plan, and 
continued to smile only to please his master. Seeing that 
the clerk did not understand him, Nekhlyiidov disnussed 
him, and himself sat down at the cat-up and ink-stained 
table, in order to put bis plan down on paper. 

The sun had just set behind the newly budded trees, 
and the gnats Sew in swarms into the room and stung 
him. When he had ended bis note and at the same time 
heard t^e bleating of the cattle in the village, the creaking 
of opened gates, and the conversation of the peasants col- 
lected for the meeting, NekhlyifdoT told the clerk not to 
coll the peasants to the office, but that he himself would go 
to the vUlage and to the yard where the peasants mi^t 
be gathered. Having swtjlovred a glass of tea offered him 
by the clerk, Nekhly^dov went to ^e village. 



Thzbk was aoBj talk near the yard of the elder, hot 
the momeot Nekhlyiidov approached, the conversation 
died down, and all the peasants, jiut as at Kuzmlnskoe, 
one after another took off their hats. The peaaante of 
this locality looked more poverty-etricken than thoee at 
Kuzmfnskoe : jnst as the women and girls wore fluff-rings 
in their ears, so the men were nearly all of them in bast 
Hhoes and caftans. Some were barefoot, and in nothing 
but their shirts, just as they had come from tlieir work. 

Nekhlyiidov made an effort over himself and bc^an his 
speech by saying that he intended to give them the land 
alt<^ether. The peasants were silent and there was no 
change in the expression of their faces. 

" Because I consider," said Nekhlyiidov, blushing, " that 
everybody has a right to make use of the land." 

" That is sa That is correct," were heard the voices of 
the peasants. 

Kekhlyiidov continued to speak, telling them that the 
income from the land ought to be divided up among all, 
and therefore he proposed that they take the ^nd and pay 
such, rental as they themselves might detemune on into 
the common capital, which was to be at their disposal. 
There were beard words of approval and agreement, but 
the serious faces of the peasants became ever more serious, 
and the eyes, which had heea lootdng at the master, were 
cast down, as though not to shame him with the fact that 
his cunning had been understood by all, and that he 
would not deceive auyl"idy. 



yekhlTtEdoT spoke quite clearlj', and the peasants vere 
sensible people, but he was not understood, nor could he 
evn be, for the same reason that the clerk was unable to 
comprehend him. They were fully convinced that it was 
proper for every man to look out for his advantage. But 
the landed proprietors, tJiey knew by the experience of 
several generations, always watched their own intfirests 
to the disadvantage of the peasants. Consequently, if the 
proprietor called them together and offered them some- 
thing new, it was manifestly for the purpose of oheating 
them more cunningly stilL 

" Well, what rental do you expect to put on the land ? " 
asked Nekhlyddov, 

" What is the use putting a price on it ? We cannot do 
that. The land is yours, and so is the power," was the 
answer from the crowd. 

" But you will be using that money for your own com- 
mon purposea" 

"We cannot do that. The common good is one thing, 
and this is another." 

" Understand," said the smiling clerk, who had come np 
after Nekhlyddov, wishing to explain the matter, " that 
the prince gives the land to you for money, and the 
money goes back to you as your own capital, for yoni 
common good." 

" We understaod quite well," said an angry-looking, 
toothless peasant, without raising his eyes. " It is just 
like in a bank, only we shall have to pay at stated times. 
We do not wish that, because it is hard for ub as it is, and 
that will min us completely." 

" It does us no good. Let us live as before," spoke dis- 
satisfied and evflo insulting voices. 

They began to refuse more reeolutely when Nekhlyiidov 
mentioned a contract which be would sign and they would 
have to aign, too. 

"What is the use of signing? As we have worked 



before, so we shall contioue to work. Bat what good is 
this ? We are ^orant people." 

" We can't agree to it, because it is an nnasual buai- 
neas. As it has been, so let it be. If on^ tlie seeds be 
changed," were heard some voices. 

To change the seeds meant that under present condi- 
tions the seeding was done from ihe peasant grain, whereas 
they wanted the master to furnish the grain to them. 

" So you decline it, and will not take the land ? " asked 
Nekhlyddov, turning to a middle-aged barefoot peasant, 
with a beaming countenance, in a torn caftan, who in his 
bent hand was holding his tattered cap just as soldiers 
hold theirs when they take them oS* by command. 

" Yes, sir," replied this soldier, who apparently had not 
yet been freed from the hypnotism of nulitarism. 

" Consequently you have enough land ? " said Nekh- 

" Not at all," said the ex-soldier, with an artificial, 
happy grin, carefully holding his tattered cap in front of 
him, as though offeriiig it to anybody who might like to 
use it. 

" Still, you had better consider what I have told you," 
said Nekhlyiidov, in surprise, and he repeated his propo- 

" We have nothing to think over. As we have said, so 
it will be," angrily mattered the toothless old man. 

" I shall stay here all day to-morrow. If you have 
changed your minds, send w<ml to me." 

The peasants made no reply. 

Nekhlyiidov could not get anything out of them, and 
went hack to the of&ce. 

" Let me inform you, prince," said the clerk, upon re- 
turning home, " that you will come to no understanding 
with them ; they are stubborn people. The moment they 
are at a meeting, they become stubborn, and there is no 
stirring them after that. They are afraid of everything. 



And yet, on other ocoaaiona these very peasaata — take, 
for example, that gray-haiied, or that Bvnirthy man, vho 
did not agree — are clever people. Whenever ooe of 
them comes to the office, and I ask him to ait down and 
drink a glass of tea," said the smiling clerk, " he talks 
quite freely, — and he is a minister as r^ards hia mind, 
— he will judge everytMng correctly. But at the meet- 
ing be is an entirely different man, and be sticks to just 
one thing." 

" Can't you send for aome of these more intelligent 
peasants," said Nokhlyiidov. " I should like to explain it 
to them in detail" 

" That can be done," said the smiling clerk. 

" Then, please, call them for to-morrow." 

" That can be done," said the clerk, amiling even more 
cheerfully. " I shall call them for to-morrow." 

" I declare, he is shrewd t " said, swaying on his well- 
fed mare, the swarthy peasant, with his shaggy, never 
combed beard, to another old, lean peaaant in a tattered 
caftan, who was riding near blm and clanking with the 
iron hobbles. They were riding to put the horses to pas- 
ture for the night on the highway and secretly in the 
maporial foreat. " The idea of his giving away the land 
if we put down our signatures 1 They luve been fooling 
us long enough. No, sir, you are joking I Nowadays we 
anderatand a thii^ or two ourselves," he added, and b^an 
to call back the straying yearling colt. 

'■ Here, colt," he cried, stopping his horse and looking 
back, but the colt waa not behind, bat had gone into the 
meadow at one side. 

" That is where he haa gone to, accuraed one, into the 
manorial meadow," said the swarthy peasant wi^i the 
shaggy beard, as he heard on the dew-covered meadow, 
fra^nt with the awamp, the crashing of the dock, over 
which the atraying colt was prandng and whinnying. 



"YoQ hear, the maadows ue gettiog fall of veeds. 
On the holiday we shall have to send the women to weed 
oat the meadows ," said the ahm peasant in the toni caf- 
tan. " Else we shidl ruin oar scythes." 

" Put down your signatures, he says," the shaggy peas- 
ant continued his judgment of the master's speech. *■ You 
sigD your name, itnd he will swallow you alive." 

" That is right," answered the old man. And th^ did 
not say anythmg more. There was beard only the tiiad 
of the horses' feet on the rou^ road. 



Upok retnming home, Nekhl^ddov foand in the office, 
which had been prepared for Mm for the night, b high 
bed with a feather mattress, two pillows, and a crimBon, silk, 
doable, unbeDding coverlet, qmlted with a small design, — 
eyidently from the trousseaa of the clerk's wife. The 
clerk offered Nekhlyildor what was left of the dinner, but 
receiving a refusal, he excused himself for his Blim entw- 
tainment and accommodation, and retired, leaving Nekb- 
lyiidov to himself. 

The peasants' refusal did not in the least embarrass 
Nekhlyddov, On the contrary, he felt quite composed 
and happy, although there, at Kuzmfnskoe, his proposition 
had been accepted and he had received thanks, while here 
incredulity and even hostility were shown to him. The 
office was close and not clean. Nekblyiidov went into 
the yard and wanted to go into the garden, but he recalled 
that night, the window in the maids' room, and the back 
porch, and it seemed unpleasant to him to stroU through 
places that were poUut^ by criminal recollections. He 
aat down on the porch, and, inhaling the strong odour of 
the young birch leaves, which was everywhere in the 
warm air, he for a long time looked at Uie darkling garden 
and listened to the mill, to the nightingales, and to some 
o&er kind of a bird, which was moaotoooosly whistling 
in a bush near the porch. 

In Uie clerk's window the light was extinguished ; in 
the east, back of the bam, crimsoned the glow oi the 
ricdng moon ; heat-lightnings ever more bnghtly illu- 
minated tiie blooming, wild-growiog garden and the dilap- 



idatad hoose ; a distant clap of thunder vna heard, and 
one-third of the heaven was shrouded by a black doud. 
The nightingaloa and tiie bird grew silent. Through the 
din of the water in the mill was heard the cackling of 
geese, then the early cocks in the village and in the 
clerk's yard b^an to call to each otJier, as they always 
crow earlier on hot, stormy nights. 

Tbeifi is a saying that cocks crow early on a cheerful 
n^ht. This was more than a cheerful night for Nekhlyd- 
dov. It was a joyful, a happy night for him. His 
imagination reconstructed for him bis impressions of that 
happy summer which he had passed here as an innocent 
youth, and he felt himself now to be such as he had 
been then and during all his better moments in life. He 
not only recalled, but even felt himself to be such as 
he had been when, being fourteen years old, he had 
prayed to Ood that He should show him the truth, when, 
as a child, he wept on hie mother's knees, at parting, 
promising her always to be good and never to give her 
cause for giief ; he felt himself to be such as he was when 
he and Nikfilenka Irt4nev had decided to support each 
other in a good life, and to try to make all people happy. 

He now recalled how at Kuzmlnskoe be was tempted 
to regret the bouse, the forest, the estate, the land, and 
he asked himself whether he regretted now. And it even 
appeared strange to him to have regrette± He recalled 
everything he had seen on that day : the woman with 
the children and without her husband, who had been 
locked up in jail for cutting down trees in his, Ifekh- 
lyiidov's, forest ; and terrible Matr^na, who thought, or, 
at least, said, tfiat women of their condition ought to 
become gentlemen's paramours; he recalled her relation 
to the (^dren, the manner of their despatch to the 
foundling house, and that unfortunate, smUing child in 
the skull-cap, that was slowly dying from lack of food ; 
he recalled that pregnant, feeble woman who was to 




work for him because, ezliansted by work, she did not 
watch her cow that did not have enough to eat; Sad 
hete, too, he recalled the prison, the shaven heads, the 
cells, the loathsome stench, the chains, and, side by side 
with it, the sensdeea luxury of hia life and of that of every 
city gentlemao. Eveiyttui^ was quite clear and indis- 

The bright, almost full moon rose from behind the 
bam, and black shadows fell across the yard, and the 
sheet irm on the roof of the dilapidated house began to 

And, as though not wishing to let the light come out, 
the silenced nightingale b^an to pipe and tnll in Uie 

NekhlyildoT recalled how he had b«^n at Kuznifnskoe 
to reflect over his life, and to solve the questions aa to 
what he should do and how he should do it ; and he 
recalled how he had become entangled in these questions, 
and could not solve Uiem, because there were so many 
conaideratious connected with each of them. He now 
put these questions to himself, and was surprised to find 
how easy they were. They were easy now because he 
did not think what would become of him, nor did that 
interest him, but he thought what he ought to do. 
Strange to say, he was absolutely unable to decide what 
he himself needed, but kaew beyond any doubt what was 
to be done for others. He kiiew unquestionably that 
the land must be given to the peasants, because it was 
wrong to retain it. He knew unquestionably that Eatyi!- 
sba most not be abandoned ; that he must aid her, 
and be ready for everythit^, in order to expiate his guilt 
before her. He knew unquestionably that he must study, 
examine, elucidate to himself, and comprehend all those 
cases of the courts and the punishments, in which he was 
conscious of seeing something which nobody else saw. 
He did not know what would come of it all, but be knew 



anqnestioDably that this aud that had to be dene. Aad 
this firm convictioD gave him joy. 

The black cloud had veiled tiie whole heaven, and not 
only heatrlightoing, but real lightning, which illuminated 
tlie whole yard and the dilapidated house with ita tom- 
off porches, was seen, and thunder was heard overhead. 
.411 the birds grew silent, but the leaves began to rustle, 
and the wind reached the porch, on which be was sitting, 
aud tossed his hair. One drop fell upon him, then an- 
otiier ; then the raio began to drum on the burdock aud 
on the iron sheets of the roof, and the whole air was 
brilliantly lighted up : everything grew silent, and before 
Nekhlyiidov could count three, almost over his head there 
came a terrible clap of thunder, which then rolled along 
tiie sky. 

Nekhlyiidov went into the hoose. 

" Yes, yes," he thought, " the work done by our life, all 
the work, the whole meaning of that work, is incompre- 
hensible and must remain incomprehensible to me. Why 
were there aunts ? Why did Nik{51enka Irt&iev die ? and 
why am I alive ? Why was there Eatyilsha ? And my 
insanity ? Why was that war ? And all my consequent 
reckless life ? It is not in my power to understand all 
that, all the work of the Master. But it is in my power 
to do His will as it is written in my conscience, and 
this I know nnquestiouably. And when I do it, I am 
unquestionably calm." 

The rain now came down in sheets and ran 'off the 
roofs, rustling into the barrel; the lightning less often 
lighted up the yard and house. Nekhlytldov retnmed 
to the room, mubessed himself, and lay down in the bed, 
not without some fear of bugs, the {n-esence of which he 
Boqiected from ihe diity and torn paper on the walls. 

" Yes, to feel yourself not as a master, but as a servant," 
he thought, and rejoiced at the thought. 

His fears came true. The moment he put out the 



light, tli« inMCtfl began to ding to him and to bit« 

"To give np tim land, to journey to Siberia, — fleas, 
bedbngs, dirt What at itl If I have to bear all that, 
I ahall bear it" But, in spite of hia deterouQation, be 
could not bear it, and so he wt down near the open win- 
dow, watching die fleeting oload, and the newly unveiled 



KEEHLTtDOT fell aaleep only toward the morning, aod 
BO he awoke late the next day. 

At uooD seven chosen peasants, who had been invited 
by the clerk, came to the apple orchard, under an apple- 
tree, whOTe tlie clerk bad made a table and benches over 
poets driveD into the ground. It took quite awhile to 
peisoade the peasants to pat on their caps and seat them- 
selves on the benches. 

The ex-soldier, now clad in clean l«^-rags and bast 
shoes, most persistently held his torn cap in front id him, 
according to r^ulation, ae at funerals. 

When one of them, a broad-chested old man of respect- 
able aspect, with ringlets of a half-gray beard, as in 
Michael Angelo's Moses, and with t^ck gray waving 
hair over his sunburnt and bared cinammon-coloured brow, 
put on hia large cap, and, wrapping himself in his home- 
made caftan, chmbed over the bench and sat down upon 
it, all the others followed his exampla When all had 
taken their seats, Xekhlyiidov sat down opposite them 
and, leaning with his elbows over a paper, which contained 
a brief of his project, began to expound it to them. 

Either because there was fewer peasants, or becaaee he 
was occupied not with himself, but with work, Nekh- 
lytSdov this time felt no embarrassment. He involun- 
tarily turned preferably to the broad-chested old man 
with his beard of white ringlets, awaiting approval or 
retort from him. But the conception which Nekhlyildov 
had formed of him was wrong. Though the respectable 
old man kept approvlDgly nodding his handsome, patii- 



archa] head, or toesing it and frowning, whenever Qie 
others objected to something, it obvioasly was hard tor 
him to understand what Nekhlyildov wae saying, and 
that even when the other peasants had transmitted it to 
him in their own language. Nekhlyiidov's words were 
understood much better by a little, almost beardless old 
inao, who was sitting next to the patriarch ; he was blind 
in one eye, and wore a patched, nankeen, sleeveleas coat, 
and old boots, worn eidewise ; he was an oven-builder, 
as Nekblyddoy later found out. This man kept moving 
his eyebrows, in his efTort to hear all, and immediately 
retold in his own manner everything Nekhlyiidov said. 

Of equally quick undsratanding was a short, stocky 
old man, with a white beard and gleaming, inteUigent 
eyes, who ased every opportunity to make jocular and 
ironical remarks (m Neldilyildov's words, and who appar- 
ently was proud of this ability of his. The ex-soldier, 
too, might have nnderstoood, if he had not been made 
stupid ^ his military experience, and did not get entangled 
in the habitual, senseless talk of a soldier. 

Most serious of all in r^ard to the matter in band 
was a tall man, with a long nose and a small beard, 
who was speaking in a bass voice ; he was clad in a clean, 
home-made garb and new bast shoes. This man compre- 
hended everything and spoke only when it was necessary. 
The other two cdd men — one of these, the toothless 
peasant who on the previous day had shouted a decided 
refusal to every proposition of Nekhlyiidov at the meet- 
ing, and the other, a tall, white, lame old man, with a 
kind-hearted face, in half-boots, and his lean l^s tightly 
wrapped in l^-rags — were silent nearly all the time, 
though they listened attentively. 

Kekhlyiidov first expounded to them his view of the 
ownership of the land. 

" The land," he said, " according to my opinion, ought 
not to be Bold, dot bonght, because if it be sold, those who 



have money will buy it all up, and then they will take 
from Uiose who have no land aa much as t^ey please ; 
they will take money for the right to use that land." 

"That is cotrect," said the long-nosed peaaant, in a 
heavy bass. 

" Tes, sir," said the ex-soldier. 

"The woman has picked a handful oi grass for her 
cow, — they have caught her, — to jail with her," aaid 
the modest, kind-hearted old man. 

"There is some land five versts from here, but it is 
beyond na to rent it ; they have so raised the price that 
we can't make it pay," said the toothless, angry old 

"They are twisting us into ropes, according to their 
will ; it is worse than manorial labour," insisted the angry 

" I think so, too," said Nekhlyildov, " and I consider 
it a sin to own land. So I want to give it away." 

"That is a good thing," said the old man with the 
Moses curls, apparently imagining that NekhlyiKdov 
wanted to let the land. 

" That is why I have come hera I do not want to 
own any land, and now we must consider bow I am to get 
rid of it" 

" Oive it to the peasants, that is all," said the toothless, 
angiy old man. 

Nekhlytldov was for a momcuit embarrassed, for he under- 
stood these words as doubting the sincerity of hia inten- 
tions. But he immediately regained his composure, and 
need this opportunity in order to express his thought. 

" I should gladly give it to you," he said, " but to whom 
shall I give it, and how ? To what peasants ? Why to 
yon people, and not to the Deminskoe peaaanta ? " This 
was a neighbouring village with beggarly parcels of 

All were sUent. Only the ex-soldier said, " Yes, sir." 



" So, tell me," eaid Nekhlyddov, " what yoa woold do, 
if yoa had to give the land to the peasants ? " 

"What we should doT We ^ould divide it all up 
by souls, — eveiybody to receive an equal part," said 
the oven-builder, rapidly raising and lowering his eye- 

« That is right. Divide it by souls," confirmed the lame 
peasant in the white 1^-rags. 

They all agreed to this solution, regarding it as 8ati»- 

"What do you mean by souls?" asked Nekhlyiidav. 
" Are the manorial servants to get some, too t " 

" Not at all," said the ex-soldier, trying to express 
cheerfulness in his face. But the thoughtful tall peasant 
did not agree with him. 

" If it comes to dividing it up, all ought to get equal 
shares," he said, in his heavy bass, after a moment's 

" That is impossible," said NekhlyildoT, having prepared 
hia answer in advanca " If all are to get equal shares, 
tlioBe who do not themselves work, who do not plough, 
will take their shares and sell them to the rich people. 
And those who are on their parcels will have an increase 
in their family, and all the land will have been distributed. 
Again the rich men will get those into their bands who 
need the land." 

" Yes, sir," the soldier haft«ned to add. 

"There ought to be a prohibition against selling the 
land, and let those hold it who themselves will plough it," 
said the oven-builder, angrily iotermpting the soldier. 

To this Nekhlyddov replied that it would not be possible 
to watch whether one was ploughing for himself or for 
some one else. 

Then the tall, thoughtful peasant proposed that tbey 
should plough it in partnership, and that it should be 
divided up among those who did the plongbii^;. " And 



those who did not ploagh should get nothing," he eaid, 
in his determined hass. 

Against this commuDistic project Nekhlyildov bad ready 
argumeats ; he retorted that for this all the ploughs and 
horses would have to be the same, and that none should 
fall behind the others, or that everything, the horaes, the 
ploughs, the threshing-machines, and the whole farm, 
would have to be a common possession, and that sndi a 
thing should be possible, it would be necessary for all 
people to be of one accord. 

" You will never succeed in making our people agree," 
said the angry old man. 

" There will be nothing but brawls," said the old man 
wiJii the white beard and smiling eyes. 

" Then again, how is the land to be divided up accord- 
ing to its quality ? " asked Nekhlyrfdov. " Why should 
some get black loam, while others will have clay and 
sand 7" 

"Divide it up by parcels, then all will get equal 
shares," said the oven-builder. 

To this Kekhlyiidov replied that it was not only a 
question of the distribution of the land in one Commune, 
^t in various Governments. If the land was to be given 
away to the peasants, some would have good lots and 
others had ones. Everybody would wish to get the good 

" Tes, sir," said the soldier. 

The rest kept mlent. 

" So, you see, it is not as simple as you imagine," said 
Nekhlyiidov. "And not only we alone, but other peo- 
ple also are thinking about it. There is an American, 
George, who has reasoned it out like this, and I agree 
with him — " 

" You ere the master, so you give it away if you wish. 
As you will it/' said the angry old man. 

This interruption annoyed Nekhly^dov, but, to his 



delight, he Qotdced that the others -were also disaatiBfied 
with this interruption, 

" Wait, Uncle Sem&i, let him tell it," the thoughtful 
peaeant aaid, in Ms impressiTe bass. 

Thifl encouiaged NekhlyildoT, and he be^an to expound , 
to them Henry Geoi^'a theory of the Single-tax. " The 
land is Qobody'a, it is the Lord's," he began. 

" That IB ea Yes, sir," several voices interposed. 

"All the land ia a common possession. Everybody has 
an equal right to it. But there is better and worse land, 
and everybody wants to get the good land. What is to 
be done, in order to equalize things ? Let him who 
owua a good piece ol luid pay the price of it to those 
who have none," Nekhlyddov answered his own question. 
" And as it is hard to determine who is to pay, and to 
whom he is to pay, and as money has to be collected for 
common purposes, it ought to be arranged in such k 
manner that he who owns a piece of land should pay the 
value of his land to the Commune for all public purposes. 
Then all will have eqnal ohanoes. If you wish to own 
land, pay more for good land, and less for less good land. 
And if yon do not wish to own any laud, you pay noth< 
ing ; but the taxes toe the common needs will be paid by 
those who own the land." 

" That is correct," said the oven-builder, moving bis eye- 
IxowB. " He who has the better land ought to pay more." 

" George bod a great head," said the representative old 
man with the curls. 

" If only ttie pay will be within our reach," said the 
tall man with the bass voice, evidently beginning to make 
out what it all tended ta 

" The pay ought to be neither too high nor too low. 
If it is too hi^ it will not pay, and there will be losses ; 
and if too low, all will be^in to buy the land of each 
other and there will be speculation in land. I want to 
introduce these orders among you." 


340 KESURBBcnoir 

'' That is correct, that is right. That would be veU." 
said the peasants. 

" He had a great bead," repeated the broad'cbeeted man 
vith the curls, "that Gleorga He baa thonghli it oat 

" How would it be if I wished to take a piece of land," 
the clerk said, emiliog. 

" IC there is a free lot, take it aod work it," said 

"Tou do not need it Yoa have enough to eat as it 
is," said the old man with the smiling eyes. 

This ended the consultation. 

Nekbljiidov again repeated his proposition ; be did not 
ask for u> immediate answer, but advised them to talk 
the matter over with the whole village, aod then to come 
and give him an answer. The peaaantB promised they 
would do so, and, bidding him good-bye, went away in an 
agitated mood. On the road could long be heaid their 
loud, receding conversation. Their voices dinned until 
late into the evening, and were borne along the river &om 
the villaga 

On the following day the peasants did not work, bat 
considered the master's proposition. The village was 
divided into two parties: one found the master's propo- 
sition profitable and harmless ; the other saw in it some 
deception, the significance of which they could not com- 
pret^nd, and of which they consequently were especially 
itfraid. Two days later they, however, agreed to accept 
the propoeed conditions, and came to Nekhlyildov to 
announce to him the decision of the Commune. Thie 
decision was greatly influenced by the opinion of au 
old woman, which the old men accepted as putting aside 
all fear of deception, and which consisted in ez^aining 
ihe master's act as arising from his meditating on his soul 
and desiring to save it. This explanation was also cob- 



firmed by the coDsiderable monetary alms wbicli Nekh- 
lytldoT had distributed during his stay at P<[uoto. His 
contributions of money were dae to the fact that here be 
had for the first time found out the extreme decree of 
poverty and misery which the peasants bad reached, and 
that, though he knew it to be unwise, he was so struck 
by that poverty that he could not help giving them 
money, of which he just th«a had a large sam, having 
received some for the forest at Euzmfnskoe, sold a year 
ago, and also an earnest for the sale of the chattels. 

The moment they discovered that the master gave 
money to those who asked for it, crowds of people, espe- 
cially women, bq^ to come to bim from all the sur- 
rounding country, imploring aid. He was at a complete 
loss what to do with them, and by what to be guided in 
the solution of the question how much to give, and to 
whom. He felt that it was impossible for him not to 
give to those who asked him and obviously were poor, 
while be had a great deal of money ; at the same time 
there was no sense in giving at h&[jiazard to those who 
b^ged him for it 

During the last day of his stay at Fdnovo, Nekhlyiidov 
went into the house, and b^an to examine the things 
that were left in there. Bummaging through them, he 
discovered many letters in the lower drawer of bis aunts' 
old big-bellied red wood chifToni^re with bronze rings in 
lioD heads, and among them was a photograph repre- 
senting a group, Stjfya Iv^ovoa, Mdrya Iv^novna, him< 
self as a student, and Katyiisha, clean, fresh, cheerful, and 
full of life. Of all things that were in the house Nekh- 
lyiidov took only the letters and this picture. Everything 
else he left for the miller, who, at the intercession of the 
smiling derk, bought the bouse for removal and all 
the furniture of Ptinovo at one-tenth tJieir real value. 

Recalling his feeling of r^ret at the loss of his prop- 
erty, which he had experienced at Kuzmlnskoe, Nekhlyd- 



dor wondered how it was he conld have had sacb a 
feeling ; now he experienced an unceaeing joy of liberatioD 
and a sensation of novelty, each as a traveller must 
experience upon discovering new landa. 


Ths city impresBed Nekhlytldov in an eiztremely strange 
aod novel way, as be now reached iL He drove in the 
evening, when the lamps were aU lighted, from the sta- 
tion to his house. There was still an odour ot naphthalene 
in all the rooms. Agraf&ia Petr6viia and Kom^y both 
felt worried and dissatisfied, and had even had a quarrel 
OD account of the cleaning up of things, the use of which 
seemed only to consist id being hung out, dried up, and 
put away again. NekhlyiidoVs room was not occupied, 
but not yet tidied ; it wba hard to move about in it among 
tiie many boxes, and it was evident that Nekhlyiidov'B 
arrival interfered with their work, which was carried on 
in these apartments by a certain strange inertia. After 
the impreBBions of the dire want in the vill^, all this 
appeared to Nekblytfdov so disagreeable because of its 
apparent senselesaness, of which be had once himself been 
guilty, that he decided the next day to move to a hotel, 
leaving Agraf^a PetnSvna to fix things according to her 
wishes until the arrival of his sister, who would vaeke 
the final dispositions in r^aid to ererythii^; in the 

Nekhlyildov left the house early in the morning. In 
an establishment with modest, somewhat dirty, furnished 
rooms, which he found in the neighbourhood of the 
prison, be rented a suite of two rooms, and, having 
given orders about the transfer of certain things set aside 
in the house, he went to the lawyer. 

It waa cold outside. After the storms and rains there 
was a cold spell, as generally happens in spring. It was 



so diiUy and tihe wind was so penetrating that Nekh- 
lyildov froze in his light overcoat, and increased his gait, 
hoping to get woruL 

Before his imagination rose the village people, the 
women, children, and old men, the poverty and exhan»- 
tioD of whom be now seemed to have noticed for the 
first time, especiallf Uie smiling, old-looking baby, twist- 
ing its calfless little legs, — and he inv<duiitarily coeo^ 
pwed with them that which was in the dty. Walking 
past butcher-shops, fish-markets, and clothing-stores, be 
waa startled, as though he saw it for the first time, bjr 
the well-fed appearance of such an immense number 
of clean and fat shopkeepers. There was not such a man 
in the whole village. lliese people were evidently firmly 
convinced that efforts to cheat people, who knew nothing 
of their wares, were not only not a vain, but even a useful, 
occupation. Just as well-fed were the coachmen with 
tJieir broad backs and buttons on their backs ; and so were 
the ptnters in their gallooned caps, and the chambermaids 
in their aprons and curly hair, and more especially tlie 
dashing cabmen with their shaven napes, who were sit- 
ting jauntily in their cabs, contemptuously and disso- 
lutely watching the itinerants. 

Id all these people he involnntarily saw the same 
village people who, being deprived of the land, had been 
driven to the ci^. Some of these bad managed to adapt 
themselves to the conditions of city life, and had become 
like masters, and were satisfied with their situation ; 
others again fell in the city into worse conditions than in 
the village, and were even more pitiable. Such miserable 
creatures seemed to Nekhlyifdov to be the shoemakers, 
whom Nekhlyiidov saw working in the window of a base- 
ment ; just aa miserable were the haggard, pale, disheveUed 
laundresses, who, with their lean, bared arms, were ironing 
at open windows, from which the soap-filled steam was 
rising in clouds. Just as miserable were two house- 



psiiiteiB whom Nekhlyiidov met, in aprons, in torn shoes 
OQ bare feet, and daabed from head to foot with paint 
Tbeir sleeves were rolled up above their elbows, and in 
their simbumt, veoous, feeble hands they were carrying 
a budget of point, and kept cursing without interruption, 
^nieir faces were emadated and angry. The same ezpres- 
sioQ was to be seeo on the dusty, swarthy draymen, 
shaking on their wagons. The same expression was on 
the swollen faces of ^e ragged men and women standing 
with their children at the street coroers and bej^ing alms. 
The same faces were to be seen in the open windows <A 
the inn, past which Nekhlytidov happened to ga At the 
dirty little tables, with bottle and tea^eervice upon them, 
between which waiters in white kept bobbing, sat per^ 
spiring red-faced men with stupefied faces, crying and 
singing in loud voices. One was sitting near the window ; 
had ndsed his eyebrows, and, throstii^ forward his lips, 
gazed in front of him, as though trying to recollect 

" Why have they all gathered there ? " thought Kekh- 
lyddov, involuntarily inhaling with the dust, which the 
dull wind wafted against him, the ubiquitous odour of 
tandd oil in the fre^ paint 

In one of the streets he came across a procesaion of 
drays hw"1iT'g some iron pieces, which made such a terrible 
noise on the uneven pavement that his ears and head 
b^^ to ache. He increased his steps, in order to get 
ahead of tJie procession, when suddenly he heard hia 
name through the rumble of the iron. He stopped and 
saw a few steps ahead of him an officer with a sharp- 
pointed, waxed moustache, with a smooth, shining face, 
who, sitting in a cab, waved his hand to him in a fnendly 
manner, displaying by his smile a row of extremely 
white teeth. 

" Nekfalyiidov, is it you ? " 

Nekhlyiidov'B first senstUJon was that of pleasura. 



"Ah, Si^nbok," he said, with delight, bat immediately 
oonaideTed that there waa no reasoo whstaoever to be 

It waa the aame Sh^obok who had then called for him 
at hia aunta". Nekhlyiidov had long ago lost him out of 
Bight, but had heard of him that he waa now in the 
cavalr;, and that, in a^ate of hia debts, he managed in 
some way to hold himaelf in the world of rich people. 
His satisfied, cheerful aspect confirmed this iutelhgence. 

" I am so glad I have caught you. For there is no- 
body in the dt^. Well, friend, you have grown older," 
he said, stepping out of (be cab, and straightening out hia 
shoulders. " I recognized you hy your gait Well, shall 
we dine t<^ettier ? Where can one get a good dinner 

" I do not know whether I shall have the time," 
answered Nekhly^ldov, thinking only of how to get rid of 
hia comrade without offending him. 

" What are you here for ? " he asked. 

" Business, my friend. A business of guardianships I 
am a guardian, I manage Sam^ov's afbirs. Do yon 
know Uiat rich man ? He is cracked, but be has fifty- 
four thousand desyatlnas of land," he said, with especial 
pride, aa though he himself had earned all that land. 
" His affairs had been dreadfully neglected. The whole 
land waa in the hands of the peasants. They paid 
nothing, and there were back dues to the amount of 
eighty thousand roubles. I changed the whole matter in 
one year, and increased the trust by seventy per cent. 
Eh ? " he eakbi him proudly. 

Nekhlyiidoy recalled that he had heard that this 
Shtobok, for the very reason that he had lost all his 
property and had unpaid debts, had by some special influ- 
ence been appointed a guardian over the property of a 
rich old man, who was squandering his estate. It was 
evident that he was thriving on his trust. 



"How can I get rid of him wiUiont trending him 7' 
thought Nekhl^iidoy, looking at that sleek, plump face, 
-with the pomaded moustache, and listeuiDg to his good- 
hearted friendly prattle about where one could get a good 
dimier, and how he had managed the affairs of his tmst 

"So where shall we dine ? " 

" I have no time," said Nekblyiidoy, looking at his 

" I say. There wUl be races to-night Shall you be 

" No, I sha'n't." 

" Do come. I have no longer horses of my own, but 
I bet 00 Grishin's. Do you remember him ? He has a 
good stable. So come, and let us have supper together." 

" I can't even eat supper with you," Nekhlyiidov said, 

" What is that ? Where are you gmng now ? If yoa 
want to, I shall take you there." 

" I am on my way to a lawyer. He Mves around the 
comer," said Nekhlyiidov. 

" Oh, yon are doing something in the prison. Have 
yoa become a prison intercessor 1 The Korchigins told 
me about that," Sh^bok said, smiling. " They have left 
town already. What is it T Tell me." 

" Yes, yes, Uiat is all true," replied Kekhlyddov. " But 
I can't tdl you that in the street." 

" That's so, you have always been odd. So, will yoa 
come to the races 7 " 

" No, I cannot, and I do not want to. Please, do not 
be angry at me." 

" Why should I be angry ? Where do you live 7 " he 
asked, and suddenly his face became serious, his eyes 
stood still, and his brows were raised up. He was appar- 
ently trying to recall the address, and Nekhlyiidov sud- 
denly observed Uie same dull expression in him that he 
had noticed in the man with the raised eyebrows and pro- 



tmding lips, which had atauck him in the window of the 

« How chilly it ifl I Eh?" 

" Tea, yes 1 " 

"You have the bundles?" Sb^sbok addressed the 

" Well, good-bye, then. I am very, very glad to have 
met you," he said, and, Grmly pressing Nekhlyiidov's 
hand, he leaped into the vehicle, waving his broad hand 
in a new, white, chamois-ekin glove in front of his sleek 
face, and amilii^ a habitoal smile with his anusually white 

" la it possible I was like him ? " thought N'ekhlyddov, 
continuing on his way to the lawyer. " Yes, if not exactly 
like him, I had tried to be like him, and had thought to 
pass all my life that way." 



Thi lavyer receivecl Nekhlyifdov ahead of bia toin, 
and at once proceeded to talk to him about tha Menah^v 
caee, whidi he had read immediately, and which had pro- 
voked his ind^nation by its groundlesB accuaaCion. 

"It is a abocfaing affair," he said. "Very likely the 
fire was started by the owner himself, in order to get his 
iiunnmce money, but the worst is that the guilt of the 
MensbtSvs has not at eiII been proven. There is no evi- 
dence at alX This is due to the especial zeal of the exam- 
ining mBgistrate and to the negligence of the prosecuting 
attorney. If the case came up, not in the county court, 
hot here, I should guarantee an acquittal and ask for no 
remnneratioo. Now, the other affair, the petition of 
Feod6sya Biryukiiv to his Uajesty, is ready. If you go to 
St. Petersburg, take it with you, and baud it in in person, 
and ask for its consideration. Otherwise an inquiry will 
be made, and that will be the end of it. Tou must try 
and reach people who have influence in the Petition Com- 
mission. Well, is that all for the present ? " 

" Ko, I have had a letter — " 

" I see yon have become a funnel, a neck of a bottle, 
through which the complaints are poured out from prison," 
the lawyer said, smiling. " It is too much ; it will be 
above your strength." 

" But this is a startling case," said Nekhlyildov. He 
briefly told the essence of the case, which was that an 
iotelligeat peasant had been reading and expounding the 
Gk>spel to his friends in the village. The clergy reguded 
it as a crime. He was denounced. The magistrate ex- 



amined him, the asBistant prosecuting attorney wrote oat 
an accusation — and the court coufirmed the accusation. 

" This is something terrible," said Nekhlyiidov. " Can 
it be trae ? " 

" What is it that so surprises you ? " 

" Everything. I can see how the village officer, who ia 
under orders, might do it ; but the assistant prosecuting 
attorney, who wrote out the accusation, is an educated 
man — " 

" But this is where the mistake is made : we are accus- 
tomed to think that the prosecuting attorneys, the mem- 
bers of the courts in general, are a kind of new, liberal 
men. That was once the case, but now it is quite differ- 
ent. They are officials, who are interested only in the 
twentieth of each month. They receive their salary, and 
they need more, and that Is the limit of their principles. 
They will accuse, try, and sentence anybody you please." 

"Do there really exist laws, which permit them to 
deport a man for reading the Gospel in company with 

" Not only may he be sent to nearer districts, but even 
to hard labour in Siberia, if it is proved that, while 
reading the Gospel, he allowed himself to expound it 
differently from ^e manner he is ordered to do, and that, 
consequently, he has disapproved of the exposition of the 
Chiucb. It is considered blasphemy of the Orthodox 
faith in presence of the people, and, according to Article 
196, this means deportation to Siberia for settlement" 

" That is impossible" 

" I am telling you the truth. I always say to the 
judicial people," continued the lawyer, " that I cannot 
help looldng gratefully at them, because it is only. due to 
t^eir kindness that I, and you, and all of us, are not 
in jail It is the easiest thing imaginable to have na sen- 
tenced to the loss of special privileges, and have us de- 
ported to nearer r^ons." 



"If it is BO, and eTerfthitig depends on the arbitrari- 
ness of the prosecuting attorney and of other persons, who 
ma; or may not apply a certain law, then what is the 
court for ! " 

The lawyer burst out into a merry laugh. 

" You are propounding fine questioiiB ! This, my friend, 
is philosophy. There is nothing to prevent diacusBing that 
Come on Saturday. Tou will find at my house learned 
men, litterateuTs, artiste. Then we shall discuss these 
social questions," said the lawyer, pronouncing the words 
" social questions " with ironical pathos. " You are ac- 
quainted with my wife, I think. So come ! " 

" I shall try to," replied Nekhlytfdov, being consdone 
of telling a he, and that if there was anytJiing he would 
try it would be not to be in the evening at the lawyra'a 
in the company of the learned men, litterateurs, and 
artists, who would gather there. The laughter with 
which the lawyer had answered Nekblyiidov's remark 
that the court had do meaning, if the members of the 
court may or may not apply a law as they are minded 
to do, and the intonation with which he pronounced the 
words " philosophy " and " social questions," showed Nekh- 
lyiidoT bow differently he and the lawyer and, no doubt, 
the lawyer's friends looked at things, and how, notwith- 
standing the present gulf between him and his former 
comrades, such as ShSibok, he felt himself even farther 
lemoved from the lawyer and the people of his circle. 



It was far to the priBon, and late, so Kekfalyildov took 
a cab. In one of the streets the cabnum, a man of 
middle age, with an intelligent and kindly face, turned 
to Nekhlyddov and pointed to an immense bouse which 
was' going up. 

"See what an enormcus house they are building," he 
said, as though he bod a share in this structure and were 
proud of it. 

Indeed it was a huge buildii^, and built in a compli- 
cated and unusual 8tyl& A solid scaffolding of immeuee 
pine timbers, held together by iron clamps, surrounded 
the structure which was going up, and it was sepsjated 
from the sb«et by a board fence. Workmen, daubed 
with mortar, were rushing to and fro, like ants, over the 
walks of the scaffolding : some were lajring stones, others 
were catting them into shape, while others carried full 
hods and luirrels up and empty ones down again. A 
stout, well-dressed gentleman, apparently the architect, 
standing near the scaffolding and pointing up, was saying 
something to a respectfully listening Vladimir contractor. 
Through the gate, past the architect and oontractor, empty 
wagons drove out into the street, and loaded ones into 
the yard. 

"How sure they aU are, both those who work, and 
those who make them work, that it must all be thus, 
that while their pregnant women do work at home above 
their strength, and their children, in 6kull.<»ps, before 
their imminent death from starvation, smile Hke old 
people, and twist their little 1^, they must build this 



■tapdd and useless palace for some stupid and uBelesB 
man, — one of those very men who rnin and rob them," 
thought Nekhlyiidov, looking at this house. 

" Yea, a fool's house," he loudly expressed his thought 

" How a fool's house ? " the cabman protested, aa 
though insulted. " It gives people work to do, and so it 
is not a fool's house." 

" But this is useless work."* 

" It must be useful, or they would not build it," t^ 
torted the cabman, " and the people earn a living." 

Nekhlyiidov grew silent, espedally since it was not 
possible to carry on a conversation through the rattle of 
the wheels. Not far from the prison the cabman left th« 
pavement for a country road, so that it was easy to talk, 
and he again turned to Nekhlyiidov. 

" What a lot of people nowadays rush to the city, — 
it is just dreadful," he aaid, turning on his box and point- 
ing to an arts of village workmen with files, axes, short 
fur coats, and bundles on thdr backs, who were coming 
toward them. 

" Are there more of them than on previous years ? " 
asked Nekhly((dov. 

" It is simply terrible the way they are crowding now 
in all places. The masters flii^ them around like chips. 
They are everywhere." 

" Why is it so ? " 

" They have increased so much. There is no place for 

" What of it if they have increased I Why don't they 
stay in the villages ?" 

"What are they to do in the villages? There is no 
land Uiere." 

Nekblytidov experienced a sensaticoi which one has in 
a bruised spot. One seems eternally to strike it, as 
though on purpose, whereas one merdy feels the hurts 
in the painful places. 

by Google 


" la it poesible it is the same everTwhere ? " he thought. 
He began to inquire of the cabman how much land there 
was in his village, how much he himself had, and why 
he was living in the city. 

" There is about a desyatfna to each soul, sir. There 
are three of us holding it," the cabman waa glad to inform 
him. " I have a father and a brother at home ; anotiier 
brother is in the army. They manage the farm. Bat 
there is nothing to manage, and bo my brother wanted 
to go to Moscow." 

" Is it not possible to rent laud ? " 

"Where is one to rent it? The masters have squan- 
dered theirs. The merc^nts have got it all into their 
hands. Tou can't buy it from them, for they are work- 
ing it themselves. There is a Frenchman on our estate. 
He has boi^ht it from the former master, and he wim't 
let anybody have it, and that is the end of it" 

" What Frenchman 1 " 

"Dnfar the Frenchman. Maybe you have heard his 
name. He makes wigs for the actors in the large theatre, 
and that ia a good business in which be has made much 
money. He has bought our lady's whole estate. Now 
be rules over as. He rides us as he pleases. Fortunately, 
he is a good man. Only bis wife, who is a Ruasian, is 
auch a dog that God save us from her. She robs the 
people. It is just terrible. Well, here is the prison. 
Where do you wish me to drive you ? To the entrance ? 
I think th^ don't admit now." 



With faint heart and terror at the thought of how he 
vould find M&Iova now, and with that feeling of mys- 
tery which he experienced before her and before that 
congeries of people who were in this prieon, Nekhlyiidov 
rang the bell at the main entrance, and asked the warden, 
who came out to him, about M^lova. The warden made 
inquiries, and informed him that she was in the hospitaL 
A kind-hearted old man, the watchman of the hospi- 
tal, immediately admitted him, and, upon learning who 
it was he wanted to see, directed him to the children's 

A young doctor, all saturated with carbolic acid, came 
out to Nekhlyiidov in the corridor, and sternly asked him 
what he wanted. This doctor was very indulgent with 
the prisoners, and so he continually had unpleasant con- 
flicts with the authorities rf the prison, and even with 
the senior physician. Fearing lest Nekhlyiidov should 
ask something illegal of him, and, besides, wishing to 
show that be made no exceptions of any persons, he 
pretended to be angry. 

" There are no women here ; this is the children's de- 
partment," he said. 

*■ I know ; but there is here an attendant who has been 
transferred from the prison." 

" Tes, there are two here. So what do you wish ? " 

"I have close relations with one of them, M&slova," 
■aid NekhlytidoT. " I should like to see her : I am gmng 
to St. Petersburg to enter an appeal in her case, and I 



wanted to ghre her this. It is only a photograph," said 
17ekhIyddov, taking oat an envelope from his poi^et 

" Well, you may do that," said the doctor, Bofteniiig, 
and, taming to an old woman in a white apron, he told 
her to call tiie attendant, prisoner M^ove. 

" Do you not wish to sit down or walk into the waiting- 

"Thank you," said Nekhlyildov, and, making use of 
the doctor's favourable change, he asked him whether 
they were satined in the prison with M^lova. 

" She will pass. She works fairly well, considering the 
conditions under which she has been," said the doctor. 
" And here she a." 

From <me of the doors came the old attendant, and 
hack of her was MflaloTa. She wore a white apron over 
a striped garment, and a kerchief on her head, which cov- 
ered all her hair. Upon noticing Nekhlyiidov, her face 
became flushed, and she stopped as though in indecision ; 
then she frowned, and, lowering her eyes, walked with 
rapid steps toward him over the corridor sbip. As ^e 
approached NekhlytEdov, she had intended not to give 
Urn her hand, but she did extend it to him, and blushed 
even more. Nekhlyiidov had not seen her since the con- 
versation with her when she had excused herself for her 
excitability, and he expected to find her as she had been 
then. Now, however, she was quite different, and in the 
expression of her face there was something new : some- 
thing restrained, bashful, and, as Nekhlyiidov thought, 
something hostile toward him. He repeated to her what 
he had said to the doctor, that he was going to St. Peters- 
burg, and handed her the envelope with the photograph, 
which he had brought with him from P^novo. 

" I foimd this at FEtnova It is an old photograph, and 
may give you pleasure. Take it." 

She raised her black eyebrows in surprise, looked at 
faim with her extremely squinting eyes, as though to say. 



" What 18 that tor ? " and silently took the envelope and 
put it back of her apron. 

" I saw yoar aunt there," said NekhlyildoT. 

" Tou did ? " she said, with indifference. 

" Are yon well hete ? " asked Nekhlyiidov, 

" Yes, I am," she said. 

" Is it not too hard ? " 

" No, not very. I am not yet used to it." 

" I am very happy for your sake. In any case it i:; 
heUer than there." 

" Than where I ' she said, and her face vas flushed with 
a blush. 

" There, in the prison," Nekhlyildov hastened to say. 

" What makes it better ? " she asked. 

" I think the people are better here. There are none 
here as there were there." 

" There are many good people there," she said. 

" I have taken measures for the Meneh6vB, and I hope 
they will be released," said Kekhlyifdov. 

" Qoi grant it She is such a charming old woman," 
she said, repeating her old definition of the woman, and 
slightly smiling. 

" I shall leave for St Petersburg to-day. Our case 
Trill soon be heard, and I hope the verdict will be set 

" Whether it will be or not, is all Hie same now," she 

"Why now?" 

" It is," she said, furtively casting a questioning glance 
at him. 

Nekhlyildov understood these words and this glance to 
mean that she wanted to know whether he still stuck 
to his determination, or whether he had accepted her 
refasal and had accordingly changed it 

" I do not know why it is all the same to you," he said. 
* Bat to me it is really quite the same whether you will 



be acquitted or Bot- I am ready in any case to do -what 
I said I shoald," he said, with determination. 

She raised her head, and her black, squinting eyes 
rested on bis face and past it, and all her face was beam- 
ing with joy. But she spofae something quite different 
from what her eyes were saying. 

" Tott say this in vain," she said. 

" I say it Uiat you may know." 

" Tou have said everything, and there is nothing else to 
say," she replied, with difficulty restraining a smile. 

There waa a noise in the hospital room. A child's cry 
was heard. 

" It seems they are calling me," she said, looking rest- 
lessly around. 

" Well, good-bye, then," he said. 

She tried to look as though she had not noticed the 
extended hand, and, without preesing it, she turned around 
and, trying to conc«al her victory, with rapid strides walked 
away over the strip of the corridor. 

" What ia going on within her ! What is she thinking 
about 1 How does she feel ? X>oeB she want to test me, 
or can she really not foigive me ? Can she not, or does 
she not wish to tell me fdl Edie thinks and feels ? Is she 
mollified, or hardened ? " Nekhlytidov asked himself, and 
could not find any answers. He knew this much, that 
she had changed, and that an important transformation 
was taking place within her soul, and this transforma- 
tion connected him not only with her but also with 
Him, in whose name this tsaosformation was being ac- 
complished. This connection induced in him a joyously 
ecstatic and contrite condition. 

Upon returning to the room, where eight children's 
beds weie standing, M^lova b^au, at the Sister's re- 
quest, to make the beds ; in bending too far down with 
tiie sheet, ahe slipped and feU down. A convalescent 
boy, with a bandage around his neck, who had seeu her 



foil, began to laugh, and Mialova herself could not n< 
Btraiu herself, and aat down on the bed and burst into Baoh 
a loud and contagious laugh that several children, too, 
bf^an to laugh, and the Sister scolded her. 

"Don't jdl like that! You think that you are etill 
there where you have been I Ck> for the food I " 

Mflslova grew silent and, taking the dlBbes, went where 
she had been ordered, but, upon casting a glance at the 
bandaged bo;, who was not permitted to laugh, again 

Several times during the day, whenever M^ova was 
left alone, she pushed the photograph out of the envelope 
and looked at it ; but only in the evening, after her day's 
work, when left alone in the room, where she slept with 
another attendant, she drew the photograph entitely oat 
of its envelope, and looked long and fixedly at the faded, 
yellowed picture, caressing with her eyes every detail of 
the faces, and dresses, and the steps of the porch, and the 
bushes, against which as a background his, ber, and 
the aunts' faces had been thrown. She coold not get 
enough of it, especially of herself, her young, beontiftil 
face, with the bair coiling around the forehead. She 
looked so intently at it that she did not notice her com- 
panion coming into the room. 

" Wbat is this ? Did be give it to you ? " asked the 
stout, kindly attendant, bendUtg over the [diotograph. 
" Is it possible it is you ? " 

" Who else 7 " said Mislova, smiling, and looking at the 
face of her companion. 

" And who is this ? Himself ? And is this his mother ? " 
" An aunt. Would you have recognized me ? " asked 

" No. Not for the world should I have recognised you. 
It LB an entirely different face. I suppose ten years have 
elapsed since then." 

" Not years, but life," said MtCslova, and sadden^ ill 



her animation disappeazecL Her face grew gloomy, and 
a wrinkle cut itself between her eyebrows. 

" I suppose ' Uieie ' life was easy." 

" Tes, easy I " repeated Mielora, closing her eyes and 
shaking her head. " Worse than hard labour." 

« How ao ? " 

" It was that way every night, from eight o'clock in the 
eTening until four in the morning." 

" Why, then, don't they give it up ? " 

" They want to, but they can't. What is the use of talk- 
ing about it?" said iiialova. She jumped up, flung the 
photograph into the table drawer, and, with difficulty re- 
presBJug her evil tears, ran out into the corridor, slamming 
the door attet her. As she had been looking at the photo- 
graph, she had felt herself to be such as die was repre- 
sented there, and had dreamed of how happy she had then 
beau and could be with him even now. llie words of her 
companion reminded her of what she now was and had 
been there, reminded her of all the horror oi that life, 
which she then had felt but dimly, and had not permitted 
herself to become conscious of. 

Now only did she recall all those terrible nights, and 
especially one during the Butter-week, when she had been 
waiting for a student, who had promised to redeem her. 
She recalled how she was clad in a d^coUat^ wine-etained, 
red silk dress, with a red ribbon in her tabgled hair ; how, 
being tired out and weakened and drunk, she saw some 
guests off at two o'clock in the night ; and how, daring 
an interval between the dances, she seated herself near 
the lean, bony, pimpled woman who played the accompar 
niment to the fiddler, and complained to her of hea; hard 
life ; and how that woman herself told her that she was 
tired of her occupation and wished to chfinge it ; and how 
Kl^ came up to them, and they suddenly decided all 
three of them to quit this life. They thought that the 
oi^t was ended, and were on the point of retiring, wheo 



aaddenlj some draoken gneats made a stir in tihe ante- 
chamber. The fiddler started a ritoumelle, and the woman 
began to strike off an accompaniment to a hilarious Bus- 
sian song in the first figure of a quadrille ; suddenly a 
amall, dnmlcen, wine-sopped, and hiccoughing man, in a 
white tie and dress coat, which he later, in the second 
figure, took off, seised her, while another, a stout fellow, 
with a beard, also in a dress coat (they had just arrived 
from some ball), grasped KUia, and for a long time they 
whirled, danced, cried, drank — 

And thus it went a year, two, three years. How can 
<Ht6 help changing 1 The cause of all ttuit was he. And \ 
within her rose her former fury against him, and she 1 
wanted to scold and upbraid him. She was sorry she had 
missed to-day an opportunity of telling him again that I 
she knew him, and that she would not submit to him, i 
that she would not permit him to use her spiritually as 1 
he bad used her physically, that she would not permit ; 
him to make her an object of bis magnanimity. In order , 
in some measure to drown that tormenting feeling of I 
regret at herself and of uselessly reproaching him, she 
wanted some hquor. And she would not have kept her 
word, and would have drank it, if she had been in the 
prison. But here it was not possible to get the liquor 
except from the surgeon's assistant, and of the assistant 
she was afraid, because he importuned her with his atten- 
tions. All relaticns with men were distasteful to her. 
Having sat awhile on a b^ich in the corridor, she returned 
to the c«ll, and, without replying to her companion's que»- 
tioD, long wept over her mined lif ei 



At St Peteraborg, Nekfalyiidov had three affairs to 
attend to : McUlova's appeal to the Senate for anunlment, 
Fed6B7& Biryukdv's case in the Petition Commisaion, and, 
at Yy^ra Bogodiikhovski'a request, the affair in the Office 
of the Oendarmery, or the Third Division, for the libera- 
tion of Mias Shiistov, and for obtaining an interview of a 
mother with her son, who was kept in the forbees, as 
mentioned in Vy^ia Bogodiikhovski's note. The last two 
cases he regarded as his third aff&ir. Then then was a 
fourth matter, that of the sectarians, who were to be sent 
to the Caucasus for reading and expounding the Gk)8pel.' 
He had promised, not so much to them aa to himself, to 
do everything in his power in order to clear up this 

Since his last viait to Masl^onikoT's house, especaally 
after bis journey to the country, Kekhlyildov not so mut^ 
decided to disregard, as with his whole being felt a dis- 
gust for, Ms drcle, in which he had been moving until 
then, — for that circle, from which the suffering that ie 
borne by ndllions of people in order to secure comforts 
and pleasures to a smedl number, is so carefully concealed 
that the people belonging to that circle do not see, nor 
ever can see, this suEFering and the consequent cruelty 
and criminality of their own- hves. Nekhlyildov could 
not now, without awkwardness and reproach to himself, 
converse with people of that circle. And still, the habits 
of all his former life drew him to that circle ; and he was 
drawn to it by his family connections and by his friends ; 



bat, above eveiytluiig else, in order to do that which now 
inteiested him, in cnrder to help M^alova and all those 
sufferers whom be wished to aid, he was compelled to 
invoke the aid and services of the people of diat circle, 
whom he not only did not reEpect, but who frequently 
roused his indignation and contempt 

Upon arriviog at St. Petersburg, he stopped with his 
maternal aunt. Countess Cbtlrsld, the wife of a former 
minister, and thus at once plunged into the very midst 
of that aristocratic society from which he had become 
estranged. This was unpleasant for him, but be could 
not act otherwise. If be had stopped at a hotel, and not 
with his aunt, she would have been offended, whereas his 
aunt had influential connections, and could be extremely 
useful to him in all the affairs to which he wished to 
devote himself. 

" What ia it I hear about you ? Marvellous things," 
Countess Ekaterina Iv^novna said to him, treating him 
U) coffee soon after his arrival " Voua posez pour un 
Soward. Ton are aiding criminals. You travel about 
prisons. You are mending things." 

" No, I do not even think of it." 

" Well, that is good. There must be some romance 
connected with it. Tell me about it." 

Nekhlyddov told her about his relations with MfUlova 
exactly as they were. 

" I remember, I remember. Hflfene told me something 
about it at the time when you were living with those old 
ladies. I think they wanted to marry you to that ward 
of theirs." (The Countess Ekaterina Iv^ovna had always 
despised those paternal aunts of Nekhlyildov's.) " How is 
she ^ MU est encore j'olie I " 

Aunt Ekaterfna Iv^ovna was a woman of sixty years 
of age, healthy, gay, energetic, and talkative. She was of 
tall stature and ^ump, and on her upper lip a black 
moustache was discernible, [tlekhlyijdov liked her, and 



ever since bia childhood waa easily infected by her energy 
and cheerfulness. 

" No, ma tante, all that is ended. I only want to help 
her, because, in the first place, she has been unjustly sen- 
tenced, and because I am to blame for it, I am to blame 
for her whole fate. I feel myself uuder obligationa to do 
all I can for her." 
." But I have been told that you want to marry her ? " 

" Yes, I wanted to, but she does not cousent." 

Ekaterfna Ivfbovna, smoothing out her brow and lower- 
ing her pupils, looked at her nephew in surprise and 
Bilsnce. Suddenly her countenance was changed, and 
pleasure was expressed upon it. 

* Well, she baa more sense than you hava Ob, what 
a fool you are I And yon woald have married her ? " 

" By all means." 

" After what she has been 1 " 

" So much the more. I am to blame for it" 

" No, you are simply a dummy," hie aunt said, repress- 
ing a amile. "A terrible dummy, bnt I love you for 
bdng such a terrible dummy," she repeated, evidently 
taking a liking to this word, which, in her opinion, pre- 
cisely rendered the mental and moral condition of her 
nephew. " You know this is very d propose she con- 
tinued. " Aline has a remarkable home for Magdalens. 
I was there once. They are horrid, and I did notfaii^ 
but wash myself afterward. But Aline is corps et time 
in it So we shall send that woman of yours to her. If 
anybody is to mend her ways, it must be Aline." 

" But she is sentenced to hard labour. I have come 
here to appeal from this verdict This is the first bun- 
nesa I have with you." 

" Indeed ? Where doea that case of hers go to ?" 

•* To tie Senate." 

" To the Senate 7 Yes, my dear cousin Levtfshka is in 
the Senate. However, he is in the department of heraldry. 



I do not know any of the real Senators. They are all 
God knows who, or Geiraans : Oe, Fe, De, totU Valpkahet, 
or all kinds of Ivinor, Sem6noT, Nikltin, or Iv&n&iko, 
Simon^ko, NiHtenko, pov/r varier. Dee gens de Favire 
monde. Still, I shall teU my husband. He knows them. 
He knows all kinds of people. I shall tell him, but yon 
had better explain matters to him, for he never nnder^ 
stands me. Whatever I may say, he says he does not 
understand. (Test tm ptn-ti pria. Everybody else under^ 
stands, but he does not." 

Just then a lackey in BtookingB brought a letter on a 
silver tray. 

" JuBl from Aline. You will hear Kiesewetter there." 

" Who is that Kiesewetter ? " 

" Kiesewetter ? You go there to-day, and yon will find 
out who he is. He sp^iks so eloquently that the most 
inveterate criminals kneel down and weep and repent" 

Countess Ekaterina Xvdnovna, however strange Hob 
may seem, and however little it comported with her 
character, was a fervent adherent of the doctrine accord- 
ing to which the essence of Christianity consisted in the 
belief in the redemption. She attended meetings where 
this at that time fashionable doctrine was preached, and 
gathered these devotees about her. Notwithstanding the 
fact that according to this doctrine all ceremonies, images, 
and even mysteries were denounced. Countess Ekateilns 
Ivinovna had holy images mA only in aU the rooms, but 
even over her bed, and continued to comply with all 
the demands of the Church, seeing no contradiction in 
all that 

" Your Magdalen ought to hear him ; she would be- 
come converted," said the countess. " You must be at 
home in the evenii^. You will hear him. He is a re- 
markable man." 

" That does not interest me, ma tante." 

"And I tell you, it is interesting. And you be aura 



asd go there. Tell me what else yoa want of me t Videz 
voire sac" 

" I have some business in the fortress." 

" In the fortress ? Well, I can give yoa a note to 
Bartxi Khegsmut C'ett vn tr^ Wave homme. Yoa 
yourself know him. He was a comrade of your &thfir. 
II dorme dans U tpiritisme. Well, that is not so bad. 
He is a good fellow. Wh^ do you want there 7 " 

" I want to ask the permission for a mother to see her 
sou who is confined there. But I have been told that 
this does not depend on Cri^smut, but on Chervy^sld." 

" I do not like Chervyfbski, but he is Mariette's hn»- 
bond. I can ask her. She will do it for my sake. EUe 
ett tr^ gentiile." 

" I want also to ask aboat a woman. She tuas been in 
the fortress for several months, end nobody knows 

" Don't tell me that. She certainly knows why. They 
all know. It serves them right, those short-haired 

" We do not know whether right or not. In the mean- 
time they suffer. You are a Christian and believe in the 
Qospel, and yet you are so pitiless." 

" That has nothing to do with it. The Gospel is one 
thing, and what we do despise is another. It would be 
worse if I should pretend loving the nihilists, and espe- 
cially short-haired nihilists, when, in reality, I bate 

" Why do you hate them ? " 

" Do you ask me why, after March the first ? " 

" But not alt of them have taken part in the af^ of 
March the first." 

" It makes no difference : let them keep out of what 
does not concern them. That is not a woman's business." 

" But here is Mariette, who, you find, may attend to 
IB," said NekhlyiidoT. 



« Mariette ? Mariette is Marietta And that other one 
is God knows who, — some Khalyilpkin who wantB to 
instruct everybody." 

" They do not want to instanct but help the people." 
" We know without their aid who is to be helped and 
Mrho not." 

" But the people are eufferii^. I am just back from 
the country. Is it right that tiie peasants should work 
as hard as they can, without getting enough to eat, while 
we live in terrible luxury?" said Nekhlyildov, invotim- 
tarily drawn on by his aunt's good-heartednesa to tell bar 
all he was thinking. 

" Do you want me to work and eat nothing ? * 
" No, I do not want you Co starve," Nekhlyudov terplied, 
with an involuntary sniila " AU I want is that we should 
all work and have enough to eat." 

Hia aunt again lowered her brow and pupils, resting 
them on him with curiosity. 

" Mbn eher, vous finirez mal" she said, 
"But why?" 

Just tiien a tall, broBd-shonldeied general entered the 
room. That was ^e husband of the oounteaa, CMrski, an 

" Ah, Dmftii, good-moming," he said, offering him his 
freshly shaven cheek. " When did yoa arrive t " 
Me silently kissed his wife's brow. 
" Ifon, H ett impiioyaUe," Countess Ekaterfna Ivtfnovna 
turned to her husband. " He tells me to go down to the 
river to wash the linen, and to eat nothing but potatoes. 
He is a terrible fool, but still you do for him that for 
which he will ask you. He is a terrible dummy," she 
corrected herself. "Have you heard, they say Madame 
Eimeneki is in sach despair that tbey are afraid for her 
life," Bhe addressed her hueband. " You had better call 
on her." 
" Th^ is terrible," said her husband. 



" Ton go and talk vith him, for I must write some 

Nekhlyildov had just gone into the room next to the 
drawing-room, when she called out to him : 

- ^ull I write to Mariette ? " 

" If you please, ma tanU." 

*■ So I shall leave en blanc what it is you wish about 
tliat short-haired one, and she will tell her husband. Aod 
he will do it. Don't think that I am a cross woman. 
They are all very, very horrid, those ptot^^ of yours, 
but je ne lew veute pat de mal. God be with them. 
Go ! By all meuis be at home in the evening, and yoa 
will bear Kiesewettei. And we ahall pray. If only you 
will not oppose yourself to it, fa vous /era beattamp da 
bien. I know both H4Idne and all of you ate way b^iiud 
in this. So, an nvovr' 



Count ItXn MikhAtlovicr was ao ex-mimster aod b 
man of very firm ctniTictioDB. The convictioDB of Count 
Ivin Mikhdylovich had from his earliest youth consisted 
in this : jast as it is proper for a bird to feed on worms, to 
be clad in feathers and down, and to fly through the air, 
80 it was proper for him to feed on costly dishes, prepared 
by expenrave cooks, to be clad in the moat comfortable 
and expensiTe garments, to travel with the best and the 
fastest horses, and to expect everything to be ready for 
him. Besides this, Count Iv^ Mikhiylovich considered 
that the more kinds of various amounts he received from 
the treasury, and the more decorations, inclusive of all 
kinds of diamond tokens, be should have, and the oftener 
he met and spoke with distinguished personages, the better 
for him. Everything else, in comparison with these fon- 
damental dogmas, Count Iv£n Mikh^ylovich r^arded as 
uninteresting and iusiguificant. Everythii^ else might be 
as it was, or the reverse, for all he was concerned. In 
conformity with this belief, Iv^ Mikh^ylovich had been 
living and acting in St Petersbui^ for forty years, until 
at last he roached the post of minister. 

The chief qualities of Count Ivin Mikh^ylovich, by 
means of which be attained this post, consisted, in tbe 
first place, in his ability to comprehend the meaning of 
documents and laws, and to compose comprehensible, if 
not entirely grammatical docttments, without any ortho- 
graphical mistakes ; in the second place, he was very rep- 
resentative, and, wherever it was necessary, he was able to 
give an impression ncri^ only of haughtiness, bat also of 



inaoGessibility and majesty, and, (m the other hand, whare- 
erer this was aeceesaty, to be eervile to the point of self- 
effacement and basenese ; in the third place, he had qo 
general priDCiples or rules, either of personal or of state 
morality, so that he could agree with everybody, if this 
was necesBary, or equally well disagree with everybody, if 
that served him. In proceeding in this manner, he was 
concerned only about preserving his tone and not mani- 
festong any palpable contradiction with himself ; but he 
was quite indifferent as to whether his acts were in them- 
selves moral or immoral, or whether any groat good, or 
great evil, wonid accrue from them to the Kussian Empire 
and to the rest of Europe. 

When he became minister, not only those who depended 
upon him (and there were very many people and close 
friends who depended upon him), but even all outsiders, 
and he himself, were convinced that he was a very wise 
statesman. But when some time passed, and he had done 
nothing, bad shown nothing, and when, by the law of the 
straggle for existence, just each men as he, who had learned 
how to write and comprehend documents, and who vren 
representative and unprincipled officials, had poshed him 
out, and he was compelled to ask for his dischai^ it be- 
came clear to everybody that he was, not only not a very 
intelligent man, but even a man of very limited capacities 
and of little culture, though a self-confident man, who in 
his views barely rose to the level of the leading articles of 
the conservative papers. 

It turned out that there was nothing in him whidi dis- 
tinguished him from other little-educated, self-confident 
officials, who had pushed him out, and he himself came to 
see that ; but this did not in the least shake his convictions 
that he must every year receive a large sum of Crown 
money and new decorations for his parade uniform. This 
conviction was so strong in him tiiat nobody dared to re- 
fuse ^em to him, and each year he received, partly in the 



form of a peiision, and pertly in the form of remuDemtion 
for his membership in a h^her state institation, and for 
presiding in variouB commissione and committees, several 
tens of thousands of roubles, and, besides, each year new 
rights highly esteemed by him, to sew new gaUoons on his 
shoulders or pantaloons, and. to attach new ribbons and 
enamelled stars to his dress coat In consequence of this 
Conot Iy^ Mikhiylovich bad great connectioas. 

Count Ivin MiMiiyloTicb listened to N^ekhlyttdov jost 
as he would listen to the report of his secretary ; having 
heard all he had to say, he told him that he would give 
him two notee : one to Senator Wolf, in the Department 
of Cassation. " They say all kinds of things about him, 
but dans tovs lee cos c'eet wn homme trit eomme H /aut" he 
said. " He is under obligations to me, abd he will do what 
he can." The other note Iv^ MiMi^ylovich gave him was 
to an influential person in the Petition Commission. The 
case of Fed6sya Birynki5v, as NekhlyildoY told it to him, 
interested him very much. When Kekhlyddov told him 
that he wanted to write a letter to the empress, he said 
that it really was a very pathetic case, and that he would 
tell it there, whenever an opportunity should offer itself. 
But he could not promise to do so. He had better send 
in the petition any way. But if there should be a chance, 
he said, if they should call him to a petit eom/iiS on Thurs- 
day, he would probably tell it. 

Having received the two notes from the count, and the 
note to Mariette from his aunt, Nekhlyddov at once went 
to all those places. 

First of all he repaired to Mariette. He used to know 
her as a young girl ; he knew that she was the daughter 
of a poor, aristocratic family, and that she hod married 
a man who had made a career, and of whom he had heard 
some very bad things ; consequently, it was, as ever, pain- 
ful for K'ekhlyildov to make a request of a man whom be 
did not respect Id such cases be always felt an internal 



discord, a diasatiafaction with himself, and 8 wavering, 
whether he should aak or not, and he always decided that 
he should. Beodes being conscious of the unnaturalness 
of his position as a petitioner among people whom he did 
not ref^rd as his own, but who considered him aa theirs, 
he felt in ^lat society that he wae entering his former 
habitual routine, and that he involuntarily succumbed to 
the frivolous and immoral tone which reigned in that 
circle. He had experienced this even at the house of 
his aunt Ekaterina Iv^ovna. He had that very morning 
fallen into a jocalar tone, aa he had been talking to her. 

St. Petersbtug in general, where he had not been for 
a long time, produced upon him its usual physically 
bracing and morally dullmg efTect 

Everything was so clean, so comfortable, and so well- 
arranged, but, above everything else, people were morally 
so Uttle exacting, that life seemed to be easy there. 

A beautiful, dean, pohte cabman took him past beauti- 
ful, polite, and clean policemen, over a beautiful, smooth 
pavement, past beautiful, clean houses, to the one in 
which Mariette lived. 

At the entrance stood a span of English horses in a 
One hamees, and an English-Iookii^ coachman, with side- 
whiskers up to the middle of his cheeks, and in liveiy, 
sat on the box, holdii^ a whip, and looking proud. 

A porter in an uncommonly clean uniform opened l^e 
door to the vestibule, where stood, in a still more clean 
livery with galloons, a carriage lackey with superbly 
combed side-wfaiskere, and an orderly in a new, clean 

"The general does not receive Kor does the lady. 
They will drive ont in a minute." 

Nekblyiidov gave up the letter of Countess Ekaterina 
Iv^DOvna, and, taking out a visiting-card, went up to 
a small table, on which lay a book for the registry 
of Timt(»s, and b^^ to write thai he was very sony 



not to fiikd her at home, when the lackey moved up to 
tba ataircasfl, the porter went out to the entrance, and the 
orderly atraightened himself up, with his hands down his 
legB, in a motionleaa attitude, meeting and following with 
his eyes a small, lean lady, who was walking down the 
staircase with a rapid gait, which did not comport with 
her dignity. 

Mariette wore a large hat with a feather, a black gown, 
a hlack mantle, and new, black gloves; her face was 
covered with a veU. 

Upon noticing NekhlyiidoT, she raised her veil, dis- 
played a very sweet face with gleaming eyes, and looked 
at him interrt^tively. 

" Ah, Prince Dmitri Ivinovich," she exclaimed, in a 
merry, pleasant voice. " I should have recognized — " 

" What, you even remember my name ? " 

" Certainly. Sister and I had even been in love with 
you," she said, in French. " But bow you have changed ! 
What a pity I am driving oat. However, let us go back," 
ahe said, stopping in indecision. 

She looked at the dock. 

" No, it is impossible. I must go to Uie mass for the 
dead at Madune Kfbnenski'a. She is terribly cast 

" Who is this Madame K&menski ? " 

" Have you not heard ? Her son was killed in a duel 
He fooght with F6zea. An only son. Terrible. The 
mother is so very much cast down." 

" Yes, I have heard." 

" No, I had better go, and you come to-morrow, or this 
evening," she eaid, walking Um>ugh the entrance door 
wiUi rapid, light steps. 

" I cannot come this evening," he answered, walking 
out on the front steps with her. " I have some business 
with you," he said, looking at the span of bay horses, 
which drove up to the steps. 




" Here is a note from my aunt about it," said Kekh- 
lyddov, handing her a narrow envelope •with a large 
monogram. " You will see from this what it is." 

"I know. Countess Ekaterfna Iv^ovna thinks Uiat 
I have some influence on my husband in business mattersi 
She is in error. I cannot and will not interfere. But, of 
course, for the countess and for you I shall depart from 
my rules. What is the business ? " she said, in vain try- 
ing to find her pocket with her small hand in the black 

" There is a girl who is confined iu the fortress ; she 
is HI, and not guilty." 

" What is her name ? " 

"Shiistov. lidiya ShiSstov. You will find it in the 

"Very well, I shall try to do it," she said, lightly 
stepping into the softly cushioned carrii^ which glis- 
tened in the sun with the lacquer of its wings. She opened 
her parasd. The lackey sat down on the box, and gave 
the coachman a sign to drive on. The carriage started, 
but the same minute she touched the coachman's back 
with her parasol, and the slender-l^(ed, handsome, short- 
tailed mares stopped, compressing their reined-in beauti- 
ful heads, and stamping with tbeir slender feet. 

" So come, but, if you please, disinterestedly," she said, 
smiling a smile, the power of which she knew too welL 
The perfonnance, so to say, being over, she drew down 
the curtain, — let down her veiL " Well, let us start," 
and she again touched the coachman with the parasoL 

Nekhlyiidov raised his hat. The thoroughbred bay 
mares, snorting, struck their hoofs against the pavement, 
and the carriage rolled off swiftly, now and then softty 
leaping with its new tires over the nnevennesses of the 

i »4 



Becalldtg the Bmile which he bad ezohanged with 
Moriette, Kekhlyiidov shook hia head at himself : 

" Bef(M« I shall have looked atound, I shall again be 
drawn into that life," he thought, experiencing that 
internal dissension and those doubts which the necessity 
of invokii^ the aid of people whom he did not respect 
awakened in him. He considered where be should go 
fiist, where later, so as not to recross his way, and started 
to go to the Suiate. Upon arrivii^ there, he was led 
into the chancery, where, in a magnificent apartment, he 
eaw an immense number of ezceedii^ly polite and clean 

Mdslova's petition bad been received and submitted for 
GonsideratioQ and report to that same Senator Wolf, to 
whom he had a letter from his nnde, so the ofGcials told 

" There will be a meeting of the Senate this week, but 
M^ova's case will hardly come up then. But if it 
should be requested, there is hope that it might pass this 
week, on Wednesday," said one. 

In the chancery of the Senate, while waiting for the 
information, NekblyildoT again heard a conversation about 
the duel, and a detailed account of how Eim^iski had 
been killed. Hqre he for Gie first time beard all the 
details of the story which inteiested all St. Petersbui^. 
Some officers had been eating oysters in a shop, and, as 
usual, drinking a great deal Some one said something 
UDComplimentary about the regiment in which Kimenaki 
was serving: Ctimenski called him a liar. The other 



Btrack Edmenski The foUowing day they fought, and 
E^eoski was bit by a bullet in the abdomen, aud died 
from it in two hours. The murderer and the seconds 
were arrested, but it was said, although they were now 
confined in t^e guard-houae, they would be released in 
two weeks. 

From the chancery of the Senate, NekhlyildOT drove to 
the Petition Gommisaion, to see there an influential offi~ 
cial, BarOD Yorob^, who occupied superb quarters in a 
Crown house. The porter and the lackey sternly in- 
formed NekhlyiidoT that the baron could not be seen 
on any but reception-days, that he now was at the 
emperor's palace, and that on the next day he would 
have to report there again. Nekhlyddov left his letter, 
and went to Senator Wolf. 

Wolf had just breakfasted, and, as usual, was encour- 
aging his digestion by smoking a cigar and walking up 
and down in his room, when he received NekUyitdov. 
Vladimir Vasflevich Wolf was, indeed, u« homme tT^ 
comme U favt, and this quality he placed higher than 
anything else. From this height he looked at all other 
people, nor conld he help highly valuiug this quality, 
since, thanks only to this, he had made a brilliant career, 
such aa he had wished to make : that is, by his marriage 
be had acquired property giving him an income of eight- 
een thousand roubles, and by bis own labours he had 
risen to the rank of a Senator. He not only regarded 
himself as u» hAmvine iris comme il faut, but also aa a man 
of chivalrous honesty. By honesty he understood his rule 
not to take secret bribes from private individuals. But 
he did not consider it dishonest to extort from the Crown 
all kinds of travelling expenses, post moneys, and rentals, 
in return for which he servilely executed that whic^ even 
the Government did not demand of him. To min and 
destroy, to be the cause of the deportation and incar> 
oeration of hundreds of innocent people, for their attach- 



xaemt to their people and to the leligioc of their fatherB, 
as be bad done while beii^ a governw of cme of the 
Governments of the Kingdom of Poland, be not only did 
not consider dishonest, but even an act of noble-minded- 
nesB, courage, and pacriotism. Nor did be regard it as 
dishonest to fleece bis wife, who was enamoured of him, 
and his aiater-iu-law. 

On the contrary, he looked upon this as a wise arrange- 
ment of his domestic life. His family consisted of bis 
impersonal wife, her sister, whose property he had also 
taken into bis bands, and whose estate be had sold, 
depositing the money in bis own name, and a meek, 
timid, homely daughter, who was leading a bard, isolated 
life, from which she of late found distraction in evangel- 
ism, in the meetings at Aline's and at Countess Ekaterfna 
Ivdoovna's. Vladf mir Vasflevich's son, a good-hearted fel- 
low, who had been bearded at fifteen years of age, and 
had been drinking and leading a dissolute life ranee then, 
continuing to live thus to his twentieth year, had been 
driven out of the boose for not having graduated from 
anywhere, and for compromising his father by moving in 
bad society and making debts. Tfin father bad once paid 
230 roubles for him, and another time six hundred 
roubles, when he informed him that this was the last 
time, that if he did not improve he would drive him out 
of the house, and would break o£F all connections with 
him. His son not only did not improve, but even made 
another debt of one thousand roubles, and, besides, allowed 
himself to tell his father that it was a torment for him to 
bve in his house. Then Vladfmir VasQevich informed 
his son tJiat be could go whither he pleased, that he was 
not a son to him. Since then Vladimir VasQevich pre- 
tended that be had no sou, and his home people never 
dared to talk to bim about his son, and Vladimir Vasfle- 
vich was absolutely convinced that his family life was 
circumstaiiced in the best manner possible. 



Wolt stopped in the middle of his promenade in the 
room, vith a gtsciouB and somewhat iromcal smile (that 
was his mannerism, the involantaiy expreBsioD of his 
conscioaffliess of his amiTiie U faut saperirndt^ above the 
majority of men), greeted Nekhlytidov, and r^d the luri^e. 

" Please be seated, and pardon me. I shall continue to 
walk, if you will permit it," he said, placii^ his hands in 
the pockets of his jacket, and treading with soft, light 
steps along the diagonal of the cabinet, which was ap- 
pointed in severe style. " I am very happy to make your 
acqaaintance and, of course, to be able to do Count Ivfin 
Mikhiylovicb a favour," he said, emittii^ a fri^;iant bluish 
puff of smoke, and cautiously removii^ Che c^ar from his 
mouth, in order not to drop the ashes. 

" I should like to aak you to coDsider the case as early 
as posdble, so that the prisoner may go to Siberia as 
Boon as possible, if she has to go at all," said Nekhlyildov. 

" Yes, yes, with the first steamers from N'Czhni-N'6v- 
gorod, — I know," said Wolf, with his coodescending 
smile, knowing always in advance what people were 
going to tell him. " What is tlie pristmer's name } " 

" M^ova — " 

Wolf went up to the table and looked at a paper which 
was lying on a box with documents. 

" Tes, yes, Mislova. Very welL I shall ask my asso- 
ciates about it. We shall take the case under advisement 
on Wednesday." 

" May I wire the lawyer about it ? " 

" Yon have a lawyer ? What is that for ? It you 
wish, you may." 

" The causes for appeal may be insufficient," said Nekh- 
lyildov, " but it may be seen from the case that the verdict 
was due to a misunderstanding." 

" Yea, yes, that may be so, but the Senate does not 
consider the case on its essential merit," sternly said 
Ylodlmir Vasflevicb, looking at the ashes. " The Senate 



is coiic«nidd only about the correct application and ex- 
position of the laws." 

" This Beems to me to be an exceptional case." 

" I know, I know. All cafles are exceptlonaL We 
shall do all we can. That la alL" The ashes still held 
on, but had a crack, and were in imminent peiil " Do 
you come often to St. Petersburg?" said Wolf, holding 
his cigar in such a way that the ashes could not fall 
down. But the ashes trembled, and W(df cautiously 
carried his cigar to the ash-tray, into which they dropped. 

" What a terrible incident that was with Ef^enski," 
be said. " A fine young man. An only son. Especially 
bis mother's condition," be said, repeating almost the 
identical words that all St. Petersburg was at that time 
saying about K^menski Having said something about 
Countess Ekaterfna Iv^Qovna and her infatuation for the 
new religious movement, which Vladimir Vasflsrich 
neither condemned nor approved of, and which was 
manifestly superfluous to him in his comme il/aut state, 
he rang a belL 

NekhlyifdoT bowed himself out. 

" If it is convenient to you, come to dinner," Wolf said, 
giving him his hand, " say, on Wednesday. I shall then 
give yon a deciaive answer." 

It was late, and Kekhlyiidov drove home, that is, to 
his aunt's. 



DUfNXE was serred at the bouae of Ekaterfna Iv^ovna 
at balf-psst seven in a new fashion, which NekhlyildoT 
had not seen before. The dishes were placed on the table, 
and the lackeys went out at once, so that the diners 
helped themselves to the food. The gentlemen did not 
permit the ladies to exert themselves by supeifluouB move- 
ments, and, being the strong sex, bravely attended to the 
labour of filling ^e ladles' and their own [dates with food, 
and filling their glasses with drinks. When one course was 
consumed, the countess pressed the ImttoD of an electric 
bell OD the table, and the lackeys entered noiselessly, 
rapidly, cleaned off the table, changed the dishes, and 
iHtnight the next coursa The dinner was excdleot, and 
so were the wines. In the laige, well-lighted kitchen 
a French chef was busy with two assistants in white. 
There were six persons at the table : the count and the 
countess, their sod, a gloomy officer of the Guards, who 
put his elbows on the table, Nekhlyddov, a French lady- 
reader, and the count's manager, who had come up from 
the country. 

The conversation here, too, turned upon the ducL The 
emperor's view of the affair was under consideration. It 
was known that the emperor was very much grieved for 
the mother, and all were grieved for the mother. But, 
as it was also known that, although the emperor sympa- 
thized with her, he did not wi^ to be severe on the 
murderer, who had defended the honour of his uniform, 
all were condescending to the murderer, who had defended 



the honour <rf his uniform. Countess Ekaterfna Iv^ovna 
alone, with her frivolous free ideas, condemned him. 

" I should not f oigive them for anything in the world 
for carousing and for killing innocent young men," she said. 

" I cannot understand that," said the count 

' I know that you never understand what I say," said 
the couDtess, turning to NekhlyUdov. *' Everybody undei^ 
stands except my husband. I say that I am sorry for 
the mother, and that I do not mmt them to kill and to 
be content" 

Then the son, who had been silent until now, defended 
the murdner and attacked his mother, proving to hei in 
a sufficiently coarse manner that the officer could not 
have acted differently, that if he had he would have been 
expelled from the army by a court of officers. Nekh- 
lyiidov listened, without taking part in the coavereation ; 
luiving been an officer, he understood, though he did not 
approve, the proofs which young Chltrski adduced ; at the 
same time he involuntarily compared the officer who had. 
killed another with the prisoner, the fine-looking young 
feUow, whom he had seen in -prison, and who bad been 
sentenced to hard labour for lolling a man in a brawL 
Both became murderers through drinking. The peasant 
bad killed in a moment of excitement, and be was eepap 
rated from his wife, his family, his relatives, was chained 
in fetters, and with a sh&ven head was on his way to 
hard labour, while the officer was located in a beauti- 
ful room at the guard-house, eating good dinners, drinking 
good wine, and reading books, and in a few days he would 
be let out, continuing his previous life, and being only a 
more interesting person for his deed. 

He said what he thought about the matter. At first 
Countess Ekaterlna Ivinovna agreed with her nephew, 
but later she was silent 

Kekhljnidov felt, like the rest, that with bis story he 
had, as it were, committed an indecency. 



In the erenJi^;, after diDner, chain with ia^ carved 
hacks were placed in the parlour, as though for a lecture, 
in lows, and in front of the table was put a chair with a 
small table, with a decanter of water for the preacher, and 
people began to congregate, to listen to the sermon of 
the newly arrived Eiesewetter. 

Near the enb«nce stood expensive carriages. In the 
luxuriously furnished parlour sat ladies in silk, velvet, 
and laces, with false hair and tightl; laced waists and 
folae bosoms. Between the womea sat gentlemen, soldiers 
and private citizens, and five men from the lower classes : 
two janitors, a shopkeeper, a lacke;, and a coachman. 

Eiesewetter, a strongly built, gray-haired gentleman, 
spoke in English, and a lean yonng lady, with eyeglasses, 
translated rapidly and welL 

He said that our sins were so great, and the punishment 
for these was so great and unavoidable, that it was impos- 
sible to live in expectation of this punishment. 

" Let us only think, dear sisters and brethren, of ooi- 
selves, of our lives, of what we are doing, how we are 
living, how we anger long-suffering God, how we cause 
Christ to suffer, and we shall see tluit there is no forgive- 
ness for us, no issue, no salvation, — that we are all 
doomed tA perdition. A terrible doom, eternal torments 
await US," he said, in a trembling voice. " How are we 
to be saved, bretlien, how are we to be saved from tliis 
terrible conflagration? It has already seized upon the 
hoose, and there is no issue from it ! " 

He grew silent, and real tears flowed down his cheeks. 
He had been delivering this speech for eight years, with- 
out any errors, and whenever he reached that passage of 
his very popular sermon he was seized by convulnons 
in his throat, and tickling in his nose, and tears began to 
flow from his eyea 

And these tears touched him still more. Sobs were 
heard in the room. Countess Ekaterfna Ivinovna sat 


REsmutxcnoH 383 

near a moaaic table, leaning her head on both her anas, 
and ber fat shoulders shni^ed convulsively. The coach- 
man looked in surpriee and fear at the foreigner, as 
thoogh he had driven right into him with the shaft, and 
he did not badge. The majority sat in poses similar to 
that of Countess Ekaterina Iv^ovna. Wolfs daughter, 
who resembled him, in a fashionable garment, was on her 
knees, covering her face with her handa. 

The orator suddenly revealed his face and called forth 
upon it that which strikingly resembled a real smile, such 
as actors use to express joy with, and began to speak in a 
sweet and tender voice : 

" There is a salvation. Here it is : it is easy and bliss- 
fttl. This salvation is the blood of the only begotten Sen 
of Gh>d, who has allowed Himself to be tormented for oar 
sakes. His suffering, His blood saves as. Sisters and 
brethren," he agaio said, with tears in his eyes, " let ua 
praise the Lord who has given His only bfgottes Son for 
the redemption of the humao race. Hw holy blood — " 

Nekblytfdov was overcome by sudi a painful feeling of 
nausea that he softly rose and, frowning and repressing a 
groan of shame, walked out on tiptoe and went to hi* 



On the followiog da^, just as yekhlTttdov bad dressed 
himaelf and was on the point of going down-etairs, a 
lackey brought him the visiting-card of the Moscow 
lawyer. The lawyer bad arrived to look after his afbira 
and, at the same (jme, to be present at the discassioD of 
Mdalova's case in the Senate, if it was to be heard soon. 
The despatch which Nekhlyildov bad sent him had miaaed 
lum. Upon bearing when Uislova'e case was to come ap 
and who the Senators were, be smiled. 

" There you have all three types of Senators," he said : 
" Wolf is a Petersburgian official ; SkovonSdnikov is a 
learned jurist ; and Be is a practical jurist, consequently 
the Uveltest of them all,'' Baid the lawyer. " llieie is 
most hope in him. And bow ia it about the Petition 
Commission ? " 

" I am going down to-day to Baron Vorobev. I conld 
not get any interview yesterday." 

"Do you know bow VoroMv comes to be a baron t" 
said the lawyer, replying to the somewhat comical intona- 
tion, with which \ekhlyiidov had pronoonoed this foreign 
title in connection with such a Russian name. " Paul had 
rewarded his grandfather, a lackey of the chamber, I think, 
for acme great favour of his, as much as to say : ' Have a 
baronetcy, and don't interfere with my pleasure ! ' Since 
then goes the race of the Barons of Torob^v. He is very 
proud of it. And he is a shrewd one." 

" I am on my way to him," said NekblytJdov. 

" Very well, let us go together. I shall take yoo down 
to his house." 




Nekblyiidov waa ulraady in the aiite(diAiiiber, being on 
the pcont of leaving, when he was met by a lackey «^ a 
note from MarieCte : 

" Four voua /aim plaisir, fai agi tout it faii contTe met 
prinoipea, et fai interddd aupris (U mon mari pour voire 
proUgie. H u tr&uve que cette personne peat Ure raldeh4e 
immediatemejU. Mon mari a ierit au commandant. 
Venta done disinteiestedly. Je voua aitends. h." 

" How is this ? " Kekhlyiidov aaid to the lawyer. " Tbia 
ifl simply terrible. The woman whom he haa been keep- 
ii^ for seven months in aohtaiy confinement proves to be 
innocent, and, in order to release her, it was only necessary 
to say the word." 

" It ia always that way. At least, you have got what 
you wanted." 

" Yes, bat tiiis success grieves me. Just think what 
must be going on there ? What were they keeping her 

" WeU, it would be better not to try to get to the bot- 
tom of that. So let me take you down," said the 
lawyer, as they came out to the fnmt steps, and a fine 
carriage, which the lawyer had hired, drove up to the 

" You want to go to Baron Vorob^v ? * 

The lawyer told the coachman where to drive, and t^ 
good horses soon brought Kekhlyiidov to the house which 
the baron occupied. The baron was at home. In the first 
room were two young ladies and a young ofiicial in his 
vice-uniform, with an exceedingly long neck and a bulg- 
ing Adam's apple, and an extremely l%ht gait. 

"Tour Dame?" the young official with the bulging 
\ Adam's apple asked, passing with an extremely light and 
graceful gait from the ladies to Nekhlyddov. 
'. Nekhlyiidov told him his name. 


386 REsuRBxcnov 

" The bsTon has mentioned yon. Directly I " 

The adjutant went through the closed door, and broa^t 
oat from the room a lady in mourning, who vas in tears. 
The lady with her bony fingers adjusted the tangled veil, 
in order to conceal her tears. 

"Please," the yoang official turned to Nekhlyddor, 
walking with a light step over to the door, opening it, 
and stopping. 

Upon entering the cabinet, Nekhlyifdov found himself 
in front of a imddle-eized, stocky, short-haired man in 
balf-onifonn, who was sitting in an anncbair at a large 
writing-desk, and cheerfully looking io frtoit of bins. 
His good-natured face, which stood out quite prominently 
with its ruddy blush from the white moustache and 
beard, formed itself into a gracions smile at the sight of 

" Very glad to see you. Your mother and I were old 
friends. I used to see you when you were a boy, and 
later as an officer. Sit down end tell me what I can do 
for you. Yes, yes," he said, shaking his close-cropped 
gray head as Nekhiyddor was telling him Fedtfeya's 
history. " Qo on, go on, I have nnderstood it alL Tee, 
yes, this is toacbing indeed. Well, have you entered a 

" I have prepared a petition," said NekhlytEdov, taking 
it oat of bis pocket. " I wanted to ask you to give it 
your especial attentiim, and I hope you may." 

" Yon have done well I shall hy all means make tbe 
report myself," said the baron, awkwardly expressing 
compassion in his merry face. " It is very toiching. 
She was apparently a child, and the husband treated her 
radely ; this made him repulsive to her, and later came a 
'tame when they began to love each other — Yes, I shall 
report it" 

"Count It^ Mikhiylovicb said that he wanted to 


BmiTBRBCTioir 887 

KekhlyddoT did not finiah hie pbrase, when the baron'a 
face was enddenly changed. 

" Ton had better hand in the petition at the chancery, 
and I Bball do what I can," he said to NekhlyddoT. 

Just then the yonng official, apparently proud of his 
gait, entered the room. 

" The lady aska to be permitted to eey two words 

" Well, call her in. Ah, mon eher, what a lot of tears 
one sees here ; if one only could dry them all I I do what 
I can." 

The lady entered. 

" I forgot to aak you not to let him give up the 
daughter, or else — " 

" I told you I should do it." 

" BaroQ, for God's sake t You will save a mother." 

She seized his hand and began to kiss it. 

" Everything vrill be done." 

When the lady left, NekhlyiidoT, too, rose to say good- 

*■ We shall do what we can. We shall coDsnlt the 
miniater of justice. He will give us his view, and then 
we shall do what we can." 

Nekhlyddov went out and walked into the chancery. 
Again, as in &e Senate, he found in a superb apartment 
superb ot&cialB, who were dean, polite, correct in their 
dress and speech, precise, and severa 

" How many there are of them, how very many, and 
how well fed they are! What clean shirta and hands 
they have I How well thdr shoes are blackened I And 
who does it all? And how wcdl tJiey are off in com- 
pariscoi not only with the prisoners, l»it even with tlkfl 
peasants," Nekhlyildov again involantarily thought. 



Thi man on whom depended the alleyiation ot the lot 
of those who were confined in St. Petersbatg had decora- 
tionB enough to cover him, hot, with the exception of a 
white cross in the buttonhole, he did not wear them ; he 
was a superannaated old geneatil, in his dotage, as they 
said, and was of German baronial origin. He had SOTved 
in ttie Caucasus, where he had received this extremely 
flattering cross because under his command Russian peas- 
ants, with their hair cropped and clad in uniforms and 
armed with guns and bayonets, had killed more than a 
thousand people who were defending their liberty, their 
homes, and their families. Then he had served in Poland, 
where be again compelled Rusdan peasants to commit all 
kinds of crimes, for which he received new decorations 
and embellishments on his uniform. Then he had served 
somewhere else, and now, being an enfeebled old man, he 
obtained the place, which he now was occupying, and 
whidi supplied him with good apartments and support,' 
and gave I^m honours. He executed severely all orders 
from above, and wa^ exceedingly proad of this execution ; 
to these onlers from above he ascribed a special mean- 
ing, and thought that everything in the world might be 
changed, except these orders from above. His duty con- 
sisted in keeping political prisoners in barracks, in soli- 
tary confinement, and he kept them there in such a way 
that half of them perished in the course of ten years, 
partly becoming insane, partly dying from consumption, 
and partly committing suicide : some by starving them- 



selvee, othets "by cutting their veiiiB open with> pieces of 
glass, or by hatting, or by baming themselTee to death. 

The old general knew all thie; all this took place 
under his eyes, bat all these oases did not toadii his con- 
science any more than his conscience was tonched \fj 
accidents arising from storms, inundations, and so on. 

These accidents happened on account of his exeoating 
orders from above, in the name of the emperor. These 
orders had to be carried out without questioning, and 
therefore it was quite useless to think of ^e conseqnencee 
resulting from these ordera 

The old general did not permit himself even to think 
of such affairs, considering it Ms patriotic dnty as a 
soldier not to think, in order not to weaken in the exe- 
cution of these, as he thought, extremely important 
duties of his. Once a week the old general r^arded it 
as his dnty to visit all the barracks and to ask tiie pris- 
oners whether they had any requests to make. The 
prisoners generally had requests to make of him. He 
listened to them (»lmly and in impenebable silence, and 
never granted them because they were all contrary to the 
regulations of the law. 

As Nekhlyiidov was approaching the residence of the 
old general, the soft chimes of the tower played " Praise 
ye the Lord," and the clock struck twa Listening to 
the chimes, Nekhlyildov involuntarily recalled having 
read in the memoirs of t^e Decembrists what an effect 
this sweet music, repeated every hour, bad on the souls 
of those who were confined for life. 

Afi N'ekhlyddov drove up to the entrance of his lodg- 
ings, the general was sitting in a dark drawing-room at 
an inlaid table and, together with a young man, an artist, 
a brother of one of his subordinates, was twirling a small 
dish on a sheet of paper. The thin, moist, feeble fingers of 
the artist were linked with the rough, wrinkled fingers 
of the general, which were stiff in their joints, and these 



linked handB wene jerking about, tt^ther with the in- 
verted saucer, over the sheet of paper upon which were 
written all the letters of the alphabet The saucer was 
answering the question put by the general as to how tlie 
spirits would recognize each other after death. 

Just as one of the orderlies, who was acting aa valet, 
entered with NekhlyiidoVB card, Jokd of Arc's spirit was 
communicating with them by meana of the saucer. Joan 
of Arc's spirit had already spelled out, " They will recog- 
nize each other after their," and this had been noted 
down. Just as the orderly had entered, the aaucer, 
which bad first stopped at "1," was jerking about in 
all directions just after it had reached the letter "i." 
It was wavering because the next letter, according to the 
general's opinion, was to have been " b," that is, Joan of 
Arc, in his opinion, was to have said that the spirits 
would recognize each other after their liberation from all 
earthly dr^, or something to that effect, and the next 
letter, therefore, had to be " b " ; but the artist thought 
that ttie next letter would be " g," that the spirit was 
going to say that the souls would recognize each other 
after their hghte, which would emanate from their ethe- 
real bodies. The general, gloomily arching his thick gray 
eyebrows, was looking fixedly at the hands, and, imagin- 
ing that the saucer was moving of its own accord, was 
polling it in the direction of letter " b." But the young, 
anEemic artist, with his scant hair combed behind hie 
ean, was looking with his lifeless blue eyes into the da^ 
comer of the drawing-room, and, nervously twitching his 
lips, was pulling the saucra in the direction of " g." The 
general scowled at the interruption of his occupation, and, 
after a moment's silence, took the card, put on bis eye- 
{^asses, and, groauing from a pain in the small of hia 
back, arose to his full tall stature, rubbing his stiffened 

" Take him to the cabinet" 



" Pomit me, yoni Excellency, I shall finish it myadf," 
aoid &e artist, getting up. " I feel the presence." 

" Very well, finish it," ibe general said, in a resolute 
and severe voice, while with a resolute and even gait he 
directed ths long steps of his parallel feet to the cabinet. 

"Glad to see you." The general said these gracious 
woids to Nekhlyiidov in a coarse voice, pointing to a 
chair at the writing^esk. " Have you been long in St 
Petersburg 1 " 

Nekhlyddov told him Uiat he had arrived but lately. 

" Is the princess, your mother, welL" 

" Mother is dead." 

" Pardon me, I am very sorry. My eon told me that 
he had met yon." 

The general's son was making the same career as his 
father. After leaving the military academy, he soyed in 
the detective bureau, and was very proud of the business 
which there was entrusted to him. His occupation cod- 
aisted in supervising the spies. 

" Yes, I have served with your fatiier. We were friends 
and comrades. Well, are you serving ? " 


The general shook his head disapprovingly. 

" I have a reqnest to make of you, genor^" said Nekh- 

" Oh, oh, I am very glad. What can I do for you ? " 

" If my recLuest is improper, you wiU forgive me, I 
hope. But I most conmiunioate it to you." 


" There is a certain Gurivich confined in the fortress. 
His mother wishes to have an interview with him, or, at 
least, to let him have certain books." 

The general expressed neither ysj nor displeasure at 
Nekhlyiidov's question ; he bent his head sidewise and 
closed his eyes, as though lost in thought He really 
was not *>iirifc-ing of anything and was not even inter- 



ested in NflkhljildoT'B queatdon, knowing ■very veil that 
he would answer bim in accordance with the lews. He 
waa simply taking a mental rest, thinking of nothing. 

" This, you see, does not depend on me," he said, after 
A moment's rest. " In r^ard to interviews there Is a 
regalation couhrmed by his Majesty, and whatever is 
decreed there is carried out. As to the books, we have 
a library, and they get sudi books as are permitted to 

" But he needs scientific hooka He wants to work." 

"Don't b^eve tiiat." The general was silent for a 
while. " That is not for work. Nothing but unrest." 

" But they have to do something to occupy their time 
in their heavy situation," said Nekhlyddov. 

" They always complain," said the genetaL " We 
know them." 

He spoke of them in goieral as of some especially bad 
tribe of men. 

"They are fumisbed such comforts here as one 
will rarely find in places of confinement," continued tba 

And, as though to justify himself, he b^^ to t«]l in 
detail of all the contorts which the prisoners hod, as 
though the chief aim of this institution consisted in -pto- 
viding pleasant quarters for its inmates. 

■' Formerly, it ia true, it was very hard, but now they 
are kept nicely. They eat three courses, and one of these 
is meat, either forcemeat or cutlets. On Sundays they 
get a fourth course of sweetmeats. May God only grant 
that every Russian have such meals ! " 

The general like all old people, having once come to a 
subject which be knew by rot«, kept saying that which 
be bad repeated so often in order to prove their exactions 
and ingiatituda 

" They get books, both of a religious character, and old 
periodioils. We have a hbrary. But they do ntd like 



to read. At first they seem to be interested, and after- 
ward the new books remain balf uncut, while the pages 
of the old ones are not turned over. We have tried 
them," said the baron, with a distant resemblance to a 
smile, " by putting pieces of paper in. The papers remain 
untouched. Nor are the; kept from writing," coutiuued 
(he general " They get slates and pencils, so that they 
may write for their amassment. They may rub off what 
they have written, and write over [^ain. But they don't 
write. No, they very soon become very qaiet. Only in 
the b^ioniug they are restless ; and later they grow fat, 
and b^me very quiet," said the general, without suspect- 
ing what terrible meaning his words bad. 

Nekhlyddov listened to his hoarse old voice ; he looked 
at his stiffened jcdnts ; at his dimmed eyes beneath his gray 
brows ; at his shaven, overhanging, old cheeks, supported 
by a military collar ; at the white cross, which this man 
prided himself on, especially since he had received it for 
an extraordinarily cruel and wholesale murder, — and he 
understood that it was useless for him to explain to him 
the meanii^ of his words. But he, nevertheless, made 
an effort over himself and asked about another affair, 
about prisoner Shiistov, about whom he had received that 
day the informaticoi that sbe would be released. 

"Shiistov? Shiistov — I do not remember them all 
by name. There are so many of them," he said, appor^ 
ently reproaching them for overcrowding. He rang a 
bell and sent for his secretary. While they went to 
fetch his secretary, he tried to persuade Nekhlyiidov that 
he should serve, saying that honest and noble-minded 
people, including himseli in the number, were especially 
useful to the Tsar — "and iba country," he added, appar- 
ently as an adornment of speech. 

"I am old, but I am serving so far aa my strength 

The setaetary, a dried-up, lean man, with lesUess, cUver 



ayes, ttniTed and informed them that Shifstov wae kept m 
some Btannge fortification, and that no docamest in refer- 
ence to her had been received. 

" We shall send her away tiie day we get the papers. 
We do not keep them, and we are not paiticolarly proud 
of their visits,'* said the general, again with an attempt at 
a playful smile, which only contorted his old face. 

Nekhlyddov arose, trying to repress an expression of 
a mixed feeling of disgust and pity, which he experienced 
in r^ard to this terrible old man. The old man, on bis 
aide, thought that he ought not to be too severe with a 
frivoloQS and, obviously, erring son of his comrade, and 
ought not to let him go away without giving him some 

" Good-bye, my dear. Don't be angry with me for 
what I am going to tell yon. I tell you this because I 
like you. Don't keep company with the people who are 
confined here. There are no innocents. They are aU a 
very immoral lot. We know them," he said, in a tone 
which did not admit the possibility of a doubt. Ha 
reaUy did not doubt, not because it was actually so, but 
because, if it were not so, he could not r^ard himself as 
a respected hero who was finishing a good life in a worthy 
manner, but as a villain who had been selling, and in his 
old age still continued to sell, his conscience. 

" Best of all, serve," he continned. " The Tsar needs 
honest men — and so does the country," he added. " If I 
and all the others refused to serve, as you do, who would 
be left ? We condemn the order of things, and yet do not 
ourselves wish to aid the government." 

Nekhlyddov drew a deep breath, made a low bow, con- 
descendingly pressed the large, bony band stretched ont 
to him, and 1^ the roonL 

The general shook his head in disapproval, and, nibbing 
the smaU of his back, again entered the drawing-room, 
where the artist was awaiting him, with the answer from 



the ai»rit of Joao of Arc all written out The general put 
on Mb e7e'glasses and read : " They will recognize each 
other after their lighta, which will emanate from tbeii 
ethereal bodies." 

"Ah," the general said approvingly, closing hi£ eyes, 
" but how are you going to tell them if the l^^t is tlie 
same with all ? " he asked, and again sat down at the table, 
linking hia hirers with those of the artist. 

Ne^ytldov's cabman came out of the gate. 

" It ia dull here, sir," he said, turning to Nekblyrfdov, 
" and I wanted to leave, without waiting for yonr return." 

" Yes, it is dull," Nekhlyiidov agreed with him, inhaling 
the air with full lungs, and restfully gazing at the smoky 
clouds that ware scudding along the sky, and at the 
sparkling waves of the NevA, rippling from the boat« and 
steamer^ that were moving upon it. 



On the followiog d&y Mdslova's case was to be heard, 
aud Nekhlyildov went to the Senate. The lawyer met 
him at the grand entrance of the Scoiate building, where 
aereral carriages were standing already. Mounting the 
magnificent parade staircase to the second story, the 
hiwysr, who knew all the corridors, tamed to the left to 
a door, on which was written the year of the introduction 
of the code of laws govermng the courts. Having taken 
off his overcoat in the first long room, and having leaned 
&om the porter that the Senators had all arrived, and the 
last had just entered, Fanirin, now left in his dress coat 
and his white tie on his white bosom, passed into the 
next room with cheerful self-confidence. Here there was, 
on the right, a large safe and then a table, and, on the 
left, a winding staircase, down which now came an ele- 
gant-looking official in a vice-uniform, with a portfolio 
under his arm. 
■ In this room the attention was attracted by a patriar- 
chal old umu, with long white hair, in a jacket and gray 
pantaloons, near whom stood two assistants in a respect- 
ful attitude. The old man with the white hair went up 
to the safe, and was lost in it. Just then Fanirin, having 
spied a comrade of his, a lawyer in a white tie and in a 
dress coat, immediately entered into an animated conver- 
sation with him. In the meantime Xekhlyiidov watched 
those who were in the room. There were in all about 
fifteen persons present, among them two ladies. One of 
these wore eye-glasses, and the other was a gray-haired old 
woman. The case which was to be heard was in regard 



Lo a libel d the press, and therefore more than a osoal 
audience bad assembled, — they were nearly all people 
belonging to the newspaper world. 

The baUiff, a ruddy-faced, handsome man, in a magnif- 
icent uniform, with a note in his band, walked over to 
Fau^n to aak him what his case was, and, having heard 
that it was the Idislova case, he made a note of something 
and went away. Just then the door of the safe was 
opened, and the patriardial old man emeiged from it, 
no longer in his jacket, but in a galloon-embroidered gar- 
ment, with metal plates on his breast, which made him 
look like a bird. 

This ridiculous costume apparently embarrassed the 
old man himself, and he waUted more rapidly than was 
bis custom through the door opposit« the entrance. 

" That is Be, a most respectable man," Fanirin said to 
NekhlyiidoT, and, introducing bim to his colleague, told 
him of tJie exb«mely interesting case, as he thought, 
which was to be heard now. 

The case soon b^an, and Nekhlyiidov, with the rest of 
the audience, went into the hall on the left. All of them, 
Fau^rin included, went behind a barrier, to Beats intended 
for the publia Only the St. Petersburg lawyer stepped 
out beyond the barrier to a writing-desk. 

The ball of the meetings of the Senate was smaller 
than the one of the Circuit Court, simpler in its appoint- 
ments, and differed from it only in that the table, at 
which the Senators were sitting, was not covered with 
green cloth, but with crimson velvet, embroidered with 
gold lace; all the other attributes of the execution of 
justice were the same : there was the Mirror of Laws,^ the 
emblem of duplicity — the holy image, and the emblem 
of servility — the pori.Fait of the emperor. The bailiff 
announced in the same solemn voice, " The court is com- 



ing." All rose in the aame manner; the Senators, in 
their aniformB, walked in in the same v&j, sat down in 
the same way in the chairs with the high backs, and 
in the same way leaned over the table, trying to look 
natutaL There were four Senators : the presiding judge, 
Nikltin, a clean-shaven man, with a narrow face and 
steel eyes ; Wolf, with compressed Hpe and white htde 
hands, with which he filtered some sheets of paper ; then 
SkoTonJdnikov, a fat, massive, pockmarked man, — a 
learned jorist; and the fourth. Be, that patriarchal old 
man who had been the last to arrive. Wi^ the Senators 
came out the secretary-general and the assodate prosecut- 
ing attoniey^eneral, a middle-sized, spare, clean-shaven 
young man, with a very dark skin and black, melancholy 
eyes. In spite of his strange uniform, and although six 
years bad passed since Nekhlyiidov bad last seen him, he 
at once rect^oized in him the best friend of his student 

" Is this Associate Prosecutti^ Attoraey-Qeneral Sel^ 

" Yes. Why ' " 

" I know him well. He is a fine man — " 

" And an excellent associate {vosecuting attomey'^n< 
eral, who knows his business. Yon ought to have asked 
him," said Fan^rin. 

" He will in any case be consdentioas," said Nekhlyii- 
dov, reodling his close relations and friendship with 
Sel&iin, and his gentle qualities of purity, hcnesty, and 
decency, in the best sense of the word 

" It is too late now," Fan^n whispered to him, payii^ 
strict attention to the report of the case. 

The case was an appeal to the verdict of the Superior 
Court which had left unchanged the judgment oC the 
Circuit Court 

Nekhlyiidov listened and tried to understand the mean- 
ing of that which was going ou before him, but, just as 



in the CSrcnit Oonit, the chief impedimact to compre- 
heoBiOD lay in the fact that they were not conaideniig 
tha t which^ natnrally BeeiBed~tir^ the main poiot, but 
a side issua Tte'caau bwIbl' advl&einenr"was an article 
Sr& bew^per, in which the rascahty of a presidiDg offi- 
cer of a certain Btock compaQy bad been brought to lighi. 
It seemed that the only i mportant qu estion was whether 
rea lly th e president oTThe stock company waa "fleecing 
his creditorsrand'^hat meaSs were to be taken to stop 
him from stealing. But that was not at all considered. 
The only questioa they diBcassed was whether the pub- 
lisher had a legal right to print the article of the feiulle- 
ton writer, or not, and what crime he had committed by 
printing it: whether it was a defamation or libel, and 
how dedlamation includes hbel, or libel defamation, and 
other unintelligible points for common people about 
various articles and decrees of some general department. 

There was one thing which Nekhlyiidov understood, 
and that was that, notwithstanding the fact that Wolf, 
who made the report on tJie case, and who on the previous 
day had so sternly informed him that the Senate could 
not ctmsider the essence of a case, in this particular affair 
reported with an apparent bias in favour of the annul- 
ment of the verdict of the Superior Court, and that 
Sel&iin, quite out of keeping with his characteristic re- 
serve, suddenly hotly expressed an opposite opinion. The 
impassionedness of the ever reserved Sel4nin was based 
on the fact that he knew the president of the stock com- 
pany as unreliable in business matters, and that he had 
accidentally found out that Wolf had almost on the eve 
of the heuing of this case been present at a luxurious 
dinner given by this suspicious business man. When 
now Wolf reported in an apparently biassed, even though 
very cautions, manner on the case, Sel&iin became excited, 
and expressed his opinion with greater vigour than was 
Deoessaiy tar such a usual matter. His speech evidenUy 



offeoded Wolf : be blushed, twitcbed his mnscles, made 
silent gestniea of surprise, sod with a very dignified and 
offended look retired vith the other SeDators to the con- 

" What is your case ? " the bailiff again asked Fanirio, 
the moment the Senators had retired. 

" I have told you before that I am here to hear MAb- 
lova's case," said Fan^rin. 

"That is sa The case will come up to-day. But — " 

" What ia it ? " asked the lawyer. 

" You see, it has been put down without discussioD, 
and the Senators will hardly come out after the announce- 
ment of their decision. But I shall inform them — " 

" What do you mean ? " 

" I shall inform them," and the bailiff made a note of 
something ou the paper. 

The Senators actually intended, after announcing their 
decision in the libel-suit, to finish all the other business, 
including Mcislova's case, at tea and dgarettes, witJiout 
leaving the consultation-room. 



The moment the Senators sat down at the table oF the 
coD3ultation-room, Wolf began in a very animated manner 
to adduce the reasons why the case ought to be annulled. 
The presiding Senator, who was as a rule not well dis- 
posed, happened to be in an nnueaally bad humour, 
listening to the case during the seesion, he had formed 
his opinion, and so he now sat loet in thooght, without 
paying any attention to what Wolf was saying. His 
thought was centred on the consideration of what he 
had written the day before in his memoirs in regard 
to VilyfinoVa appointment, instead of him, to that impcH'- 
tant post whidi he had long wished to get. President 
Nikftin was very firmly convinced that his reflections on 
the of&cials of the highest two ranks, with whom he came 
in contact during t^e time of his service, formed very 
important historical material Having on the previous 
day written a chapter, in which he gave some hard knocks 
to some officials of the first two classes for having pre- 
vented him, as he formulated it, from saving Russia from 
the destruction into which the present rulers were draw- 
ing it, — but in reahty for having kept him from getting 
a larger salary than he now was receiving, — he now was 
meditating on the fact that this circumstance would have 
an entirely new light thrown upon it for the use of pos- 

"Yes, of course," he replied to Wolfs words which 

he had addressed to him, but which he had not heard. 

Be listened with a sad countenance to what Wolf 




was saying, drawing garlands cm the paper which was 
lying before him. Be was a liberal of the purest 
water. He sacredly preserved the traditions of the 
sixties, and if he ever departed from hia severe im- 
partiality it was always in favour of liberalism. Thus, 
in the present case, apart from the fact that the stock 
speculator, who had brought the accusation of libel, was 
an unclean individual, Be was for lettii^ the complaint 
remain without consequences because this accnaation of 
libel against a writer was a restraint npcm the freedom 
of the press. When Wolf had finished his proofs. Be. 
without having finished drawing a garland, with sadness, 
— he was a^rieved that he had to prove such truisms, — 
in a soft, pleasant voice, gently, simply, and couvinciugly 
proved the groundlessness of the complaint, and, lower- 
ing his head with its white hair, continued to draw the 

Skovor<$dnikov, who was sitting opposite Wolf, and 
who was all the time pulling his beard and moustache 
into his mouth with his fat fingers, the moment Be 
ceased talking, stopped chewing his beard, and in a load, 
creaking voice said that, notwithstanding the fact that 
the president of the stock company was a great Boonndrel, 
he would be for the annnlment of the verdict if there 
were legal reasons for it, but as snch were lacking, he 
seconded the opinion expressed by Iv^ Sem^novich (Be), 
be said, enjoying the sting which he had thus given to 
Wolf. The presiding Senator sided with Skovor6dnikov, 
and the case was decided in the negative. 

Wolf was dissatisfied, especially since he was, so to say, 
accnsed of dishonest partiality. However, he pretended 
to be iudifferent and opened the next case to be reported 
upon, that of Mislova, and buried himself in it. In 
the meantime the Senators rang the bell and asked for 
tea ; they began to discuss an affair which, tc^ther with 
Kdmenski's duel, then interested all the Feteraburgians. 



It was the case of a director of a deportment who had 
been coDvicted of a crime provided for in Article 995. 

" What baseness," Be said, in disgust. 

" What evil do you see in it ? I shall ^ow yon in our 
literature a plan of a German writer who proposes point- 
blank that this should not be regarded as a crime, 
and that marriage between two men be permitted," said 
SfaovortSdnikov, eagerly sucking in the smoke from a 
crushed cigarette which he was holding at the roots of 
his fingers, near the palm of his hand, and bursting out 
into a loud laugh. 

" It is impossible,'' said Be. 

" I shall show it to you," said SkovortUnikov, quoting 
the full title of the work, and even the year and place of 

" They say he is to be appointed governor in some 
Siberian city," said Nikftin. 

" That is aU right. The bishop will come out to meet 
him with the cross. They ought to have a bishop of 
the same kind. I could recommend a bishop to them," 
eoid Skovor(idnikov, and, throwing the stump of the ciga- 
rette into the ash-tray, he took into his mouth as much ae 
he could of his beard and moustache, and began to chew 
at them. 

Just then the bailiff, who had entered, informed them 
of the lawyer's and Neklilyiidov's desire to be present at 
the discussion of Mfistova'a case. 

" Now this case," said Wolf, " is a whole romance," and 
he told all he knew about Nekhlyiidov's relations with 
M^ova. After bavii^ talked of this, and having fin- 
ished smokiog their ciga^ttes and drinking their tea, the 
Senators went into the hall of sessions, announced their 
decision in the previous case, and took up Mfelova's. 

Wolf in his thin voice reported in a very detailed 
manner on M&lova's appeal for annulment, and again 
spoke not entirely wiUiout impartiality, but with the 



nuoifest desire to have the judgment of the coorC 

" Have you anything to add ? " Qie presiding Senator 
addressed FamErin. FantErin arose, and, expanding his 
broad white chest, be^ao, by points, and with reniarhable 
impreBsivenesB and precision, to prove the departure of 
the court in six points from the exact meaning of the 
law, and, besidee, took the liberty of toudiing, though 
briefly, on the merits of the case iteelf, and on the cryii^ 
injustice of the verdict The tcme of Faniuin's short but 
strong speech was to the effect (hat he begged the Senate'a 
indulgence for insisting on something which the Senators, 
in their sagacity and judicial wisdom, saw and understood 
better than he, saying that he did so only because bis duty 
demanded it. After Fan^rin's speech, there seemed to be 
oot the least doubt but that the Senate would reverse the 
decision of the court. Having finished his speech, FanArin 
smiled a victorious smile. 

Looking at his lawyer, and seeing this smile, Nekh^- 
dov was convinced that the case was won. Sut when be 
glanced at the Senators, he noticed that Fan^rin was the 
only one who was smiling and triumphing. The Senators 
and the associate prosecuting attorney-general neither 
smiled nor triam[^ed, but had the aspect of people who 
felt ennui, and who were saying, " We have heanl a lot 
of your kind of people, and that all leads to nothing." 
They were all, apparently, glad when the lawyer got 
through and stoj^jed delaying them. 

Immediately after the end of the lawyer's speech, the 
presiding officer turned to the associate prosecuting ottor- 
uey-generaL Seisin clearly and precisely expressed him- 
self in a few words gainst the reversal of the judgment, 
finding the causes for the annulment insufficient. There- 
upon the Senators arose and went away to hold their 
consultation. In the consultation-room ihe votes were 
divided. Wolf was for the repeal. Be having grasped 



die whole matter, also very warmly sided with the annol- 
ment, Tividlj preaenting to hie associatee a picture of the 
court and the miaoiiderstandiQg of the jury, just as be 
had comprehended it very correctly. Nikltin, who always 
stood for severity in general and for severe formality, was 
against it. The whole ^air depended on SkovoMSdnikov's 
TOta He cast it against a reversal chiefly because Nekh- 
lyiidov's determination to marry this girl in the name of 
moral demands was in the highest degre« distasteful to 

Skovori5dnikov was a materialist and a Darwinist, and 
considered all manifestations of abstract morality, or, still 
worse, of religiousness, not only a contemptible madness, 
hut a personal affront. All this interest in the prostitute, 
and the presence in the Senate of a famous lawyer, who 
was defending her, and of Xekhly^dov himself, was ex- 
tremely distasteful to him. And thus, he stuck his beard 
into his mouth and, making a grimace, pretended not to 
know anything about the affair except that the causes for 
annulment were Insufficient, and that, therefore, he agreed 
with the president in disregarding the appeal 

The appeal waa denied. 


" Tkkhiblk t " said NekhlyiidOT, waUdng into the wait- 
iag-Toom with the lawyer, who was arrangiDg his portfolio. 
" In a most palpable case they stickle for form, and refnse 
it. Terrible ! " 

" The case was spoilt in conrt," said the lawyer. 

" And Sel^nin is for a refusal ! Terrible, trarible ! " 
NeUilyddoT continued to repeat " What is to be done 

"Let UB appeal to bis Majesty. Hand in the petition 
vhile yon are here. I shall write it out for you." 

Just then thick-set Wolf, in his stars and uniform, came 
into the waiting-room and walked over to Nekhlyddov. 

" What is to be done, dear prince ? There were not 
any sufficient causes," he said, shragging his narrow 
Bboolders and closii^ his eyes. He pass^ on. 

After Wolf came Sel^u, havii^ learned from the 
Senators that Kekhlyildov, his former friend, was there. 

" I did not expect to find you here," he said, goiog up 
to Nekhlyiidov, smiling with his lips, while his eyes re- 
mained sad. " I did not know you were in St Petersburg." 

" And I did not know that you were prosecuting attc^ 
ney-general — " 

" AsBodate," Sel^nin corrected him. 

" What are you doing in the Senate ? " he asked, looking 
eadly and gloomily at bis frieud. " I heard that you were 
in St Petersburg. But what brings yon here ? " 

"Here? I came here, hoping to find justice and to 
save an innocent condemned woman." 

" What woman f 



" She whose cose has jast been decided." 

" Oh, M^ova's affair," Sel^nin said, recftlling it. " An 
entirely unfounded appeal" 

" The question is not in the appeal, but in the woman, 
who is not gnilt; and yet condemned." 

Sel^niu heaved a sigh : " Very likely, but — " 

" Not very likely, but absolutely — " 

" How do you know ? " 

"Because I was one of the jury. I know where we 
made a mistake." 

Sel^n fell to muaiDg. " You ought to have aunoonced 
it then and there," he aaid. 

" I did." 

" You ought to have written it down in the protocol 
If that had been in the appeal tor annulment — " 

" But it was manifest as it is that the verdict was 

" The Senate has no right to say m. If the Senate should 
take the liberty of annulling the judgments of the courts 
on the basis of their own views of their justice, not only 
the Senate would lose every point of support and would 
be rather in danger of violating justice than establishing 
it," Sel&iiu said, recalling the previous case, "but the 
verdicts of the juries would also lose their meaning." 

" I know this much : the woman is absolutely innocent, 
and the last hope te save her from an unmerited punish- 
ment is gone. The highest court has confirmed a case of 
absolute ill^ality." 

" It has not confirmed it, because it has not considered, 
and it cannot consider, the merits of tJie case itself," said 
SelJnin, blinking. 

Sel^nin, who was always busy at home and never went 
out in society, had apparently heard nothing of Nekhlyii- 
dov's romance ; and Nekhlytidov, being aware of this, 
decided that it was not necessary for him to speak of his 
relations with M^lova. 


408 BBSUBRBcnav 

" You, no doubt, are stoppng with your aunt," he added, 
evideutly vidung to change l^e subject. " I heard only^ 
yesterday from her that you were here. The countess 
invited me to be witii you at the meeting of the visiting 
pieacher," said Selinin, smiling with his lips csily. 

" Yes, I was there, but went away in di^nst," angrily 
said Nekhlyiidov, provoked at Sel^nin for changing t^M 

" But why in disgust ? It is, nevertheless, a mani- 
feetation of religious feeling, even though one-sided and 
sectarian," said Sel^nin. 

** It is nothing but some wild insipidity," said Nekh' 

" Not at alL The only strange thing about it is that 
we know so little the teatjiings of our own church that we 
receive our fundamental dogmas as a kind of new reve- 
lation," said Sel^nhi, as though hastening to express his 
views, which were new to his. old friend. 

Nekhlyddov looked at Sel^nin with surprised attention, 
Sel^nin lowered his eyes, in which there was an ezpressioo 
not only of sadness, but (tf hostility as welL 

" Do you believe in the dogmas of the cbuich ? " 
Kekhlyiidov asked. 

" Of course I do," Sel^nin replied, gazing vnih a 
straight and dead st^re at Nekhlyddov. 

Nekhlyiidov sighed. " Remarkable," he said. 

"However, we shall speak of it later," said Sel&iin. 
" I am coming," he turned to the bailitT, who had walked 
up to him with a respectful gait "We must by all 
means see each other," he added, with a ai^ " But 
shall I find you at home ? You will always find me at 
home at seven o'clock, at dinner. Nad^zhdinakaya," and 
he gave the number of the house. " Much .water has 
flowed since then," he added, walking away, and again 
smiling with his lips alone. 

" I shall come if I have time," said Nekhlyddov, feel- 



log that Sel^nin, who had once been a close and favourite 
friend of his, had saddenly become, in consequence of this 
short conversation, strange, distant, and unintelligible, if 
not hostile. 



Whkn Kekhlyildov knew Sel^nin as a stadeot, be was s 
good son, a faithful comrade, aod, according U> bis years, 
a cultivated man of the world, with mach tact, always 
el^ant and handsome, and, at the same time, of extract- 
dinary tnithfalness and honesty. He studied beautifully 
without any effort and without a. sign of pedantry, receiv- 
ing gold medals for his themes. Not only in words, but 
in deeds, be mode servii^ people tbe aim of his youthful 
life. This service he never presented to himself in any 
other form Uian as a government service, and therefore, 
tbe moment be graduated, be systematically passed in 
review all the activities to wbi(^ be might devote his 
energy, and decided ihat he would be most useful in the 
second division of tbe Private Chancery, wbicb has charge 
of tbe making of laws, and so he entered there. But, in 
spite of the most precise and conscientious execution of 
everything demanded of bim, be did not in this service 
find a satisfaction for bis desire to be useful, and could 
not appease bis conscience with tbe tbou^t that be was 
doing tbe right thing. This discontent was so strei^tb- 
ened hy his conflicts with tbe petty and vainglorious 
superior immediately above him, that he left tbe second 
division, and transferred himself to the Senate. 

Here he was more at ease, bat tbe feebog of disctmteut 
pursued bim stilL He did not cease feebiig tiiat it was 
all different from what he bad expected and what it 
ought to be. While occupying bis post in tbe Senate, bis 
relative obtained for him an appointment as Yunker of 



the Chamber, and he was obliged to drive oat in an em- 
broidered Tiniform, and a white linen apron, in a carriage, 
to thank all kinds of people for having promoted him to 
the dignity of a lackey. However much he tried, he 
could not discover a sensible explanation for this office. 
And he felt even more than in the service that it was 
"not it;" at the same time he could not refuse this 
appointment, on the one hand, in order not to offend 
those who were convinced that they had given him a 
great pleasure, while, on the oUier, the appointment 
flattered the lower quaHtiee of hia nature, and it gave 
him pleasure to see himself in the mirror in an em- 
broidered gold lace uniform, and to enjoy that respect 
which bis appointment elicited from certain people. 

The same thing happened with him in regud to hia 
marriage. Th^ arranged for him a very brilliaat mai^ 
riage, from the standpoint of society. And he married, 
mainly because by refusing to be would have offended 
and pained the bride, who was very anxious to many 
him, and those who had arranged the marriage for him ; 
as also, because his marrying a young, sweet, aristocratic 
maiden flattered his vanity and gave him pleasure. But 
the marriage soon proved to be " not it " in a far greater 
way than the service and his court dutaes. After the firat 
baby was bom, his wife did not want to have any more 
children, and b^an to lead a luxurious society life, in 
■wbiah he was compelled to take part against his will 

She was not particularly beautiful, was Eaitbful to him, 
and, although Edie poisoned her husband's life by it, and 
herseB gained nothing from it but an expenditure of 
terrible strength, and weariness, she continued intently to 
lead such a life. All attemj^ of his to change this 
existence were wrecked, as against a stone wall, against 
her conviction that it had to be so, in which opinion she 
was supported by her relatives and acquaintances. 

The child, a girl, with long golden locks and bare l^s, 



was entiiely estranged from her fsthw, more especially 
because she was brought up differently &om what he had 
wished her to be. Between the married couple naturally 
arose misaQderstanding and even an absence of any desire 
to uDdeistand each other, and a quiet, silent struggle, con- 
cealed from outsiders and moderated by proprietiea, which 
made life for him at home exceedingly hard. Thus, his 
domestic life proved, even more than his service aod 
court appointment, to be " not it." 

His relation to religion was, however, most " not it." 
Like aU people of his circle and time, he had, without 
the least effort, by bis mental growth, broken those 
fetters of religious superstitions in which he bad been 
broi^bt up, and be did not know himself when ihttb 
liberation had taken place. Being a serious and hcraest 
man, he did not conceal this freedom from the super- 
stitions of Che ofiBcisI religion while he was still young, 
during his student days and his friendship with Nekh- 

But with advancing years and rise in service, especially 
during the reaction of conservatiam which had in the 
meantime taken possession of eodety, this spiritual free- 
dom stood in his way. Not only in his domestic rela- 
ti(Hi8, especially at the death of his father, at the masses 
for bis soul, and because his mother desired bim to pre- 
pare himself for the sacrament, and public opinion partly 
demanded this, — bat even in bis service he bad continu- 
ally to be present at prayers, dedications, and thanks- 
givings, and other Bimjlwr seryices: hardly a day passed 
without his coming in contact with some external forms 
of religion, which it was impossible to avoid Being 
present at these services, one of two things had to be 
done : either he had to pretend (which, with his truthful 
character he never could do) that he believed in that in 
which he did not believe, or, acknowledging all these 
external forms to be a lie, so to arrange his life as not to 



be GompeUed to be present at what he coneidered to be 
a lie. 

But, in order to accomphsh thia apparently unimportant 
deed, very much had to be done : it was neceesar; to take 
np an unending struggle with all his close friends ; it was 
necessary to change his position, to give up his service, 
and to sacrifice all his usefulness, which he now was con- 
vinced he brought people by his service, and hoped even 
to increase in the future. And in order to do this, it was 
necessary to be convinced of the justice of his views. Of 
this he was as firmly convinced as every cultivated man 
of our time must be of the justice of his sound reason, if 
he knows anything of history, and if he knows anything 
of the origin of religion in general, and of the origin and 
decay of the Church-Christian religion in particular. He 
could not help knowing that he was right in refusing to 
acknowledge the truth of Uie Church teachings. But, 
under the pressure of the conditions of life, he, a veracious 
man, permitted himself a small lie, which consisted in 
saying to himself that, in order to assert that the sense- 
lessness is senseless, it is necessaiy first to study that 
senselessness. This was a small he, but it led him to 
that great Ue, in which he now was stuck fast. 

In patting the question to himself whether that Ortho- 
doxy, in which he had been bom and brought op, which 
was demanded of him by all those who surrounded him, 
and without which he could not continue his useful ac- 
tivity among men, was right, — he had already prejudged 
it Therefore, in order to elucidate this question, he did 
not take Voltaire, Schopenhauer, Spencer, Kant, but the 
philosophical works of H^l, and the religious hooka of 
Vinet and KhomyakfSv, and he naturally found in them 
what he wanted : a semblance of acquiescence and justi- 
fication of that religious teaching in which he had been 
educated, which his reason had long rejected, but without 
which all his life was filled with annoyances, and by the 




acceptance of which aU theae anooyaiiceB wonld at once 
be removed. 

He appropriated all those customaiy sophiems that the 
separate reasoD of man cannot comprehend truth, that 
truth ia revealed only to the aggregate of humankind, that 
(_ the only means for conceiving it is the revelation, that rev- 
elation is in the keeping of the church, and so forth. 
Since then he could calmly, without being couscioua of 
the lie, be present at prayers and masses, take the sacrap 
ment, and cross himself before the images, and he could 
ccmtinue in his post, which gave him the consciousness of 
his utility and a consolation in his cheerless domestic 
lifa He thought that he believed, and yet he was con- 
scious with all his being, even more than in anything 
else, that this faith was absolutely " not it." And it waa 
this that made bis eyes look so melancholy. And it 
was this which caused him, at the sight of Nekblytldov, 
whom he used to know when these lies had not taken 
possession of him, to recall the time when he was atoll 
different ; especially after he had hastened to hint to him 
about his religious views, he felt more than ever that all 
this was " not it," and he was overcome by painful mel- 
ancholy. The same sensation took possession of Nekh- 
lyildov, after Uie first impression of joy in seeii^ his old 

It was for this reason that, although they had promised 
to see each other, neither of them soi^ht the meeting, and 
they never again met during Nekhlytidov's stay in St 



Upon leavii^ the Senate, Nekhlyiidov walked down 
the sidewalk with the lawyer. The lawyer ordered bis 
carriage to follow him, and began to tell Nekhlyiidov the 
hiatory of that director of a department of whose convic- 
tioD the Senators had been taUdng, and who, instead of 
being condemned to bard labour, was to be appointed 
governor in Siberia. Ha told him the whole story, and 
all it« nastiness, and also expatiated with especial pleasure 
on the story of the highly placed persons who had stolen 
the money which had been collected for the construction 
of the unfinished monument paat which they had driven 
in the morning ; and of how the miBtrees of a certain man 
bad made millions at the Exchange ; and of how one had 
sold and the other had bought a wife ; then he b^an hia 
narrative about the rascalities and all kinds of crimes of 
the higher officials of governmeot, who were not confined 
in jails, but occupied president's chairs in various institn- 
tioQB. These stories, of which the supply seemed to be 
inexhaustible, caused the lawyer much pleasure, since they 
gave evident proof of the fact that the means which be, 
tbe lawyer, employed to make money were quite lawful 
and innocent in comparison with the means employed for 
the same purpose by the highest functionaries at St. 
Petersburg. Therefore, the lawyer was very much sur- 
prised when Nekhlyiidov did not wait for the end of the 
last story about the crimes of the officials, but bade him 
good-bye and took a cab to drive him home. 

Nekhlyildov felt very sad. He was sad more especially 

because the Senate's refusal confirmed iha senseless torture 




of innocent Mftelova, and becanae thia refusal made more 
difBcult his unchangeable d^iennination to unite bis fate 
with hers. This mBlancholy was increased by those terri- 
ble Btories of the reigniug evil, of which the lawyer had 
been telling him with such delight ; in addition to this, he 
continually thought of the grim, cold, repelling look of 
SelJnin, whom he had known as a gentle, frank, and noble- 
minded man. 

'When Ndihlytidov returned home, the porter, with a 
certain contemptuous look, handed liim a note which 
a certain woman, so he expressed himself, had written in 
the porter's lodge. It was a note from Miss Shilstov's 
mother. She wrote that she had come to thank the bene- 
factor and saviour of her daughter, and, besides, to b^ and 
implore him to call at their house, on the VasIIev Island, 
Fifth Avenue, Number so and so. This was very neces- 
sary for the sake of Vy^a Efr^movna. She said he need 
not be afraid of being annoyed by expressioDB of gratitude, 
that this would not even be mentioned, but that they would 
be very happy to see him. If he could, he should come 
the next morning. 

There was also another note from his former comrade, 
Aid-de-camp Bogatyr^v, whom Nekhlyddov had asked to 
hand in person to the emperor the petition in the name 
tA the sectarians. Bogatyr^v wrote in his large, firm hand 
tttat he would hand the petition to the emperor, as he 
had promised, but that it had suddenly occurred to him 
that it would be well for Nekhly;idov to go and see the 
person on whom the matter depended, and to ask him to 
use his influence. 

After the impressions of the last few days in St. Peters- 
burg, NekhlyiidoT was in a state of complete hopelessness 
as r^ards the success of anything. His plans, which he 
had formed in Moscow, appeared to him like those youthful 
dreams, in which people are invariably disenchanted when 
they enter life. Still, while he was in St. Petersburg, he 



regained it as his duty to fulfil ererything he had set out 
to do, ood so he resolved to call on Bogaty r4v, after which 
he would go and see the person on whom the affair of the 
aectarians depended. 

He drew the petition of the eectariaas out of his port- 
folio and began to read it, when the lackey of Conntesa 
Ekaterfna Iv^ovna knocked at the door and entered, in- 
viting him up-etairs to tea. 

NekhlyiidoT said he would be there at once. Having 
put away his papers, he went to his aunt's rooms. On 
bis way up, he looked through the window into the street 
and saw the span of Mariette's bays, and he suddenly felt 
unexpectedly happy, and wished to amile. 

Mariette, in a hat no longer black, but of some bright 
colonr, and a many-coloured dress, was sitting with a cup 
in her hand near the countess's armchair, and was chat- 
tering, beaming with her beautiful, smiling eyes. As 
Nekhlyiidov entered the room, Mariette had just finished 
telling something funny, something indecently funny, — 
this Nekhlyiidov saw from the character of the laughter, 
— so that the good-natured, mustachioed CountesB £ka- 
terfna Iv^ovna shook with her stout body, rolling from 
lau^ter, while Mariette, with a pecuUarly mischievouB 
expression, twisting her smiling mouth a little, and turn- 
ing her energetic and merry face to one side, looked silently 
at her interlocutor. 

Nekhlyiidov understood from the few words which he 
heard that they had been speaking about the second 
latest St. Fetersbui^ news, — the episode of the Siberian 
governor, and that it was in this r^on that Mariette 
had said something so funny that the countess could not 
for a long time control herself. 

" Tou will kill me," she said, coughing. 

Nekhlyddov greeted them and sat down near them. 
He was on the point of condemning Mariette for her 
frivolity, when she, noticing t^e serious and slightly 



disaatiBfied expreseioD of his face, immediately changed, 
not only the expressioa of hers, but also her whole mood, 
in order that she might please him, — and thi£ she had 
desired to do ever since she had met him. She suddenly 
grew serious, discontented with her life, seeking some- 
thing, and striving for something. She did not exactly 
simulate the mood Nekhlyiidov was in, hut actually 
appropriated it to herself, although she would not have 
heen able to express in words what it consisted in. 

She asked him. how he had aucceeded in his afiaira. 
He told her about his failure in the Senate and about hia 
meeting with Sel^nin. 

" Ah, what a pure soul ! Now this is really a chevalier 
tana pear et sans reprocke. A pure soul," both ladies used 
the invariable epithet under which SeMuin was known in 

"What kind of a woman is his wife?" Nekhlyildov 

" She 7 Well, I am not going to condemn her. But 
she does not understand him." 

"Is it possible he, too, was for denying the appeal?" 
she asked, with sincere sympathy. " That ia terrible, 
and I am very sorry for her t " she added, with a 

He frowned, and, wishing to change the subject, began 
to speak of Miss Shiistov, who had been confined in the 
prison, and now was released by her intercession. He 
thanked her for her appeeil to her husband and wanted 
to tell her how terrible it was to think that that woman 
and her whole family suffered only because nobody 
thought of them, but before he had a chance to finish 
Baying what he wanted to say, she herself expressed her 

" Don't tell me," she said. " The moment my husband 
told me that she could be released, I was struck by that 
idea. ' Why was she kept, if she is innocent?" she 



said, ezin«ssmg Kekhlyddov's thought. " It ia shocking, 
ahockiiig I " 

GouDtesa Ekaterlna Ivdnovna saw that Mariette waa 
coquettii^ with her nephew, and this amused her. " Bo 
you know what ? " she eaid, when they grew silent, " come 
to-morrow to Aline's house: Kiesewetter will be there. 
And yon too," she tamed to Mariette. 

" II wnti a remarqud," she said to her nephew. " He 
told me that everything you said — I told him about it 
— was a good sign, and that you will certainly come to 
Christ Go there by all means. Tell him, Mariette, 
to come, and come yourself." 

" Countess, in the first place, I have no right to advise 
the prince," said Mariette, looking at Nekhlyiidov, and 
with this glance establishing between him and herself a 
full agreement in r^ard to the words of the countess and 
to evangelism in general, " and in the second place, I am 
not very lond, you know — " 

"Yon always do everything topsyturvy and in your 
own way." 

" How so in my own way ? I believe like the com- 
monest kind of a woman. And, in the third place," she 
continued, " I shall go to the Fr^ich Theatre to-morrow." 

" Ah ! Have you seen that — well, what is her name ? " 
said Countess Ekaterina Iv^ovna. 

Mariette helped her out with the namie of a famous 
French actress. 

" Go there by all means, she is remarkable." 

" Whom am I to see first, ma tanie, the actrees or the 
preacher ? " said Nekhlyiidov, smiling. 

" Please, don't catch me at words." 

" I think, first the preacher and then the French actress, 
otherwise I shell lose all my interest in the sermon," said 

"Ko, you had better begin with the French Theatre, 
and then repent of your sins," said Mariette. 



"Don't dare make fun of me! The preacher is one 
thing, and the theatre aDother, In order to be saved it 
is not necesaary to make a face a yard long and weep all 
the time. One must belieTe, and then you are hap^^." 

" Ma tajUe, you preach better than any preacher." 

" Do yoo know what," said Mariette, thoughtfully, 
" come to-morrow to my op6r»-bo3t." 

" I am afraid I sha'n't be able — " 

The conversation was intennpted by the lackey's 
announcement of a visitoT. It was the secretary of a 
charitable institution, of which the countess was the 

" He is a dreadfully tiresome man. I bad better receive 
him in there. And then I shall come out here again. 
Give him tea to drink, Mariette," said the countess, walk- 
ing to the parlour, with her rapid, waddlit^ gait. 

Mariette took off her glove and laid bare an energetic, 
sufficiently fiat band, with its ring-finger covered with 

" Will you have a cup ? " she said, taking hold of the 
silver teapot over the spirit-lamp, and strangely spreading 
out her little finger. 

Her face became serious and sad. 

"It is almiys terrible, terrible aud painful, for me to 
think that people, whose opinion I value, should con- 
found me with the situation in which I am placed." 

She looked as though ready to weep, as she was saying 
these words. Although, upon analysis, these words bad 
either no sense at all, or only a very indefinite meaning, 
they seemed to Nekhlytfdov to be of unusual deptli, 
sincerity, and goodneee, — for he was attracted by the 
glance of those sparkling ^es, which accompanied the 
words of the young, beautiful, and well-dressed woman. 

Nekhlyiidov looked at her in silence, and could not 
tear his eyes away from her face. 

"You' think that I do not underatand you and every- 



thing that takes place within yoo. That which you have 

done ie known to all. Ceet le secret de poliehineUe. And v^ 

I rejoice in it and approve of it." l^ 

" Really, there ia nothing to rejoice in ; I have done so 
little as yet." 

" That makes no difference. I understand your feeling, 
and I understand her. Well, well, I sha'n't speak of it," 
she interrupted hersdf, noticing an expression of diseatia- 
factiOD on hia face. " I also understand that, having seen 
all the suffering and all the horrors of the prisons," said 
Mariette, who had but the one wish, to attract him, with 
her feminine feeling guessing all that might be important 
and dear to him, " you wish to succour all those people 
who suffer and suffer so terribly, so terribly from men, 
from indifference, from cruelty — I comprehend how one 
may give his Ufe for it, and I myself should give up 
mine. Bat everybody has his lot — " 

" Are you dissatisfied with yours ? " 

" I ? " she asked, as though startled by such a question. 
" I have to be satisfied, and I am. But there is a worm 
which awakens — " 

" Tou ought not to permit it to fall asleep. You must 
trust this vQice," said Nekhlyildov, submitting completely 
to the deception. 

Afterward Vekhlyildov often thought with shame of 
his whole conversatioD with her ; he thought of her 
words, which were not so much talae as simulating his 
own, and of her face, feigning humble attention, as she 
listened to his recital of t£e horrora of the prison and of 
his impressions of the country. 

When the countess returned, they were coDversing, not 
only as old, but as intimate friends, like those who under- 
stand each other in a throng of men, who do not compre- 
hend them. 

They spoke of the injustice of the goveroment, ot 
the Bufferings of the unfortunates, of t^e poverty of the 



masses, bat in realit; their ejes, which watched each 
other tiirou^ the sounds of the conversatdon, kept asking, 
"Can 70a love me?" and answered, "I cao," and the 
aexaal feelii^, assuming the most unexpected and joyous 
aspect, drew tjiem cue to the other. 

As she was leaving, she told him that she waa always 
read; to serve him to the best of her ability, and asked him 
to be sure and come to see her in the theatre on the fol- 
lowing evening, at least for a moment, &s she had to talk 
to him about one important matter. 

" For when shall I see you again ? " she added, with a 
sigh, carefully putting the glove on her ring-bedecked 
hand. " Say that you will come." 

Xekhlyiidov promised he wonld. 

During that night, Kekhlyddov, being all alone in his 
room, lay down on his bed and put out the light. He 
could not sleep for a long tima Thinking of M&lova, of 
the decree of the Senate, and yet of his determination to 
follow her, of bis renunciation of his rights to the land, 
there appeared suddenly before him, as though in reply to 
his questions, Mariette's face, her sigh, and her glance, 
when she said, " When shall I see you again ? " and her 
smile ; she appeared before him as clearly as though she 
were actually standing before him, and he smiled. " Am 
I doing wbU to go to Siberia? And shall I be doing 
well in giving up my wealth ? " he asked himself. 

The answers to these questions on that clear St Peters- 
burg night, which streamed in through the half-drawn 
blinds, were indiatinct. Everything wae mixed in his 
head. He called back his former mood, and thought of 
his former ideas, but they no longer had their former 
convincing power. 

" I have evoked all this in my imagination, and shall 
not be able to live according to it : I shall repent doing 
good," he said to himself, and, not being able to answer 
these qnestdous, he experienced such a feeling of pining 



and despair as lie had not experienced for a long time. 
Unable to find his way through the maze of these ques- 
tions, he fell into that heavy sleep which used to come 
over him after some great loss at cards. 



Upon awakening on the next moming, Nebhlyildov's 
first feeling was tj[iat he had on the previous day com- 
mitted some villainy. He began to reflect: there was 
DO villainy, no bad act, but there wete thoughts, bad 
thoughts, which were that all his present inteutioDS, his 
marrying Katyiisha, bis gift of the land to the peasants, 
that all this was an unrealizable dream, that he would 
not carry it to its conclusion, that it was all artificial, 
unnatural, and that he ought to live as he had been 
hving. There was no bad act, but there was that which 
was much worse than a bad act: there were those 
thou^ts from Vfidch spring all bad deed& 

A bad act may not be repeated, and oue may repent of 
it ; but evil thoughts generate all evil deeds. 

A bad act only smooths out the path for another bad 
act ; while bad thoughte irrepressibly drag one down that 

Having recalled in bis imagination all the thoughts of 
the previous evening, Nekhlyiidov marvelled how it was 
he could have had any faith in them even for a moment. 
However new and difficult all that was which he in- 
tended to do, he knew that it was the only possible life 
for him, and that, however easy and natural it was for 
him to return to his former Ufe, it would be his death. 
The temptation of the previous day now appeared to him 
analogous to the feeling of a man who has had a good 
sleep and still wishes, not to sleep, but to stay awhile in 
his bed, although he kuows full well that it ie time ta 




get ap in order to attend to an important and joyful 

On tJiat day, the last of hia Bojoam in St. Petersburg. 
he went early in the morning to the Shdatovs, in the 
VasHev Island. 

The lodgings of the Shiiatovs were in the second story. 
Nekhlyildov, following tJie janitor's indication, got to the 
back stairs, and mounted a straight, steep staircase, and 
walked straight into a hot, close kitchen, smelling of the 

An elderly woman with rolled-up sleeves, in an apron, 
and in glasses, was standing at the stove and mixing 
something in a steaming pan. 

"Whom do you wish?" she asked, sternly, looking 
above her glasees at the stranger. 

Nekhlyildov had barely mentioned his name, when the 
woman's face awumed a frightened and, at the same time, 
joyful expression. 

" prince I " ctieA the woman, drying her hands on 
her apron. 

" But why did you come by the back staircase? You 
are our benefactor. I am her mother. They had entirely 
ruined the girL You are our saviour," she said, grasping 
Nekhlyildor'a hand and wishing to kiss it. 

" I was at your house yestwday. My sister in partic- 
ular asked me to go. She is here. This way, this way, 
please follow me," said Mother Shdstov, leading Nekhlyd- 
dov through a narrow door and a dark corridor, and on 
her way adjusting her tucked-up dress and her hair. 
" My sistOT is Komflov, you have no doubt heard her 
name," she added, in a whisper, stopping before the door. 
"She has been mixed up in political affairs. She is a 
very clever woman," 

HaviDg opened a door in the corridor, Mrs. ShiIatoT led 
Nekhlyitdov into a small room, where, in front of a table, 
on a small sofa, sat a short, plump girl, in a striped chintz 



bodice, with waving blood hair, which encased her roand 
and very pale face that reaembled her mother's. Oi^>osite 
to her sat the bent form of a young man with black 
moustache and beard, wearing ^e national shirt with 
the embroidered collar. They were evidently both so 
absorbed in their conversation that they turned around 
only after Nekhlyddov had entered through the door. 

" lida. Prince Nekhlyddov, the same — " 

The pale girl sprang up nervoualy, putting back a lock 
of hair which had strayed from behind her ear, and 
timidly fixed her large gray eyes on the stranger. 

" So you are that dangerous woman for whom Vy^ia 
£fT^movna has interceded," said Nekhlyiidov, smiling, and 
extending his hand to her. 

" Yes, I am that woman," said lidiya, and, opening 
wide her mouth, and thus diaplaying a row of beautiful 
white teeth, she smiled a kindly, childish smile. "It 
is aunty who was so anxious to see you. Aunty I " 
she called out through the door, in a sweet, tender 

" Vy^ra Efr^movua was very much aggrieved at yoor 
arrest," said Nekhlyildov. 

" Sit down here, or better still, here," said Lidiya, point- 
ing to a soft broken chair, from which the young man 
had just arisen. 

" My cousin, Zakh^v," she said, noticing the glance 
which Nekhlyddov cast upon the yoang man. 

The young man, smiling as kindly a smile as Lfdiya, 
greeted the guest, and, when Nekhlyiidov sat down in 
bis seat, took a chair from the window and sat down near 
him. From another door came a blond gymnasiaat, about 
sixteen years of age, and silently sat down on the window- 

"Vy^ra Efr^movna is a great friend of aunty's, but I 
hardly know her," said Lidiya. 

Just then a woman with a very sweet, intdligent fue^ 



ia a white waJBt, girded by a leather belt, came oat from 

" Good moniiiig. Thaok you for having come," she 
began, the moment she had seated hetself on the sofa 
near Lfdiya. 

" Well, how ifl Vy^ra ? Have you seen her ? How 
does she bear her situation ?" 

" She does not complain," said Nekhlyiidov. " She 
says that she is in Olympian transport." 

" Ah, Yy^, I recognize her," said the aunt, smiling, 
and shakiDg her head. " One must know her. She ia a 
splendid personality. Everything for others, nothing for 

" That is so. She did not wish anything for heiseU, 
but was concerned only about your mece. She was tor- 
mented more especially because she had been arrested 
without cause." 

« That is BO," said the aunt, " it is a terrible affair I 
She has really suffered in my stead." 

" Kot at iJl, aun^," said lidiya. " I should have 
taken the papers even without you." 

"Permit me to know better," coatinued the aunt 
" Tou see," she continued, turning to Nekhlyiidov, 
"everything began from a certain person's request that 
I should keep his papers for awhile. As I had oo sepa- 
rate quarters, I took them to her. They made a raid on 
her that night, and took both the papers and her. They 
kept her all this time, and wanted her to tell from whom 
she had received them." 

"Bat I did not tell," lidiya said rapidly, nervously 
twirling a lock of hair which was not at all in her way. 

" I do not say yon did," her aunt retorted 

" If they did take Mftin, it was not through my fault," 
said Lidiya, blushing, and restlessly looking about her. 

" Do not even speak about it, lidocbka," said her 



" Let me tell about it," aaid lidiya, do longer smiling, 
but blushing, and no longer adjusting her lock, but curl- 
ing it about her finger, and looking all the time about 

" Tou know what happened yesterday when yoa began 
to talk of it" 

"Not at all — let me alone, mamma. I did not aaj 
anything, but only kept silent When he questioned me 
twice about aunty and about Mitin, I said nothing, and 
informed him that I should not answer bis questicua. 
Thai that — Petttiv — ■' 

" Petr6T is a spy, a gendarme, and a great scoundrel,'* 
interposed ibe aunt, explaining her niece's words to 

" Then he," continued lidiya, in an agitated and hurried 
manner, " began to persuade me. ' All you will tell me,' 
he said, ■ will hurt nobody ; on the contrary, by telling 
the truth, you will only free some innocent people whom 
we are tormenting for nothing.' I still insisted that I 
would not teU. Then he said : ' Very well, say notliing, 
only do not deny what I am going to say.' And he 
mentioned Mitin." 

" Don't talk," said her aunt 

" aunt, don't interrupt me — " and she kept pulling 
her lock, and looking f^l around her, "and suddenly, 
imagine, on the following day I was informed by knocks 
at the wall that Mitin had been arrested. Well, thought 
I, I have betrayed him. And that began to torment me 
so that I almost went insane." 

" And then it turned out that it was not at all through 
you that he was arrested," said the aunt 

" But I did not know it I thought I had betrayed 
him. I kept walking from wall to wall, and I could not 
keep from thinking. 1 thought I had betrayed him. I 
lay down, covered myself, and I heard somebody idiisper- 
ing into my ear, ' You have betrayed, you have betrayed 



Mftin, you have betrayed him.' I knew it was a halla- 
dnacioa, but I could not keep from listening. I wanted 
to fall asleep, and I could not. I wanted to keep from 
tbiuking, ai^ I could not. It waa bo terrible I" said 
lidiya, becoming more and more agitated, winding her 
lock around her finger, again unwinding it, and looking 
all around her. 

" lidochka, calm yooradf," repeated her mother, patting 
her hand on her shoulder. 

But lidiya could no longer stop. "It is terrible 
because — " she began to say, but ^e burst into aoba, 
without finishing her words, jumped up from the sofa, 
and, catching her dress in a chair, ran out of the room. 
Her mother went out after her. 

" These scoundrels ought to be hanged," said the gym- 
nasiast, who was sitting on the window. 

" What have yon to say ? " asked his aunt. 

"Oh, nothing — I waa just talking," replied the 
gymoasiast, picking up a cigarette, which was lying on 
the table, and lighting it. 



"YlS, for jctODg pec^le this aolitaiy confinement ia 
tenible," said the aunt, ahflkmg her head, and also light- 
ing a cigarette. 

" I think, for everybody ," said Nekhlyildov. 

" Ko, not for all," replied the aunt, " For real revoln- 
tionists, ao I waa told, it ifl a rest, a relief. These ill^al 
people live in eternal turmoil and material want and fear 
for themselves, for others, and for the cause ; and when, 
at last, they are wrested, all is ended, and they are re- 
lieved of aU reBp(Hisibility : all they have to do is to sit 
and rest themselves. X have been told that they really 
experience joy when they are arrested. But for youDg 
innocent people, — they always take innocent people, like 
lidochka, first, — for these the first shock is terrible. 
Not because you Eue deprived of liberty, because they 
treat you rudely, feed you badly, and because the air is 
bad, — in general, all the privations are nothing. If even 
there were three times as many privations, they could 
all be borne easily, if it were not for that moral shock 
which one experiences when arrested for die first time." 

" Have yon experienced it ? " 

" I ? I have been confined twice," said the aunt, smil- 
ii^ a sad, pleasant smile. "When I was arrested the 
fint time — and it was for no cause whatsoever," con- 
tinned she — "I was twenty-two years old. I had a baby, 
and I was with child. However hard my loss of liberty 
was, and my separation from my child and my husband, 
all that was nothing in comparison with what I felt when 
1 saw that I ceased to be man, and became a thing. I 


BBsmtBHcnov 431 

wanted to bid my child good-bye, and I was told to bnrrj 
to take my seat in a cab. I asked them whither they 
were taking me, and I was told I should find out when 
I got there. I asked them what it was I was accused of, 
and I received no reply. When I was undressed after the 
inquest and a prison garb wss put on me, I was given 
a number and taken to a vaulted room, and a door was 
opened, and I was poshed in, and the door waa locked 
after me, aud they went away, and only a sentry was left, 
who with his gan walked silently up and down, and now 
and then peeped through the crack in my door, — a 
terribly heavy sensation overcame me. I was paiticolarly 
struck at Ute inquest by the fact that the officer of the 
gendarmes offered me a dgarette. Evidently he knew 
that people like to smoke; he consequently knew that 
people like liberty and light ; he knew that mothers loved 
their children, and children their mothers; how, then, 
could they have pitilessly torn me away from everyt^ng 
which was dear to me, and have me locked up like a wild 
beast ? One cannot bear this without results. If one 
hae beheved in God and men, and that people love each 
othei. he will after that cease believing. I have quit be- 
lieving in men ever since that time, and have become 
furious," she concluded, and smiled. 

The mother entered through the door, through which 
lidiya had left, and announced that lidiya would not 
come in, as she was all unnerved. 

"Why should they ruin a young lifet It pains me 
more especially," said the aunt, " since I am the involun- 
tary cause of it." 

" With God's aid she will improve in the countiy,'' said 
the mother. " We shall send her out to father." 

" Tee, if it had not been for you, she would have be«o en- 
tirely mined," said the aunt. " Thank you. But I wanted 
to see you to ask you to give a letter to Vy4ra Efr^movna," 
she said, drawing a letter out of her pocket " The letter 



is not sealed. Too may read it and tear it ap, or tiaos- 
mjt it to her, wMcherer you. will find more in conformity 
with your convictioDB," ^e said. " There is nothing of a 
oompiomifling charactei in the letter." 

Vekhlyiidov took the letter, and, promising to transmit 
it to her, rose, and, bidding them good-bye, weot out into 
the street. 

He sealed the letter withont reading it, and decided to 
tranamit it to ite deetinaCion. 



The last affair which kept. Nekhlyildov at St. Peteraborg 
was the case of the sectariBDe, whose petition he inteDded 
to hand in to the Tsar through his former comrade in the 
BTmjr, Aid-de-camp fiogatyr^T. He went to see him la 
the momiDg, and found him at home at breakfast, though 
OD the poiat of leaving. Bogatyr^v was short and stocky, 
endowed with unusual physical strength, — he could bend 
horeeshoea, — a kindly, honest, straightforward, and even 
liberal man. In apite of these qualities, he was an 
intimate at court, and loved the Tsar and his family, 
and, in some admirable manner, knew, while living in 
that highest circle, how to see only its good side, and not 
to take part in aDytMog bad and dishonest. He never 
condemned men, nor measures, but edther kept silent, or 
spoke in a hold, loud voice, as though shouting, whatever 
he had to say, frequently bursting into just as load 
laughter. He did this, not for diplomatic reasons, bat 
because such was his character. 

" Now this is charming that yon have come. Do yon 
not want to breakfast with me? Sit down. Superb 
beefsteak ! I always begin and end with substantial 
things. Ha, ha, ha ! Come, have a glass of wine. I 
have been thinking of you. I shall hand in the petition. 
I shall pat it into his hands ; only it has occurred to me 
that it would be better for you first to see Topor6v." 

Nekhlyiidov frowned at the mention.of Topor<Sv. 

" All this depends upon bim. They will ask his opinion 
in any casa And maybe he himself will satisfy yoo." 

"If you 80 advise, I shall go to see him." 



"Very well Well, bow does St FeterBlmrg affect 
yoa ? " shouted 'Bogai,jT6v. " Tell me, eh ? " 

"I (eel that I am beooming hypnotized," said Ifekb- 

" Ton are becoming hypnotized t " repeated Bogatyrdv, 
laughing out load. " If you don't want to, all right" 
He wiped his month with a napkin. " So you will go to 
see him T Ah ? If he will not do it for you, let me have 
it, aud I shall hand it in to-morrow," he exclaimed, rising 
from the table, and, crossing himself with a broad sign of 
the cross, apparently as unconsdously as he had wiped 
his moutli, be began to gird on hia sword. " Now good- 
bye, I mnst be (^." 

" We shall go out together," said Nekhlyddov, delighted 
to {n«8e Bogatyr^T's strong, broad hand, and parting from 
him at the stops of his bonse, with the pleasant feeBng of 
somediii^ healthy, unconscious, fresh. 

Although he did not expect anything good to come 
from hifl visit, he took Bogatyr^v*8 advice and went to see 
Topor<5v, the person on whom the case of the sectarians 

TTie post which ToponSv occuined, by its very conatitu- 
\ tdon, formed an internal contradiction, to which only a 
man who was doll and deprived of all moral sense could 
be blind. ToponJv was posaeesed of both these oegative 
qualities. The contradiction contained in the poet held 
\iy him consisted in the fact that its purpose was to 
maintain and defend by external means, not ezclnding 
violence, that diurch which, by its definition, had been 
established by God Himself and could not be shaken either 
by the fiends of hell or by any human efforts. It was this 
divine and imperturbable godly institution that the human 
institution, over which Topor6v and his officials presided, 
had to support and defend. 

Topon5v did not see this contradiction, or did not wish 
to see it, and therefore he was seriously concerned lest 



some Roman Catholic priest, or Protestaat preacher, or 
sectarian destroy the Church which the gates of hell 
could not Tanquish. Topor6v, like all peopk deprived of 
the fundamental religious sense, and of the consdousnesa 
of the equality and brotherhood of men, was firmly con- 
vinced that the people consisted of creatures who were 
quite different from himself, and that the people were is 
dire need of that without which he himself could very 
well get along. In the depth of his sou], be believed in 
nothing, and he found sutJi a condition very convenient 
and agreeable ; hut he wafi in fear lest the people come to 
the same state, and so he considered it his sacred duty, aa 
he said, to save the people from it. 

Just as it says in a certain cook-book that loheters like 
to be boiled alive, so he was firmly convinced, by no means 
in a metaphorical sense, as it is to be taken in the cook- 
book, but in the direct sense, — and so he expressed him- 
self, — that the people like to be superstitions. 

He stood in the same relation to the religion which he 
was supporting that the poultry-keeper occupies in regard 
to carrion with which he feeds his chickens : the carrion 
is a very disagreeable business, but the chickens like to 
eat it, and so they must be fed on it. 

Of course, all these miracle-working images of tver, 
Eaz^, and Smolensk are a very mde idolatry, bnt the 
people believe in it and like it, and eo these superstitions 
must be maintained. Thus thought Toponjv, forgetting 
to reflect that the reaaon he thoQght the people liked the 
Buperstitions was because there have always been such 
crael men as he, Topon5v, was, who, having themselves 
become enlightened, used their light not for that for which 
they ought to use it, — to succour the people emerging 
from the darkness of ignorance, — but only to confirm 
them still more in it. 

As Nekhlyddov entered the waiting-room, Toporrfv was 
ocnversing in his cabinet with an abbess, a lively aristo- 



crat, who was Bpieading and auppoiting Orthodosy in the 
weatem countiy amidst the Uniates, who had been by 
force driven into the folds of the Orthodox Church. 

An official on special missirais, who was in the wni fting - 
room, asked Nekhlyildov about his business, and, having 
discovered that Nekhlyiidov bad made up bis mind to 
hand in the petitioo of the Bectarians to the emperor, 
asked him whether be could atX let him have the petition 
to read it over. Kekblyiidov gave it to him, and the ofBcial 
went with it into the cabinet. The abbess, in cowl, wavy 
veil, and trailing black skirt, having folded her white 
bands with their clean nails, in which she held a topaz 
roaaiy, came out of the Cabinet, and directed her steps to 
the entrance. Nekhlyiidov was not asked in yet. Topor6v 
was reading the petition and shaking his head. He was 
unpleasantly surpriBed, as he read the clearly and strongly 
fonnulated petition. 

" If it gets into the hands of the emperor, it might give 
rise to unpleasant questions and misunderstandii^," 
he Uiougbt, OS he finished the petition. The trouble was 
that the Christians who had departed from Orthodox; 
had been reprimanded and then tried before a court Of 
JQstace, but the court had acquitted them. Then the 
bishop and the governor decided, on account of Uie ille- 
gahty ot tiieir marriages, to deport the men, women, and 
children to different places. What these fathers and 
wives asked was that they should not be separated. 
Topor(5v thought of the first time the case had come to 
his notice. He had then wavered whether he bad better 
not quash the case. But there could be no harm in con- 
firming the decree of scattering the various members of 
the peasant families; their sojourn in the same places 
might have bad consequences on the rest of the popuIatioD 
in the sense of their defection from Orthodoxy ; besides, 
it showed the zeal of the bishop, and so he let the case 
take the course which had been given to it. 



Bat now, vitili sacli a defender as Kekblyifdov, wbo 
had ctomectioDS in St. Feterslnirg, the affair might be 
brou^t to the eniperor'B particular attention, aa something 
<aiiel, at it might get into the foreign newepapera, and ao 
he at once took an extraordinary stand. 
' " Good morning," he said, with the look of a very bufly 
man, meeting Nekhlyiidov while standing, and immedi- 
ately passing over to the affair. 

"I know this affair. The moment I looked at the 
names, I recalled that unfortunate matter," be said, taking 
the petition into his bands, and showing it to Nekblyildov. 
" I am very grateful to yon for reminding me of it. The 
governmental authorities have been a little too zealons — " 

Nekblyiidov was silent, looking with sn evil feeling at 
the motionless mask of the pale face. 

" I will order this moasare to be withdrawn, and these 
people to be restored to their places of abod&" 

"So I do not need to attend any further to the pe- 
tition ? " asked Nekhlyddov. 

"Certainly not / promise you dds," he said, witii 
especial emphasis on the word " I," bdng evidently 
quite convinced that his honesty, hit word, were the 
best guarantee. " I shall write at ODce. Please be 

He went up to the table and b^^ to write. Nekh- 
I}nidov did not sit down, but looked down upon that nar- 
row, bald skull, and upon bis hand with its latge bine 
veins, whidi was rapidly moving the pen, and wondered 
why he was d(mig it, and why a man, who seemed to be 
so indifferent to everytbing, did this thing with so much 
apparent anxiety. Why — ? 

" So here it is," said Toportiv, sealing the envelope. " You 
may inform your dienta of it," he added, compreeeing his 
lips into a semblance of a smile. 

" For what, Uien, have those people been suffering 1 " 
Nekhlyddov said, accepting the envelope. 



TopoFiJT raised Ua head and smiled, as though Nekh- 
lyiidoT's question afforded him pleasure. 

" That I am unable to tell yoa I can only tell joa 
that the interests of the people, over which we watch, are 
80 important that saperflnous zeal in matters of faith 
are not so terrible and dangerous as the superfluous 
indifference to them, which is now spreading." 

'■ But how, in the name of rdigion, are the first 
demands of goodness violated, and families broken 

Topon5v was still smiling in the same condescending 
way, as though finding Nekhlyiidov's remarks very 
charming. Whatsver Nekhlyiidov might have said, 
Topordv would have found charming and one-aided from 
the height of that broad consideration of state, on which, 
he thought, he stood. 

" From the standpoint of a private individual that may 
seem so," he said, " bat from the point of view of state it 
appears somewhat differently. My r^ards to you," said 
Topori5v, bending his head and extending his hand. 

Nekhlyiidov pressed it, and silently and huniedly went 
away, regretting the fact that he had pressed his hand. 

" The interests of the people," he repeated ToporiSv's 
words. " Your intereste, only yours," he thought, up(m 
leaving ToportSv. 

He mentally ran through the hst of persons against 
whom was exercised the activity of the institutions that 
reestablish justice, support faith, and educate the people, — 
the woman who was punished for the ill^al sale of 
liquor, and the young fellow for stealing, and the vagrant 
for tramping, and the incendiary for arson, and the 
banker for robbeiy, and also unfortunate lidiya, simply 
because it might have been possible to obtain the neces- 
sary information from her, and the sectarians for violating 
Orthodoxy, and Gur^vich for wishing & constitution, — 
and Nekhlyildov was suddenly struck with unusual force 



"bj the thoaght that all these people bod been artested, 
confined, and deported, not becauae they had all violated i 
justice, or committed lawleasness, bat only because th^ 
interiwed with the officials and rich people in their 
posBeeaion of the wealth whidi they were amassing from 

lliey were interfered with equally by the woman 
who was trafftckiDg without a license, and t^ the thief who 
was tramping through the city, and by LIdiya with her 
proclamations, and by the sectarians who were breaking 
down superstition, and by Gur^vich with his constituticm. 
And therefore it seemed quite clear to Xekhlyiidov that 
all these officials — beginning with his aunt's husband, 
the Senators, and Topoti^v, and coming down to all those 
petty, clean, and correct gentlemen, who were sitting at 
the tables in the various ministries -— were not in the 
least concerned about the suffering of Uie innocent people 
under such an order of things, but about the removal of 
all the dangerous elements. 

So that not only was the rule neglected which enjoins 
that ten guilty men be pardoned lest one innocent man 
suffer, but, on the contrary, jnst as it is necessary to cut 
out the healthy part together with the decay, in order to 
remove the latter, so they removed ten innocent people 
by meana of punishments, in coder to get rid of one guilty 

Such an explanation of all that was taking place seemed 
so vety simple and clear to Nekhlyildov, but it was this 
same simplicity and dearuess which made him hesitate 
in accepting it. It seemed hardly possible that snch a 
complicated phenomenon should have such a simple and 
terrible explanation ; it could not be that all these words 
about justice, goodness, laws, faith, God, and so on, should 
be nothing but words, and should shroud the coaraest 
selGahness and cruelty. 



NsEHLTtltDOv would have left that very evening, bnk 
he had promised Mariette to come to see her in the 
theatre, and, although he knew that he ought not to do 
it, he neverthelesB compromised with his sonl and went, 
considering himself bound b; his word. 

" Can I withstand this temptation ? " he thought, not 
quite sincerely. " I shall see for the last tim&" 

Havii^ put on his dress coat, he arriTed during the 
second act of the eternal " Dame am Camillas," in which 
the visiting actress showed in a new fashion how coo- 
sumptive women diet 

The theatre was filled. Mariette's box was at once 
pointed out to l^ekblyiidov, with due respect to the 
person who was asking for it. 

In the corridor stood a liveried lackey. He bowed 
as to an acquaintance and opened the door. 

All the rows of the boxes opposite, with the figures 
sitting there and standing behind them, and the near-by 
backs and the gray, half-gray, bald, and pomaded, fized-up 
heads of those who were sitting in the orchestra circle, — 
all the spectators centred their attention on the lean, 
bony actress who, dressed up in silk and laces, was con- 
torting herself and declaiming a monologue is an un- 
natural voice. Somebody was hissing as the door was 
being opened, and two streams of warm and cold air 
passed over Nekhlyildov's face. 

- In the box were Mariette and a strange lady in a red 
wrap and a large, massive coiffure, and two men : a general, 
Mariette's husband, a handsome, tall man, with a severe, 


BBSTmsEcnoN 441 

impenetrable, book-Dosed face and a broad, militaTy cbest, 
padded with cotton and atarcbed linen, and a ligbt-oom- 
plezioned, bald man, with a clean-sbaven, dimpled cbin 
between majestic side -whiskers. Mariette, graceful, slen- 
der, el^ant, d4collBt4, with her strong muscular aboulders, 
slanting from the neck, at the juncture of which with the 
shoulders there was a black birthmark, immediately turned 
around, aud, indicatii^ a seat behind her to NekblyiidoT 
with bar fan, smiled to him approvingly, gratefully, and, 
as be thought, significantly. Her busbajid calmly looked 
at Kekblyddov, as be always did, and bent bis h«id. One 
could see in him, in the glance which be exchanged with 
bis wife, the master, the owner of his beautiful wife. 

When the monologue was finished, the theatre shook 
with applause. 

Mariette arose and, holding her rustling silk skirt, 
went to the bock of the box and introduced her husband 
to Nekhlyddov. ■ 

The general kept smiling with bis eyes, and, saying 
that he was very gUd, grew impenetrably silent 

" I must leave to-day, but I promised yon," said Nekh- 
lyiidov, turning to Marietta 

" If you do not wish to see me, you will see a remark- 
able actress," said Mariette, replying to the meaning of 
his words. " Was she not fine in Uie last scene ? " she 

Her husband bent bis head. 

"This does not affect me," said Kekblytidov. "I have 
seen so many real miseries to-day that — " 

" Sit down and tell me about tbem." 

Her husband listened, and ironically smiled ever more 
vith his ^es. 

" I called on the woman who has been released, and 
who baa been confined so long : she is a crushed being." 

" This is the woman of whom I told you," Mariette said 
to her husband. 



" I was very glad that it was possible to release her," 
he said, calmly, diakiug his head and smiliDg quite irooio 
ally under his moustache, as Nekhlyiidov thought. " I 
shall go out to have a smoke." 

NekhlyildoT sat in expectation that Mariette would 
tell him that important thing of which she had spoken, 
but she said nothing and did not even try to say any- 
thing, but only jested and talked about the play whidi, 
so she thought, ought to interest him very much. 

Nekhlyiidov saw that she had nothing to tell him, but 
that she only wished to appear before him in all the 
splendour of her evening toilet, with her shoulders and 
turthmack, and he felt both pleased and annoyed. 

All that covering of charm, which lay over everything 
before, was now, as far as Nekhlyiidov was concerned, 
taken away, and he also saw what there was beneath that 
covering. He admired Mariette as ha looked at her, but 
he knew that she was a liar, who was living with a man 
who was making his career by the tears and hves of 
hundreds and hundreds of people, while all tJiia was a 
matter of indifTerence to her, and that eveiylimig she had 
said the day before was an untruth, and that she wanted, 
he did not know why, nor did she, that he should fall in 
love with her. He was both attracted and repelled by 
her. He made several attempts to leave, and picked up 
his hat, and again remained. 

But finally, when her husband returned to the boi, 
with die odour of tobacco on his thick moustache, and 
cast a coudescendingly contemptuous look at Nekhlyii- 
doT, as though not recc^oizing him, Nekhlyiidov left for 
the corridor, before even the door was closed, and, having 
found his overcoat, went away from the theatra 

On his way home along tbe N^vski Prospect, he in* 
voluntarily noticed in front of him a tall, very well built, 
and provokingly dressed woman, who was slowly walking 
over the asphalt of the broad sidewalk ; both in her 



face and in her whole figure could be seen die conscions- 
ness of her evil power. All the people who met her or 
came abreast wi^ her surveyed her form. Her face, no 
doubt painted, was handsome, and the woman smiled at 
NekhlyildoT, sparkling her eyes at him. Strange to say, 
Nekhlyiidov at once thought of Mariette, because he ex- 
perienced the same sensation of attraction and repulsion 
which he had experienced in the theatre. 

Walking hurriedly past her, Nekhlyiidov turned into 
the Morskiya Street, ajid, upcm reaching the shore, began, 
to the surprise ot the policeman, to tstroU np and 

" Just so she smiled at me in the theatre, as I entered," 
he thought, " and the same meaning was in that smile as 
in this. Hie ooly difference is that this one says simply 
and directly, ' If you need me, take me 1 If not, pass on.' 
WhOe the other pretends not to be thinloDg of it, bnt to 
live by some higher, refined sentiments, whereas there is 
no difference in fact. This one, at least, is telling the 
truth ; the other one lias. 

" More than that i this one is driven to her condition by 
necessity ; while the other one plays and dallies with that 
beautiful, repulsive, terrible passion. This streetr-walker 
is malodorous, dirty water which is offered to those whose 
thirst is greater than their disgust ; the one in Uie thea- 
tre is poison which imperceptibly poisons that into which 
it falls." 

Kekhlyildov thought of his connec^on with the mar- 
shal's wife, and disgraceful memories burst upon him. 
"Disgustii^ is the animality of the beast in man," he 
thought, "but when that beast in man is in its pore 
form, you surrey it from the height of your spiritual life 
and desjnse it; whether you have fallen or not, yon 
remain what you have been ; bnt when this animal is 
cmcealed beneath a quasi-«sthetic, poetical film and 
demands worship, then you become all rapt in it, and, 



worshipping the animal, do longer distiiiguiflli right from 
wrong. Then it is terrible." 

NekhlyiidoT saw this now oa clearlj as be saw the pal- 
aces, the sentries, the fortress, the river, the boats, the 
Exchange. And as there was no soothing, restful dark- 
ness upon earth in that night, but an indistinct, cheerless, 
unnatural hght without its source, even thus there was 
no longer a restful darkness lA ignorance in Nekhlyifdov's 

Everything was clear. It was clear that that which is 
considered important and good is bad and detestable, and 
that all that luxury and splendour conceal old, habitual 
crimes, which not only go without being punished, but 
are triumphant and adorned with all the charm which 
people are able to invent. 

Nekhlyildov wanted to forget this, not to see it, bnt he 
no longer could keep from seeing it. Although he did 
not see the source of the light which revealed all this to 
him, and although this light appeared to him indistinct, 
cheerless, and unnatural, be could not help seeing that 
which was revealed to him in this Ught, and he had at 
the same time a joyous and a perturbed sensation. 


Upon arriTing at Moscow, NekhlyiKdov fiist of all drove 
to the prisoD hospital to give M^lova the Bad news of 
the Senate's confirmation of the verdict of the court, and to 
tell her that ^e must prepare herself for the journey 
to Siberia. He had little hope in the appeal to hie Maj- 
esty, which the lawyer had composed for him, and whu^ 
he now took to the prison to have signed by Mtlslova. 
Strange to say, he did not desire any success now. He 
bad accustomed himself to the thought of joumeyii^ to 
Siberia, and of living among deported and hard labour 
criminals, and he found it hard to imagine how he should 
arrange his life and that of Mftslova, if she were ac- 
/^ quitted. He recalled the words of the American author, 
I Thoreau, who bad said, at the time when there was slavery 
\ in America, that the only place which was proper for an 
I honest man in a country where slavery is l^alized and 
\ protected was the jaiL Even thus Nekblyildov thought, 
/ particularly after bis visit to St Petersburg, and after all 
' be had learned there. 

\ " Yes, the only proper place for an honest roan in 
Russia at the present time is the jail 1 " he thought. He 
had this direct sensation, as he now approached the 
prison and entered within its walla. 

The porter in the hospital, recognizing Nekhlyiidov, at 
once informed him that MfUlova no longer was there. 
" "Where is she, then ? " 
" Again in the prison." 
" "Vniy hos she been transferred ! " asked Nekhlyddov. 



" They are euch a lot, your Serenity," said the porter, 
Bmiling coDtemptuously. " She started an intrigue with 
the assistant, eo the semor doctor sent her back." 

Nekhlyudov had not imagined that Mdslova and her 
spiritual condition could be so near to him. The newa 
stunned him. He experienced a sensation akin to the 
feeling which overcomes one when suddenly informed of 
some great misfortune. He felt a severe pain. The first 
sensation which he experienced upon hearing the news 
was that of shame. First of all, he appeared ridiculous 
to himself with his joyful expectation of her changing 
spritoal condition. All those words about not wishing 
to receive his sacrifice, and the reproaches, and tears, — 
all this, be thought, was only the cunning of a corrupt 
woman wishing to make the best possible use of him. It 
now seemed to him that at his last visit he had noticed 
the symptoms of that incorrigibility which had now 
become apparent. All tiiat flashed through his mind as 
he instinctively put on his hat and left the hospital. 

" But what am I to do now ? " he asked himself. " Am 
I bound ta her ? Am I not freed by this very deed of 
hers ? " he asked himseli 

The moment he put this question to himself, he imme- 
diately saw that, considering himself free and abandoning 
her, be would not be punishing her, as he wished to do, 
but himself, and be felt terribly. 

" No, that which has happened cannot change, it can 
only confirm me in my determination. Let her do what 
results from her spiritual condition, — even her intrigaes 
with the assistant are her own affair. My business is to 
do that which my conscience demands of me," he said 
to himseU. "My conscience demands the sacriiSce of my 
liberty fen tiie Kqoation of my sin, and my determination 
to marry her, even though in fictitious marriage, and to 
foUow her whiUier she may he sent, remains unchanged," 
he said to himself, with evil stubbornness. Upon leaving 



the hoBjdtal, he want with determined steps toward the 
lai^e gate of the prifion. 

At the gate he asked the officer of the day to tell the 
BapeTintendent Uiat he wished to see MfUIova. The offi- 
cer of the day knew Nekhlyddor, and, being an acquaint- 
ance, he informed him of an important piece of prison 
news. The captain had asked his discharge, and in his 
place was now another, a severe chief. 

" There are terrible seTehties {oactised here now," said 
the warden. " He is here now, and will be informed at 

The superintendent was really in the {vison, and sood 
came ont to Nekhlyiidov. The new anperintendent was 
a tall, bony man, with protruding cheek-bones, very slow 
in his moTemeota, and gloomy. 

"Interviews are granted only on stated days in the 
visiting-room," ha said, without lookii^ at Nekhlyiidov. 

" But I have to give her a petition to his Majesty to 

« Ton can give it to me." 

"I have to see the prisoner myself. I have been 
granted the permission before^" 

" That was before," said the superintendent, looUng 
cursorily at Nekhlyildov. 

" I have a permit from the governor," Nekhlyildov in- 
sisted, taking ont his pocketbook. 

« Let me see it," the saperinteodent kept saying, with- 
out looking at his eyes. He took the paper, which Nekh- 
lyiidov handed to him, with his dry white fingers, with 
a gold ring on gub of them, and read it slowly. 

" Please step into Uie office," he said. 

This time tjiere was nobody in the office. The super- 
itttendfflit sat down at the table, rummaging through the 
papers that were lying upon it, apparently intending to be 
present at the interview. 

When Nekhlyildov asked him whetiier he could not 



we the political priaoner. Miss Bogodifkhorski, Qm eapa>- 
intendeat cortl; replied that it was imposBible. " l^eie 
ate no intemeve granted vith political prisoners," he 
said, again burpng bimaeli in the reading of the papers. 
Having a letter to Mies Bogoddkhovsld in his pocket, 
Nekhlyttdov felt himself to be in the attitude of a guilty 
person Those plans were discovered and destroyed. 

When Mtblova entered the office, the superintendent 
lifted his head and, without looking at either Mftelova or 
Nekhljiidov, said, " Yon la&j I " and continued to huBj 
himself with his documente. 

MtCslova was dressed as before, in a white bodice, skirt, 
and kerchief. Upon approaching Nekhlyiidov and seeing 
his cold, unfriendly face, she grew red in her face and, 
fingering the edge of her bodice, lowered her eyes. 

Her emharroaement was to Nekhlyildov a confirmation 
of the words of the hospital porter. 

NekhlyddoT wanted to address her as at the previous 
meeting; but he wuid not, however much he wished it, 
give her lus hand, because she was so repulsive to 

" I have brought you bad news," he said, in an even 
voice, withont looking at her, or giving her his hand. 
" The Senate has refomd the appeal." 

"I knew it," she said, in a strange voice, as thoogh 

At any former time Nekhlyddov would have asked 
how it was she knew ; hat now he only glanced at her. 
Her eyes were full of tears. 

But this did not Appease him ; on the contrary, it mly 
provoked him still more against her. 

The superintendent arose, and began to walk up and 
down in the room. 

In Bidte of tbe disgust which Kekhlytjdov now felt tar 
M&lova, he felt that he must express his regret to htr 
for the Senate's refusal 



" Do aot lose yoor courage," he said, " the petition to 
bis Majesty may be successful, and I hope that — " 

" I am not concerned about it," she said, pitifully 
looking at him with her moist and squinting eyes. 

" About what, then ? " 

" You were in the hospital, and, no doubt, they told 
you — " 

" That is your aSair," coldly said Nekhlyiidov, frowning. 
The dormant onel feeling of offended pride arose in him 
with renewed vigour, the moment she mentioned the 
boepitaL " He, a maD of the world, whom any girl of 
the highest circle would consider herself lucky to manry, 
had proposed to this woman to become her husband, and 
she could not wait, but had to b^n intrigues with the 
assistant," be thought, looking hatefully at her. 

" Yon sign this petition," he said, and, getting a large 
envelope out of his pocket, he laid it out on the table. 
She wiped her tears with the end of her kerchief, and sat 
down at the table, asking him where and what to write. 

He showed her where and what to write, and she sot 
down, adjusting the sleeve of her right arm with her left 
hand ; he stood over her and silently looked at her bend- 
ing back, which now. and then was convulsed from 
repressed sobe, and in his sool struggled Uie feelings of 
evil and of good : of offended pride and pity for her 
suffering, and the latter feeling came out victorious. 

He did not remember what happened first, whether his 
heart felt pity for her, or whether he first thought of 
himself, his sins, his own villainy in that of which he 
accused her. But he suddetdy became conscious both 
of his guilt and of his [nty for her. 

Having ragned the petition and vriped her soiled finger 
on her s^rt, she arose and looked at him. 

" Whatever may be the issue of this, nothing will cbonge 
my determination," said Nekhlyiidov. The thought of 
his forgiving her intensified in him Uie feeling of pity and 


450 BEBUBBxcnoir 

teDdemees, and be wished to coDBole her. "I will do 
what I have told you I would. I shall be with yon, 
wherever yon may be." 

" In vaia," dta interrapted him, and all beamed with 

" Think of what you need for your journey." 

" I think, nothing apeciaL Thank you." 

The superintendent walked over to them, but Nekhlyit- 
dor did not wait for him to make any remarks and bade 
her good-bya He went out, experiencing an entirely Dew 
sensation of quiet joy, calm, and love for all men. Nekh- 
lyiidov was rejoiced to find himself elevated to such an 
unaccustomed height where no acts of Mislova's coold 
change his love for her. Let her have intrigues with the 
assistant, — that was her buainess, but he loved her nob 
for his own sake, but for hers and God's. 

The intrigues wit^ the assistant, for which Mdslova 
had been expelled from the hospital, and in the existence 
of which Nekhlyddov believed, consisted in this : at the 
request (rf the female assistant, she went to the apothecary- 
room, whidi was at the end of the conidor, to get some 
pectoral tea; then she found an assistant, Usdnov by 
name, a (aII fellow with a blistered face, who had loi^ 
been annoying her with his attentions ; in trying to escape 
from him, she poshed him so batd that he struck against 
a shelf, from which two bottles fell down and broka 

The senior doctor, who happmed to pass along the 
corridor, heard the sound of broken glass and called out 
angrily at MMova, who was running out, with her face 
all red. 

"Motherkin, if you aro going to start intrigues here, 
111 have you taken away. What is it t " he turned to the 
assistant, lookii^ severely at him over his glasses. 

The assistAnt smiled, and began to justify hinselt 
The doctor did not listen to all he had to say, but, tsis- 
ing hie head in such a way that he b^^ to locik throngb 


assnRBBCTioN 451 

hia glasses, went to the hospital rooms; he told the 
Baperintendent that very day to send him another attend- 
ant io Uislova's place, one that woold be more reliable. 

That was all there was to Mfolova'e intrigues with 
the assistant. This expulsion from t^e hospital, under the 
pretext of her having started intrigues with men, was 
particularly painful to Mdslova, since after her meeting 
with Nekhlyiidov all relations with men, distasteful as 
they had been, had become unusually repulsive to her. 
She was especially offended to see everybody, and among 
them the assistant with the blistered face, jndge her 
from her past, and from her present position, coosideriDg 
it proper to insult her and wondering at her refusal, and 
this provoked her pity tor herself, and tears. As she had 
come oat to see Nekhlyildov, she had intended to explain 
away the unjust accusation which, no doubt, be must 
have heard. But, as she began to justify herself, she saw 
that he did not believe her and that her vindication only 
confirmed his suspicion, and the tears rose in her throat, 
and she grew silenL 

M&slova was still under the impression, and she con- 
tinued to assure herself of it, that she had not fot^ven 
him and that she hated him, as she had expressed it 
to him at their second meeting, but in reabty she loved 
him, and loved him so that she involuntarily executed all 
his wishes : she stopped drinking and smoking, gave up 
coquetting, and had entered the hospital as an attendant. 
She bad done it all because die knew be wished it. The 
leasoD she so firmly refused to accept his sacrifice of 
marrying her, every time he spoke of it, was because 
she wanted to repeat the proud words which she had once 
uttered to him, bat chiefly because she knew that his 
marrying her could only make him unhappy. She was 
determioed not to accept bis sacrifice, and yet she was 
pained to think that he despised her, that he thought 
Uiat she continaed to be such as she bad been, and that 



he did not see the change which had taken place in 
her. She was more pained by the fact that he was con- 
vinced ahe had done something wrong in Oie hospital 
than by the news that ahe had finally been condemned to 
hard labour. 


MisLOVA could be Bent away with the first deportation 
party, and therefore Nekhlyiidov was getting ready for 
the journey. He had so many things to attend to, that 
he felt that do matter how much free time he ehonld 
have, he would never finish them. Everything was dif- 
ferent from what it had been before. In former days he 
had to think of what to do, and the centre of interest was 
always the same Dmitri Ivinovich Nekhlyiidov ; and yet, 
notwithstanding the fact that all the interests of life 
centred upon that Dmitri Iv^ovich, all these matters 
were oninterestii^; to him. Now, all bis basiness was in 
reference to other people than Dmitri Ivftnovioh, and 
they were all interesting and attractive, and there was 
plenty to do. More than that, — all the previous occu- 
patiooa and affairs of Dmitri Ivdinovich had always pro- 
voked annoyance and petulance, while these affaire of 
other people generally put bim in a pleasant mood. 

The affairs which at that time occupied Nekhlyildov 
were divided in three categories; he himself, with his 
customary pedantry, divided them in that mannei, ar- 
ranging them, in BCcordance with that division, in three 

The firat affair was in refenoice to MtiBlova and the aid 
to be accorded her. This consisted in bringing influ- 
ence to bear on the petition to his Majesty, which he had 
sent in, and in making preparations for ibe jonmey tc 

The Becond affair was in reference to his estates. In 
P^novo the land had been given to the peasants, on condi- 



tioD that the rental thereof was to he need for the c<nn- 
mon Qeeds of the village. But, in order to confirm them 
in their righta, he bad to write out and sign the condi- 
tions and testament. In Euzmfoskoe matters were left 
as he had arranged them, that is, he was to receive the 
money for the land ; so he bad to determine yet oo 
tiie periods of payment, and how mach of that money he 
was to take for his own use, and how much was to be 
left for the benefit of the peasants. As be did not know 
what expenses he would bave in tbe proposed journey to 
Siberia, he could not decide to give up tbis income, which 
was already cut down by half. 

Tbe third affair was in reference to the aid he wae to 
bestow on the prisoners who kept turning to him ever 
more frequently. 

When he at first came in contact with the prisoners, 
who invoked his aid, be at once set out to intercede for 
them, trying to alleviate their fate ; but later there was 
such a lai^ number of petitioners that he felt his in- 
ability to succour all of tbem, and so he was involuntarily 
led to a fourth affidr, which occupied him of late more 
than any other. 

This fourth affair consisted in the solution of the ques- 
tion what was, for what purpose existed, and whence came 
that remarkable institution, called tbe criminal court, the 
result of which was that prison, with the inmates of 
which he had partly become acquaintedj and all those 
places of confinement, from the Petropdvlovsk fortress to 
Sakhalin, where hundreds and thousands of victims of 
that to him wonderful criminal law were pining. 

From his personal relations with the prisoners, from 
the stories of the lawyer, the prison priest, the superin- 
tendent, and from the lists of those confined, Kekhlyiidov 
came to Uie conclusion that the composition of the pris- 
oners, the so-called criminals, could be divided into five 
categories. One of these, the first, coosiBted of entirely 



innocent people, victims of jndicial «rror, like the sas- 
'' pected incendiary Mensliijv, like M^ovft, and others. 

_ There were not very many of that category, — according 
^ */ to the priaaf B obserratioD, about seven per cent., bat the 
position of these people evoked a special interest. The 
second cat^ory consisted of people who were condemned 
for crimes committed under exceptional circumstanceB, 
such as excitement, jealousy, drunkenness, and so on, that 
is, crimes which would be, no doubt, committed by those 
who judged and punished them, if subjected to the same 
conditions. This category, according to Nekhliiydov's 
observations, was formed by more than one-half of all the 
/ criminals. The third was composed of people who were 
/ punished for doing that which, in their opinion, consti- 
tuted very common and even good acts, which, in the 
opinion (j the strangers who had written the laws, were 
crimes. To this category belonged people who secretly 
trafficked in liquor, who smuggled, and who mowed grass 
and picked up wood in the large proprietary and Crown 
forests. To this same category also belonged the thiev- 
ii^ mountaineers and such infidels as robbed churches. 

Hie fourth category was formed by people who were 
considered criminalfi only because tbey stood morally 
above the level of society. Such were the sectarians, the 
Poles, the Circassians, who rebelled for their freedom ; 
such were also the political prisoners, socialists and 
strikers, who were condemned for opposing the authtn^ 
ities. The percentage of such peopk, the very best of 
society, was, according to Kekhlyddov's observation, very 

Finally, the fifth cat^oiy was composed of people 
before whom society was much more guilty than they 
were before society. Those were the outcasts who were 
dulled by constant oppressions and temptations like the 
boy with the foot-mats and hundreds of other people, 
whom Kekhlyiidov had seen in the prison and ontnde 




the phscoi, whom the condicions of life STstematically 
lead to the anavoidable act which ia called a crime. To 
audi people belonged, according to Nekhlyiidov's obsei^ 
iretioD, very many tbieyes and murderera, with some €>t 
whom he luid during this time come in contact In this 
category he, having closely examined the matter, counted 
also all those corrapt and debauched men whom the new 
school calls a criminal type, and the presence of which in- 
society is r^^arded as the chief proof of the necessity 
for criminal law and punishment. These so-called cor- 
rupt, criminal, abnormal types were, in Nekhly^dov's 
opinion, nothing else than those other people, against 
whom society had sinned more than tJiey had sinned 
against society, but toward whom society was not guilty 
directly, but against whose parents and ancestors soci^ 
had sinned long ago. 

In reference to this latter point, Nekhlyiidov was 
struck, among these people, by the confirmed criminal, 
OkluStin the thief, the ill^timate son of a prostitute, 
the alumnus of a night lodging-house, who apparently, up 
to his thirtieth year, had never met men of higher moral- 
ity than that of policemen, who had early joined a gang 
of thieves, and who, at the same time, was endowed with 
an unusual comic talent, by which be attracted people 
to himself. He asked Nekhlyiidov to intercede for him, 
all the while scoffing at himself, at the judges, at the 
prison, and at all hiws, not only criminal, but also divine. 
Another was handsome FMorov, who, with a gang, of 
which he was the leader, had killed and robbed an old 
ofBciaL He was a peasant, whose father had been quite 
illegally deprived of his house, and who later served in the 
anny, where he suffered for falling in love with the mia- 
tiess of an ofBcer. He had an attractive, impassioned 
nature, and was a man who wished to enjoy himself at 
whatsoever cost, who had never seen any people who in 
any way restrained themselves in their enjoyments, and 



who had never heard that there waa any other aim in 
life than that of enjoyment. It was evident to Nekhlyti- 
dov that both were rich natures that were neglected and 
twisted, as ere rankly growing plante. He also saw a 
toamp and a womaD, who repelled him by their stupidity 
and seeming cruelty, but he could not briog himself to 
eee in them that crimioal type, of which the Italian 
school speaks, but saw only people in them who were 
persoDally repulsive to him, just as those were whom he 
had seen at large in dress coats, epaulets, and laces. 

So the fourth business which int^^sted Nekhlyiidov at 
that time consisted in the investigation of the question 
why these many different people were imprisoned, while 
others, just such people as these, were not only at liberty, 
but sitting in judgment over them. 

At first, Nekhlyiidov had hoped to find an answer to 
this question in books, and so he bought everything that 
touched upon this subject He bought the books of Lom- 
broBO, and Garofalo, and Ferry, and Liszt, and Mandsley, 
and Tarde, and carefully perused these books. 

But the more he read them, the more he was disap- 
pointed iu them. There happened to him that which 
always happens to people who turn to science, not in order 
to play a rOle in science, to write, to discuss, to teach, bat 
to get answers to straight, simple, living questions : science 
gave him answer to thousands of various extremely clever 
and wise questions, which stood in some relation to crimi- 
uolc^, but not to the question for which he was trying to 
find an answer. 

He propounded a very simple question : Why and by I 
what right does one claae of people confine, torture, deport, ' 
flc^, and kiU another, when they themselves are no better \ 
than those whom they torture, flog, and kill ? To which 
he received replies in the shape of reflections like these : 
Is man possessed of freedom of the will, or not ? Can a 
man be declared a criminal from cranial measurements, 



Knd BO forth, or not ? What part does beredi^ plaj in 
Clime ? Is tbere aa iunate immorslitj 1 What is moral- 
ity ? What IB ioBanity ? What is d^^eiatioD ? What 
ia temperament ? What influence on crime have climate, 
food, ignorance, suggestion, hypnotism, the passions 7 
What is society ? What are its duties ) and so forth. 
These reflections reminded Nekhlyddov of an answer he 
had once received from a small boy who was retoming 
from BchooL NekhlyiidoT asked the hay whether he had 
learned to spelL « I have, " replied the boy. " Well, 
spell ■ foot' " " What kind of a foot, a dog's ? " the bc^ 
answered, with a cutmii^ face. Just such answers in tha 
shape of questions Nekhlyildov fonnd in scientific works 
to his fundamental question. There was in them much 
which was clever, learned, and interesting, but there was 
no answer to the chief question : By what right do they 
punish others ? Not only was there no answer to it, but 
all discussions took place in order to explain and justify 
punishment, the necessity for which was assumed as an 
axiom. NekhljnidoT read a great deal, by snatdies, and 
he ascribed the abeence of an answer to this superfidid 
reading, ho^nng later to Sod a reply, and so he did not 
permit himself to believe the justice of the aoswer which 
of late presented itself to him ever more frequently. 


The party with whidi M&lova was to be deported was 
to start on July 6th. NekblyildoT was getting ready to 
leave on the same day. On the day before his departure, 
Nekblyiidov'a aister and her husband oame to town to see 

Nekhlyildov'a sister, Xatdlya Iv^ovita Bagozhinaki, 
was ten years older than her brother. He had partly 
grown up under her influence. She loved him very mndi 
as a boy, and later, just before her marriage, when ahe 
was twenty-five yeara old and he fifteen, they met almost 
like equalk She was then in love with bis deceased 
friend, Niktflenka Irt^nev. Both of them loved Nikfilenka, 
loving in him and in themselves that which was good in 
them, and which unites all people. 

Since then they had both become corrupted : he by hia 
military service, and she by het manyii^ a man whom 
ahe loved in a sensual way, but who not only did not love 
all that which had been most sacred and dear to her and 
Dmitri, but who even could not understand what it was, 
and ascribed all her striving for moral perfection and for 
servii^ people, which had formed the basis of her life, to 
vanity and a desire to excel among people, the only senti- 
ment he was capable of comprehending. 

Bagozhinski was a man without a name or fortune, but 
a very subservient ofEicial, who had managed to make 
a comparatively brilliant judicial career, by artfully steer- 
ing between liberalism and conservatism, making use of 
the one or the other of the two tendencies which at a 
given moment and in a given case gave him the best 



results for his life, and, chiefly, hj aomething especial by 
which he pleased the ladies. He was a man past his first 
youth, when he met the Nekhlyddova abroad ; he made 
Nat^ya, who was not very young then, tall in love with 
him, and marhed her, almost against hei mother's will, 
who saw a tiUsalliance in this marriage. 

N'ekhlyiidov, however much he concealed hia feeling 
fi-om himself and stru^led against it, hated his brother-in- 
law. He bad an antipathy for him on account of the 
vulgarity of Lis sentiments, his self-confident narrowness, 
and, chiefly, for the sake of his sister, who was able to 
love this barren mind so passionately, selfishly, and sen- 
sually, and, to please him, to choke all the good that had 
been in her. 

It was always an anguish for him to think that Nat^ya 
was the wife of that bearded, seli-confident man, with the 
shining bald spot on his head. He even could not repress 
a feeling of dif^st for their children. Every time be 
heard she was about to become a mother, he experienced 
a feeling akin to regret for having once more become in- 
fected from this man who was strange to all their interests. 

The Bagozhfnskis arrived without their children (they 
had two, a boy and a girl), and they stopped in the best 
room of the best hotel. Natftlya Ivinovna at once went 
to her mother's old quarters, but not finding her brother 
there, and leamiug from Agraf^a Petrdvna that he had 
taken furnished rooms, at once drove there to see him. A 
dirty servant, who met her in the dark, oppressive-smell- 
ing corridor, which bad to be lighted in the daytime, told 
her that the prince was not at home. 

Kat^ya Iv^ovna wanted to go to her brother's room, 
in order to leave a note there. The servant took her 

Upon entering his two small rooms, ITid^ya Iv&iovoa 
surveyed them attentively. She saw the familiar order 
and cleanliness in everything, but was struck by the 



suufdicity of the tuniishiiig, which was so nnasnsl for 
him. On the vrhting-desk she saw the familiar paper- 
weight with the bronze dog ; equally familiar to her were 
the properly placed portfolios and papers, and the writing- 
material ; and there were some volumes of criminal juris- 
prudence, and an English hook by Henry George, and 
a French book by Tarde, with a large, crooked ivoiy 
paper-knife between its leaves. 

She sat down at the table and wrote a note to hii% 
asking Mm to be sure and come to see them that very 
day ; shaking her head in surprise at what she saw, she 
returned to her hotel 

Two questione now interested Natflya Iv^novna in 
reference to her brother : hia mairi^e to EiitytEsfaa, 
of which she had heard in her town, as everybody was 
speaking of it, and his distribution of laud among the 
peasanta, which was also known to everybody, and which 
appeared to many to have a political and dangerous signifi- 
cance. For one reason, his intended marriage to Ka- 
tyilsha pleased Nat^ya Iv^ovoa. She admired this 
determination, and recognized him and herself in it, such 
as they had been in those good days before her marriage ; 
at the same time she was horrified at the thought that 
her brother was going to marry such a terrible woman. 
The latt«r feeling was the strouger, and she decided to 
use all her influence to keep him from it, although she 
knew that this would be difficult. 

The other matter, his distribution of the land to Uie 
peasants, was not so near to her heart, but her husband 
was incensed by it, and asked her to use her influence 
with her brother. Ign^i Niklforovich said that such au 
act was the acme of inconsistency, frivohty, and pride, 
that this act could only be explained — if there was 
any possibility at all of explaining it — aa a desire to 
show off, and brag, and make people talk of himself. 
" What sense is there in giving laud to peasants with the 



rental to revert to tliem ? " he said. "If he wanted to do 
it, he coold have sold it through the rural bank. There 
would have been some sense in that. Taken altog^her, 
this act verges on abnormality," said Ign^ti Nikiforovich, 
with an eye to the guardianship, insistii^ that his wife 
should have a serious talk wiUi her broUier about tiaa 
strange intentioa of his. 



When Kekblyildov returned home and found the note 
OQ bia table, be immediately went to see her. It was in 
the evening. Ign^ti Nikfforovich was resting in another 
room, and Natdlya Ivinovna met her brother alone. She 
was dressed in a black silk garment fitting her cloeely, 
with a red ribbon over her chest, and her black hair was 
puffed up and combed according to the latest fasbitm. 
She evideotly tried to appear as young as possible before 
her husband, who was of her ^e. When she saw her 
brother, she jumped up from the divan, and rapidly 
walked np to him, producing a wbistUng sound with her 
silk skirt. They kissed and looked at each other with 
smiles. There took place that mysterious, inexpressible, 
signifiiant exchange of looks, in which everything was 
truth, and there b^an ao exchange of words, in which 
there was not that truth. They bad not seen each other 
since the death of their mother. 

" Tou have grown stouter and youi^^," he said. 

Her Hps puckered with dehght. 

" And you look thinner." 

" How is Ign^ti Nikfforovich 1 " asked Nekhlyildov. 

" He is resting. He did not sleep last night." 

There was much to be said, but tiie words said nothii^, 
while the glances said that much which ought to have 
been told had been left nntold, 

" I was at your room." 

" Yes, I know." 

" I have left the honse. It is too large for me, and 



lone^, and dalL I need noDe of those things, so yon had 
better take them, the furniture, and all that" 

" Tea, Agraf^na Petr^vna has told me about it. I va« 
ther& I am very grateful to you, but — " 

JuBt then the hotel waiter brought a silver tea eervice. 
They kept silent as long as the waiter was busy about 
the service. Nat^lya Ivinovna walked over to a diair 
near a small table, and silently poured in the tea. Mekb- 
lyiidov was silent, too. 

"Dmitri, I know it all," NatcUya said, looking at him 
with determination. 

" I am very glad that you do." 

" Can you hope to correct her after such a life ? " she 

He was sitting straight, without leaning, on a small 
chair, and attentively listened to her, trying to catch all 
her meaning and to give her good answers. The mood 
evoked in him by his last meeting wi^ M&lova con- 
tinued to fill bis Bonl with calm joy and good-will to all 

" I am not after correcting her, but myself," he an- 

Kat^ya Iv^ovna heaved a s^h. 

" There are other means than marriage." 

« I think this is the best means ; and, besides, it takes 
me into that world where I can be usefuL" 

"I do not think," said Nat^ya Ivdnovna, "that you 
can be happy there." 

" It is not a question of my happiness." 

" Of course. But she, if she has a heart, cannot be 
happy, and cannot even wish it." 

" She does not wish it — " 

" I understand, but life — " 

" What about life ? " 

« Demands it." 

" It demands nothing but that we should do what is 



necessaiy," said Nekhlyiidov, looking at her face, which 
was 8ti]l beautiful, though already covered with small 
wriokles near the eyes and moutii. 

" I do not understand this," she said, witli a sigh. 

" Foot, dear sister. How could she hare changed so ? " 
Nekhlyiidov thought, thinking of Nat^ya as she was 
before her marriage, and drawn to her by a tender feeling 
made up of endless childish memories. 

At this time Jgaiti Nildforovich, bearing, as always, 
his head high, expanding his broad chest, stepping softly 
and hghtly, sparkling with his spectacles, bis bald spot, 
and his black beard, entered the room, smiling. 

" Good eveoing, good evening," he said, emphasizing his 
words in an unnatural and conscions manner. (At first 
after the marriage they had tried hard to say " thou " to 
each other, but tfiey had not succeeded.) 

They pressed each other's hands, and Ign^ti Nikiforo- 
vich lightly fell hack into an armchair. 

" Am I not interfering with your conversation ? " 

" No, I conceal from nobody that which I say and do." 
The moment Nekhlyildov saw this face, these hireate 
hands, and heard his condescending, self-confident voice, 
his meek spirit fled from him. 

"We were speaking of his intention," s&id NatcUya 
Ivinovna. " Sluill I give you a glass ? " she added, 
taking hold of the teapot. 

" Tea, if yoo please. What intention ? " 

"To go to Siberia with the party oE prisoners, among 
whom is the woman toward whom I consider myself 
gnilty," said Nekhlyildov. 

" I have heard that you intend not only to accompany 
them, but to do something more." 

" Yes, to marry her, if she wishes it." 

" I declare I If it is not unpleasant to you, explain 
your motives to me. I do not understand them." 

"The motives are that this woman — that her first 



etep on the path of immoralitj — " Nekhlyiidov was 
angry at himBelt for not being able to find the proper 
expression. " The motives are that I am guilty, and she 
is pomshed." 

" If she is panished, she, no doabt, is not guiltless." 

" She is absolutely innocent." Nekhlyildov told of iho 
whole ofTair with unnecessary agitation. 

" Yes, it is an omission of the presiding judge, and con- 
sequently a careleBsneas in the reply of the jury. But 
there is a Senate for such a thing." 

" The Senate has refused the appeal" 

" If it has refused it, there could not have beeu suffi- 
cient cause for an annulment," said Ign^i Xikfforovich, 
apparently sharing the well-known opinion that truth is 
a product of a judicial verdict. " The Senate cannot enter 
into the merits of the case. But if there really is an 
error of the court, his Majesty ought to be appealed ta" 

"That has been done, but there is no probability of 
success. They will inquire of the ministry, the ministry 
will refer it to the Senate, the Senate wiU repeat its ver^ 
diet, and, as ever, the innocent person will be punished." 

" In the first place, the ministry will not ask the Sen- 
ate," Igniti Niklforovich said, with a smile of condesceo- 
sion, " but will ask the court for the proceedings in the 
case, and, if an error is discovered, they will report accord- 
ingly ; and, secondly, innocent people are never punished, 
or, at least, only in exceptional cases. Only guilty people 
are panished," said Ign^ Nildforovich, leisurely, with a 

"I have become convinced of the opposite," said 
NekhlyiidoT, with an evil feehng for bis brother-in-law. 
" I am convinced that the greater half of those who are 
condemned by courts are innocent." 

" How is that t " 

" They are innocent in the straight sense of the word, 
just as this woman is innocent of poisoning, as a peasant^ 



'whose acqn&iDtance I have just made, is inuocent of mni^ 
der, which he has not committed ; as a mother and hes 
0011, who came very near being convicted, are innoceat of 
the incendiarism caused by the owner of the property." 

" Of course, there always have been and always will be 
judicial erroTB. A human institution cannot be perfect," 

" Then an immense number are innocent because, hav- 
ing been brought up in a certain circle, they do not regard 
their acts as crimes." 

" Pardon me, this is unjust. Every thief knows that 
stealing is not good," Igniti Nikfforovich said, with the 
same calm, eeU-confident, and slightly cuntemptuous 
smile, which irritated Nekhly^dov. 

" No, he does not. You tell him, ' Don't steal ! ' and 
he sees that the owners of factories steal his labour, re- 
taining his wages, that the government, with all its 
officials, does not stop robbing him, by means of taxea" 

" This is anarchism," Ign^ti Kikiforovich quietly defined 
the meaning of the words of his brother-in-law. 

" I do not know what it is ; I only tell yon what 
actually takes place," continued Nekhlyiidov. "He 
knows that the government robs him; he knows tjiat 
we, the landed proprietors, have robbed him long ago, 
by taking away his land, which ought to be a common 
possessiou ; and t^en, when he gathers twigs on that land 
in order to make a fire in his stove with them, we put 
him in jail, and want to convince him that he is a thief. 
He knows that he is not the thief, but that the thief is he 
who has taken away the land from him, and that every 
restitution of that which has been stolen is a duty which 
he has to his family." 

" I do not understand you, and if I do, I do not agree 
. with you. The land cannot help being somebody's prop- 
erty. If yon were to divide it up," b^^ Iga&ti KikiEoro- 
vich, with the full and calm conviction that Kekhlyddov 
was a socialist, and that the theory of socialism consisted 



in the demand tb&t the land be divided up in equal parts, 
and that euch a divisioD was very foolish, and he coold 
eanly prove its inoonsiBtencies, " if yon wen to divide it 
Dp to-day in equal parte, they will to-morrow pass back 
into the hands of tJie most industriona and able men." 

" Nobody inteodB to divide the land up equally. The 
land ought to be nobody's property ; it ought not to be 
the subject of purchase and sale, or of mortgaging." 

"The right of property is inborn in man. Without 
property rights there will be no interest in working the 
land. Take away Uie right of own^ship, and we return 
to the savage state," Ign&bi NiMforovich said, authorita- 
tively, repeating the customary argument in favour of the 
ownership of land, which is considered incontestahle, and 
which consists in the assumption that the greed for the 
ownership of land is a sign of its necessity. 

" On the contrary. The land will not lie idle, as it 
does now, when the propriet<He, like dogs in the manger, 
do not allow those to make use of it who can, and them- 
selves do not know how to exploit it" 

" listen, Dmitri Ivfinovich I This is absolutely sense- 
less ! Is it possible in our day to do away with the 
ownership of land ? I know this is your hobby. But 
let me tell you straight — " Ignfiti Xikiforovich grew 
pale, and his voice trembled; this question evidently 
touched him closely. " I shoiJd advise you to consider 
this subject cardoUy, before you enter on its practical 

" Are yon speaking of my own personal affairs ? " 

"Yes. I assume that we are all placed in a certain 
position, that we must carry out the duties which flow 
from this position, that we must maintain the conditions 
of existence under which we were bom, which we have 
inherited from our ancestors, and which we most tnuismit 
to our posterity." 

" I consider my duty to he — ** 


SESURREcnoir 469 

" Exdue me," IgnM Ifikfforovich continued, not allow- 
ing himself to be interrupted. " I &m not speaking for 
myself] nor for my children, who are securely provided 
for ; I am earning enough to live comfortably, and I sap- 
pose my children will not have to suffer; therefore my 
protest against your ill-advised actions, permit me to say, 
originates not in my personal intereste, bat becanse I 
cannot agree with you from prinGipl& I should 'advise 
you to ^nk abont them a little more carefully, and to 
read — " 

" Ton will permit me to attend to my own business, 
and to decide for myself what I am to read, and what 
not," said Nekhlyddov, growing pale. He felt his bands 
becoming cold, and that he was losing control of himself, 
so he grew silent, and began to drink tea. 



« How are the children 1 " Nekhlyiidov asked his sUter, 
after he bad somewhat competed huDBolf . 

She told him that they had bees left with their grand- 
mother, her husband'e mother. Happy to Bee that the 
diBCUBsion with her husband had come to an end, she 
h^ao to tell him how her childrea played travelling juet 
as he had done with his dolls, — one a negio, and the 
other called a FreDchwoman. 

" Do you remember that ? " said Nekhlyiidov, smiling. 

" Juet think of it, they are playing in precisely Uie 
aame manner." 

The disagreeable conversation was not renewed. Na- 
tflya calmed herself, but she did not wish to speak in the 
presence of her husband of that which her brother alone 
could understand ; in order to introduce a general subject, 
she mentioned the St Petersburg news that had just 
reached them in reference to the sorrow of Madame K&- 
menski, who had lost her only eon in the dueL Igniti 
Nikfforovich ezpreseed his disapproval of the order of 
things which excluded murder in a duel from the common 
order of capital crimes. 

This remark called forth a retort from Nekhlyildov, 
and there again flamed up a discussion on the same 
iJieme, where everythii^ was only half said, and both 
interlocutors did not express their full views, but per- 
sisted in their mutually condemnatory convictions, ^n^ 
Nikiforovich felt that Nekhlyiidov condemned him and 
despised all his activity, and he was anxious to show him 
the whole injustice of his judgments. Kekhlytidov again, 



independently of the umoyaDce he experienced from his 
brother-in-law's iaterference in his l^d affairs (in the 
depth of hia soul he felt that his brother-in-law and his 
Bister and their children, as his heirs, had a right to it), 
fretted because this narrow-minded man continued, with 
the groateet confidence and composure, to regard that as 
r^ular and legal which to Kekhlyiidov now appeared 
as unqueationably senseless and criminal This aelf-confi- 
dence irritated Nekhtyddov. 

" What would tlie court have done ? " asked Nekh- 

" It would have convicted one of the two duellists as a 
common murderer, and would have sent him to hard 

Nekhlyiidov's hands again grew cold, and he said, 
excitadly : 

" What would have been then 1 " 

" Justice would have been done." 

" As though justice formed the aim of a court's activ- 
ity," said Nekhlyiidov. 

" What else, if not that ? " 

"The maintenance of class interests. The courts, in 
my opinion, are only an adminiBtrative tool for the 
maintenance of the existii^ order of things, which is 
advantageous for our class." 

"This is an entirely novel view," Ign£ti Nikltorovich 
B^d, with a calm smile. " A somewhat different meaning 
is commonly ascribed to the courts." 

"Theoretically, and not practically, as I have had 
occasion to see. The purpose of the courts is the main- 
tenance of society in its present condition, and so they 
prosecute and punish equally those who stand higher 
than the common average, and who wish to lift it up, 
the so-called political criminals, and those who stand 
below it, the so-called criminal types." 

" I cannot agree with you, first, that all so-called poUti- 



cal priBonraa an punished for staading higher than Uta 
common avenge. They are chiefly outcasts ^ society, jiiBt 
as corrupt, although somewhat differently, aa tiioee crim- 
inal types, whom you consider to be below the average." 

" I know many people who stand incompeiably higher 
than their judges; all t^e sectarians sre moral, firm 
people — " 

But Ign£ti Nikftoiovich, with the habit of a man who 
ia not interrupted, when he is speaking, was not listening 
to Nekhlyiidov, uid continued to speak at the same time 
with Nekhlyiidov, which especially irritated him. 

" Not can I agree with your statement that the pur- 
pose of the courts is the maintenance of the ezistiug 
order. The courts pursue their aims, which are the 
conectioii — " 

" The correction they receive in jail is fioe," interposed 

" Or the removal," stubbornly proceeded l^utUi Nikffor- 
ovich, " of those corrupt and beastly people who threaten 
the existence of society." 

" The trouble is they do neither the one nor the oUier. 
Society has not the means for accomplishing it." 

" How is that ? I do not understand," said IgnAti 
Nikiforovich, with a forced smile. 

" I mean to say that there are only two really aensible 
punishments, those that were in vogue in ancient days, 
the corporal and capital punishments, which, on aocouut 
of the refinement of manners, are going ever more out of 
use," said Nekblyiidov. 

" This is new, and rather remu-kable from your mouth." 

" There is some sense in causing a man bodily pain, so 
that he may abstain in Uie future from doii^ that for 
which he has received the punishment, and there is good 
reason to chop ofT the head of a dangerous and hurtful 
member of society. Both these punishments have a 
sensible purpose. Bat what sense is there in locking up 



a man, who is cormpt through indoleooe and bad example, 
Bubjecting him to coDditions of secure and obligatory in- 
dolence, in company with exceedingly corrupt people? 
Oi to transport them at the expense of the Crown, — 
each coats more than five hundred roubles, — from the 
Government of Tilla to Irkiitsk, or from the Government 
of Kuisk — " 

" But the people are afraid of this journey at tlie 
Crown's expense, and if it were not for these journeys and 
prisons, we should not be sitting here as securely as we 

"These prisons cannot ensure our security, because 
these people do not stay there all the time, but are let 
out again. On the contrary, in these institutiims these 
people are mode acquainted with the highest degree of 
vice and corruption, that is, the danger is only increased." 
" Yon mean to say that the penitentiary system ought 
to be improved." 

" It cannot be improved. The improved prisons would 
cost more than what is spent on popular education, and 
would impose a new burden on the peopl&" 

" But the imperfections of the penitentiary system by 
no means invalidate the courts," Igniti NiMforovich con- 
tinued his speech, paying no attention to his brother-in-law. 
" These imperfections cannot be corrected," Nekblyildov 
said, raising his voice. 

" So, according to you, we shall have to kill } Or, as a 
statesman has proposed, we ought to put out their eyes," 
said Igniti Nikfforovich, with a victorious smile. 

" This would be cruel, but to the point. But that 
which is being done now is not only not to the point, but 
so stupid that it is impossible to understand how men- 
tally healthy people con take part in so stupid and cruel 
a business as a criminal court." 

"I am taking part in It," Igniti Nikfforovich said, 
growing p^e. 



*■ That ie your busiDeas. But I do not understand it." 

" I think there are many things which you do not 
understand," Ign^ti Nikfforovich said, in a trembling 

"I saw the aseociate prosecutor use all his endeavour 
at court to convict an unfortunate boy, who in any 
uncorrupted man ought to provoke nothing but compas- 
aion. I know how another prosecutor examined a sec- 
tarian and made out the reading of the Gospel a crimi- 
nal offence. The whole activity of the courts consists in 
such seueelesa and cruel acts." 

" I should not serve, if I thought so," said Ign^ Nikf- 
forovich, risii^. 

Nekhlyildov noticed a peculiar sparkle under the spec- 
tacles of hie brother-in-law. " Can it be tears ? " thought 
Nekhlyiidov. Indeed, those were tears of affront. • Ign^ 
Niklforovich went up to the window, took out his hand- 
kerchief, and, clearing his throat, b^an to clean his 
glasses, at the same time wiping his eyes. Upon retutn- 
ii^ to the sofa, Igndti Niklforovich lighted a cigar, and 
never said another word. Nekhlyddov was ashamed 
and pained at having grieved his brother-in-law and his 
sister to such an extent, especially since he was to leave 
on the next day, and would not see them again. He bade 
them farewell in embarrassment, and went home. 

" It may be that what I said was true, at least he baa 
not successfully answered me ; but I ought not to have 
spoken to him in such a manner. I have changed little 
enough, if I can allow myself to be so carried away by an 
evil passion, and so insult him and grieve poor Katflya," 
thought he. 



Thk party witii which MfUlova went was to atait from 
the station at three o'clock, and therefore, in order to eee 
them depart from tlie prison and to reach the station 
with them, Nekhlyudov intended to arrive at the prison 
before noon. 

As Nekhlyildov was putting away his things and his 
papers, be stopped at his diary and b^an to read some 
passages in it, and what he had last written in it. The 
last thing he had noted down before his departure for St. 
Petersburg ran as follows : " £atyiisha does not wish my 
sacrifice, but her own. She has conquered, and so have 
I. I rejoice in that internal change which I think — I 
hardly dare believe it — is taking place within her. 
I hardly dare believe it, bat it aeeme to me she is reviv- 
ing." Immediately after it was written : " I have passed 
through a very heavy and a very joyful experience. I 
have learned that she did not behave well in the hospital 
It gave me a sudden pang. I spoke to her in disgust jind 
hatred, and then I suddenly tiiought of myself and of 
how often I have even now been, in thought, guilty be- 
fore her of the very thing for which I hated her, and 
immediately I loathed myself and pitied her, and I 
was happy. How much better we should be if we 
mcceeded in time in seeing the beam in our own eye." 
On the last day he had written : " I saw NaUUya, and my 
contentment made me unkind and cross, and a heavy 
feeling is left behind. What is to be done ? With to- 
morrow a new life begins. Good-bye, old life, for ever. 



There is an accumulation of many impressions, bat I 
cannot jet harmonize them." 

Upon awakening on the following morning. Nekhlytf- 
dov'e first feeling was regret at what had hastened 
between him and his brother-in-law. " I cannot leave 
thus," he tiionght. " I must go to see them and smootii 
it over." But when he looked at his watch, he saw that 
it was too late, and that he bad to huny, in order not to 
miss the departure of the party. ^He quickly collected 
all his things and sent them by the po^te and by Tsiia, 
FediSsya's husband, who was tmvelling wib)} him, straight' 
to the station ; then he took the first cab ll^^ could get, 
and drove to the prison. S 

As the train of the prisoners left within two ho^M^ ^^^ 
express on which Nekhlyddov was to travel, he set^^ 
his bill at the hotel, not iotending to come back 8gain.^v 

It was an oppressive July day. The stones of the 
streets and houses, and th>i iron sheets of the roofs, which 
had not cooled off after the sultry night, reflected their heat 
into the close, immovable air. There was do wind ; 
whenever a breeze started, it wafted a hot and malo- 
dorous air, saturated with dust and the stench of oil- 
paint. There were but few people in the streets, and 
those that were out tried to wal^ in the shade of the 
houses. Only the tawny, sunburnt peasant stoeet-pavers 
in their bast shoes were sitting in the middle ^ the 
street and striking their hammers on the cobblestones 
that were placed in the hot sand ; gloomy pohcemeu, in 
unbleached blouses and with the orange-coloured ribbons 
of their revolvers, stood along the streets, sullenly chang- 
ing their places ; and the tram-cars, shaded by blinds on 
the sunny side, and drawn by horses in white capotes, 
with their ears sticking through the openings in die 
cloth, ran, tinkling, up and down the streets. 

When Nekhlyiidov reached the prison, the convoy of 



priamers had not yet started, and within the jail the trans- 
fer of the prisoners to be taken away, which had begun at 
four o'clock in the nomiog, waa still cauaii^ busy work. 
In the party were 623 men and eixty-four women. They 
had all to be checked off on the lists ; the ailing and 
feeble had to be segregated ; and they had to be handed 
over to the soldiers of the guard. The new superintend- 
ent, two assistants ot bis, the doctor, with his assistant, 
the of&cfflr of the guard, and the scribe were seated at a 
taUe, which was placed in the yard, in the shade of 
a wall ; on it were lying papers and appurtenances oS the 
chancery. They called out, examiaed, and noted down 
one prisoner after another, as they walked up to the table. 
The sun was now fallii^ over half the table. It was 
growing hot and extremely sultry, both from the absence 
of a ln«eze and from the exhalations of the throng of 
{viaonns who were standing there. 

" Will there ever be an end of it ? " said, pufGng at his 
cigarette, the tall, stout, red-faced officer of the guard, 
with his raised shoulders and short arms, who never 
stopped smokii^ through his moustache, which covered 
his mouth. " They are tirii^ me out. Where did you get 
such a lot of them ? How many more will there be ? " 
The scribe looked up the matter. 
" Twenty-four men more, and the women." 
" Don't stand there, but walk up here I " cried the 
ofGcet to the prisoners who hod not yet been checked off, 
and who were crowding each other. They had been stand- 
ing for three hours in rows, not in the shade, but in the 
SOD, waiting for their turns. 

This was the work which was goii^ on within the 
precincts of the prison ; without, at the gate, stood, as 
always, a sentry with a gun, and about twenty drays for 
the belongings erf tiie prisoners and for the feeble, and at 
the comer there was a throng of relatives and friends, who 
were waiting for the prisoners to come out, in order to see 



them, and, if posaible, to say a few words and give them 
Bometbing for their journey. Nekhlyiidor joined this 

He stood there about an hour. At the end of that 
time there was heard the clanking of chains within the 
gate, the sound of steps, the voices of the of&cere, clearing 
of throats, and the subdued conversation of a laige throng. 
This lasted about five minutes, during which the wardens 
walked in and out through a small door. Finally a com- 
mand was given. The gate opened with a crash, the 
clanking of the chains became louder, and the soldiers of 
the gufud, in white blouses and with their guns, came 
out and, apparently executing a familiar and habitual 
evolutjon, took up a position in a large semicircle around 
the gate. When they had taken their stand, another 
command was heard, and the prisoners began to come out 
in pairs : they wore pencake-shaped cape on their shaven 
heaids, and carried bags on their backs ; ^ey dragged along 
their fettered legs, swung their one free arm, and with the 
other held the bags over their shoulders. First came 
the male prisoners, who were to be deported to hard 
labour, — all of them wearing the same gray trousers 
and cloaks, with black marks on their backs. All of 
them — whether they were young, old, lean, stout, pale, 
red, black, bearded, mustachioed, beardless, Russians, 
Tartars, or Jews — came out rattling with their chains 
and briskly swinging their arms, as though going out for 
a long walk, but after making about ten steps they stopped 
and docilely arranged themselves in rows of four, one 
behind the other. After these, without interruption, 
there were poured forth from the gate just such shaven 
prisoners, without their leg-fetters, but chained to each 
other by handcuffs, and wearing the same kind of garh 
These were the prisoners to be deported for settlement. 
They walked out just as briskly, stopped, and also arranged 
tbemsdvea in rows of four. Then came those deported by 



the Gommnnes. Then the womeo, also In'succeflatTe order : 
first the hard labour coDvicte, in gray prison caftans and 
kerchiefs, then the deportation convicts, and those who 
voluntarily followed their husbands, in Uieir city and 
peasant attires. A few of the women carried babes in 
the folds of their gray caftans. 

With the women walked their children, boys and girls. 
These children pressed close to the prisoners, like colts 
in a herd of horses. The men stood olent, now and then 
tdearing their throats, or makii^ abrupt remarks. But 
the women chattered incessantly. Nekhlyiidov (bought 
he bad recognized MMova as she came out of the gate, 
but later she was lost in the large throng of the women 
who were placed back of the men, and he saw only a 
crowd of gray beings, which seemed to have lost all 
human, espetnally ail feminine, qualities, with their 
childrra and their sacks. 

Notwithstanding the fact that all the [oisoners bad 
been counted within the walls of the prison, the soldiers 
of the guard began to count them again, in order to see 
whether they tallied with the previous numb^. This 
recoontii^ lasted for a long time, especially since some 
of the prisoners kept moving about and confusing the 
counts of the soldi^s. The soldiers cursed and pushed 
the submissive, but angry prisoners, and began to count 
anew. After they had all been counted, the officer of 
the guard gave a command, and then there was a dis- 
turbance in the crowd. Feeble men, women, and children, 
trying to outrun each other, hurried to the wagons, where 
they deposited their bags, and themselves climbed in. 
Into them also climbed the women with the crying suck- 
ling babes, the cheerful children, who were contending 
for their seats, and grhn, gloomy prisoners. 

A few prieoaers doffed their cape, and walked over to 
the officer of the guard, to e^ him for something. 
Nakhlyildor later learned that they vrere asking to be 



allowed to ride in tiie wagonB. NekblyddoT saw Uie officer 
calmly puff at his cigarette, without looking at the 
speaker, and then suddenly lift his abort arm, as though 
to strike the prisoner, and the latter, ducking his head, ia 
expectation of a blow, jump away from faim. 

" I will make such a nobleman of you that yon will 
remember me I Yon will get tbere on foot ! " cried the 

The officer permitted only one tottering tall old man, 
in Ic^-fetters, to take a seat in a wagon, and Nekhlyiidov 
saw this old man t«ke off bis pancake-shapod cap and 
make the sign of the cross, as he was walking toward the 
wagon. He had a hard time getting in, as the chaina 
made it hard for him to lift his weak, fettered legs, and a 
woman, who was already seated in the wagcm, helped him, 
by pulling him up by his arms. 

When all the wagons were filled with the bags, and 
those who were permitted had taken their seats in them, 
the officer of the guard took off his xap, wiped his fore- 
head, bis bald pate, and his stout red neck with his hand- 
kerchief, and made the sign of the cross. 

" The party, mardi ! " he commanded. The soldiers 
clattered with their gone ; the prisoners took off their 
caps, some doing so with their left hands, and began to 
cmaa themselves ; the friends who were seeing them off 
called out something; the prisoners cried something in 
reply ; among the women weeping was heard, — and the 
puty, surrounded by soldiers in white blouses, started, 
raising the dust with their fettered 1^^ In front were 
soldiedTB ; behind them, clanking with their chains, were the 
fettered men, four in a row ; then came the deportation 
convicts, then the communal prisoners, handcuffed by 
twos; and then the women. After these followed the 
wagons with the bags and the feeble prisoners. On one 
of these, on a high liKid, sat a woman, who was all wrapped 
up, and who did not stop wailing and sobbing. 



The proceseion was so long that only when the men 
in front had disappeared from view, the wagons began to 
move. When these started, iNekhlyiidov seated fauuaelf 
in the cab, which was waiting for him, and ordered the 
driver to drive past the part.y, in order to see whether 
tiiere were no men among them whom he knew, and then, 
to find M^ova among the women and to ask her whetiier 
she had recdved the Uiings which be had sent her. 

It was very hot. There was no breeze, and the dust 
which was raised by a thousand feet hovered all the time 
above the prisoners who were walking in the middle of 
the street. They marched rapidly, and the dobbin of the 
cab, in which Nekhlyildov was riding, took a long time 
in getting ahead of the procession. There were rows and 
TOWS of nnfamiliar creatures of strange and terrible aspect, 
moving in even measure their similarly clad l^s, and 
swinging thdr free arms, as though to give themselves 
courage. There were so many of them, and they so re- 
sembled each other, and were placed in such excepticnal 
and strange conditions, that it seemed to Nekhlyildov 
that they were not men, but some peculiar, terrible beings. 
This impression was shattered by his espying, in the 
throng of the hard labour convicts, murderer FAiorov, 
and, among the deportation convicts his acquaintance, tlie 
comedian Okh<5tin, and another, a tramp, who had invoked 
his aid. 

Kearly all the prisoners turned around, eyeing the 
vehicle which vma driving past them, and Uie gentleman 



in JC, who WBB looking closely at them. F4doTOT gave 
an upward shake of the head in token of hie having 
recognized Nekhlyiidov ; OkhfStin' only winked. KeiCber 
the one nor the other bowed, considering this to be against 
the regulation. Upon coming abreast with the women, 
NekhlytSdoT at once recc^nized MfEslova. She was walk' 
ing in the second row. On the outside walked a red- 
faced, ^ort-l^ged, black-eyed, ugly woman ; it was Beaaty. 
Then followed a pregnant woman, who with difficulty 
dr^ged her legs along ; the third was M^ova. She was 
carrying a bag over her shoulder, and was looking straight 
ahead of her. Her face was calm and determined'. The 
fourth one in the same row was a young, handsome 
woman, in a short cloak and with her kerchief tied in 
peasant fashion, stepping briskly, — that was FedtSsya. 
NekhlyiidoT got down from the vehicle and walked over 
to the moving women, wishing to ask M^slova whether 
she had received the things, and how she felt ; but the 
ander-officer of the guard, who was walking oo the same 
side of the party, having at once noticed him, ran up to 

" It is not permitted, sir, to walk up to the party, — it 
is against the law," he cried, as he was coming up. 

Having come close, and rect^nizing Nekhlyddov (eveiy- 
body in the prison knew him), the mider-officer put Ms 
fingers to bis cap, and, stopping near N'ekhlyiidov, said, 
" Here \t is not permitted. At the station you may, but 
here it is against the law. Dont stop I March ! " he cried 
to the prisoners, and, trying to appear dashing, in spbo of 
the heat, galloped off in bis new foppish boots to his 

Kekblyildov walked down to the sidewalk, and, order- 
ii^ tbe vehicle to follow him, kept in the sight of the 
party. Wherever tbe procesedon passed it attracted stten- 
tioD mingled with compassion and terror. People in their 
carriagee put out their beads and followed the prisoners 



with Aedr eyee. PedestriaiiB stopped and looked in 
smazemeiit and fear at this terrible spectacle. Some 
walked up and offered alms. The soldiers of the guard 
received these gifts. Some followed in the wake of the 
processioii, as though hypnotized, and then they stopped 
and, shakily their heads, accompanied the party with 
thdr eyes only. People rushed out from the front steps 
and gates, calling to each other, or hung out of the win- 
dows, and immovably and sUeutly watched the terrible 

AA a cross street the party stopped the passage for an 
elegant carriage. On the box sat a broad-backed coach- 
maD, with a shinii^ face and a row of buttons on bis 
back ; in the carriage, on the back seat, sat a man with 
his wife ; the wife was thin and pale, in a bright-coloured 
hat, with a coloured parasol, and her husband wore a silk 
hat and a br^ht-coloured foppish overcoat. In front, 
opposite them, sat their children : a little girl, dressed up 
and shining like a flower, with loosely hanging blond hair, 
also with a bright-coloured parasol, and an eight-year-old 
boy with a long, thin neck and protruding shoulder-bones ; 
he wore a sailor hat, adorned with ribbons. The father 
angrily upbraided the coachman for not having passed in 
time ahead of the procession, while the mother finically 
blinked and frowned, shielding herself against the sun 
and dust with her silk parasol which she put close to 
ber face. The broad-hacked coachman scowled angrily, 
listening to the unjust accusation of his master, who had 
himself ordered him to drive by that street, and with 
difficnlty restrained the glossy bUck stalhons, lathered at 
their bits and necks, that were eager to start A pohce- 
man was very anxions to serve the owner of the el^ant 
carriage and to let him pass, by stopping the prisoners, 
but he felt that in this procession there was a gloomy 
solemnity, which could not be violated even for that rich 
gentlematL He only saluted, in sign of his respect for 



imlth, and etemlj looked at the priBoners, aa tboagh 
{oomisiiig under all (xoiditionB to p'otect the persons in 
the carriage from them. 

Thus, &e carriage was compelled to wait for the pass- 
ing of the whole processioD, aod it went on only when the 
last dray with the bags and prisoners upon it had gone 
by ; the hysterical woman, who was sitting upon the 
wagoQ, and who had quieted down, at the sight of the 
elegant carriage again burst out into tears and sobs. 
Only then the coachman lightly touched his reins, and 
the black chargers, tinkling with their hoofs on the pave- 
ment, whisked off the softly swaying carriage, with its 
mbber tires, into the country, whither the gentleman, and 
bis wife, bis girl, and the haj with the thin neck and pro- 
truding aboulder-bones were drivii^ for an outing. 

Neither the father nor the mother gave their children 
an explanation of what they saw ; thus the children were 
compiled to solve for themselves the questicxi what this 
spectacle meant. 

The girl, takii^ into consideration the expression of 
her parents' faces, came to tiie conclusion that these were 
very different people from what ber parents and acquaiot- 
ancee were ; that they were bad people, and that, conse- 
quently, they bad to be treated as they were. Therefore 
the girl felt terribly, and was glad when she no longer 
saw theoL 

But the boy with the long, thin neck, who did not take 
his eyes off the prisoners, as long as the procession went 
by, found a different answer to this question. He knew 
firmly and beyond any doubt, having learned it directly 
from God, that they were just such people as he himself 
and all other people were, and that, consequently, some- 
thing very bod had been done to them, something that 
onght not to have been done to them, and he was sorry 
for them and experienced terror both before the people 
who were fettered and shaven, and before those who had 



fettered and shaved tbem. And ao the boy's lips kept 
sweUiDg more and more, and he mode great efforts to 
keep from crying, aBsnming tiiat it was Bbunefol to weep 
nnder sadi drctuostanoea. 



NBKHLTlk)bv walked with as rapid a gait as Uie 
{irisoDers, but even thoi^ he was l^htly clad, and wearing 
a light overcoat, he felt dreadfully hot, aDd oppressed by 
the dust aud motionleBS sultry air in the streets. Having 
walked about an eighth of a mile, he seated himself iu the 
vehicle and drove ahead, but in the middle of the street, 
in the cab, he felt even warmer. He tried to recall his 
thoughts about his last conversation with his brother-in- 
law, but DOW they no longer agitated him as they had 
in the monuog. They were overshadowed by the impres- 
sions of the start from the prison and the procession of 
the prisoners. Above everything else, it was oppressively 
hot At a fence, in the shade of trees, two students of 
the Real Crymnasium were standing with their caps off, 
before a squatting ice-cream seller. One of the boys was 
already enjoying the feast, licking off Uie bone spoon, 
while the other was waiting for the glass to be filled to 
the top with something yellow. 

" I wonder where I can get a drink here ? " NekUyiidov 
asked the cabman, being overcome by irrepressible thirst. 

" There is a good inn not far from here ! " said the 
driver, 'and, turning around the, comer, he took Nekh- 
lytldoT to a building with a large sign. A puffy clerk in 
ft shirt, who was standing back of the counter, and 
waiters, who had once looked clean and white and who 
were now sitting at the tables, as there were no guests 
present, looked with curiosity at the unusual guest and 
offered their services to him. Nekhlyildov asked for 
seltzer water, and sat down a distance away from the 




window, at a small table witii a dirty cloth. Two mea 
were sitting at a table, on which stood a tea service and 
a bottle of white glass. They kept wijttng off the perspi- 
ration from their brows, and figuring at sometiiing in a 
peaceable manner. One of these was swarthy and bald- 
headed, with just such a border of black hair on the back 
of his head as Igufiti Nildforovich had. This impression 
again reminded Vekhlyudov of his convetsation with his 
brotbeiviD-law on the previous day, and of his desire to 
see him and his sister before his departure. "I shall 
hardly have enough time before the train leaves," he 
thought. " I had better write her a letter." He asked 
for paper and an envelope, and a stamp, and, sipping t^e 
fresh, effervescent water, was thinking what to write. But 
his dionghts were distracted, and he was unable to com- 
pose tiie letter. 

" Dear Natflya, — I cannot leave under the heavy 
impression of yesterday's conversation with Igniti Nikf- 
forovich," he began. " What next 1 Shall I ask foi^ve- 
ness for what I said yesterday ? But I said what I 
thought. And he will imagine that I recant. No, I can- 
not — " and, feeling again a rising hatred for tiiia, to 
bim, strange, self-confident man, who did not understand 
him, Nekhlyiidov put the unfinished letter in his pocket 
and, paying for what he had used, went out into the 
Btaeet, and told the driver to catdi up with the party. 

The heat had become even more intense. The walls 
and stones seemed to exhale hot air. The feet burnt 
against the heated pavement, and Nekblyildov felt as 
though he burnt his hand when he put it to the lacquered 
wing of the vehicle. 

^e horse dragged himself along the streets in an in- 
different amble, evenly striking the dusty and aneven 
pavement with his hoofs ; the cabman kept dozing off ; 
Kekblytidov sat, thinking of nothing in particular and 
looking indifferently in ^ont of bim. At a turn tt tiie 



Btroet, opposite the gate of a large house, stood a throng 
of people aud a soldira of the guard with his gun. 

Nekblyiidov stopped the cab. 

" What is it I " he asked a janitoT. 

" Something the matter with a piieoner." 

Nekhlyiidov left the vehicle and walked up to ^e 
crowd. On the uneven stones of the inclined pavement, 
near the sidewalk, lay, with hia head lower than bis feet, 
a broad-shouldered, middle-aged prisoner, with a red beard, 
red face, and flat nose, in a gray cloak and gray trousers. 
He lay on his back, stretching out his freckled hands, 
with tiieir palms down, and at long intervals evenly 
heaved his broad, high chest and sobbed, looking at the 
sky with his staring, bloodshot eyes. Over him stood a 
frowning policeman, a peddler, a letter-carrier, a clerk, an 
old woman with a parasol, and a short-haired boy with an 
empty basket. 

" He has grown weak sitting in jail, qtute feeble, — and 
they take him through a very hell," the clerk condemned 
somebody, turning to Nekhlyiidov, who had striped up. 

" He will, no doubt, die," said the woman with the 
parasol, in a tearful voice. 

" You ought to untie his shirt," said the letter-carrier. 

The policeman began with trembling, stout fingeia 
awkwardly to loosen the tape on his venous, red neck. 
He was apparently agitated and embarrassed, but, never- 
theless, he deemed it necessary to address the crowd. 

" Why have you gathered there ? It ia hot enough 
even without you. You are ctttting off Uie breeze." 

" The doctor ooght to inspect the weak and keep ibam 
back. Instead, they have taken a man who is half-dead," 
said the clerk, evidently displaying his knowledge of the 
law. Having untied the tape of the shirt, the policenum 
straightened himself up and looked about him. 

" Step aside, I say. It is none of your busineas. What 
is iheie to be seen here ? " be said, turning with a glance 



of oompaaedon to Nekhlyildov, bat not getting aoy aym- 
paUiy from him, he looked at the soldier of the guaid. 
But the Boldiei was standing to one side, and, examining 
the wom-off heel of his boot, was quite indifferent to the 
trouble the policeman was in. 

" People who know b^ter don't take the proper trouble, 
la it right to kill a man that way 1 " 

" A prisoner is a prisoner, but still he is a man," some- 
body remarked in the crowd. 

" Put his head higher, and give him some water," said 

" They have gone to bring some," said the policeman, 
and, talung the prisoner under his arms, wiUi difficulty 
raised his body. 

" What is this gathering for ? " suddenly was heard a 
commanding voice, and to the crowd collected around the 
prisoner strode with rapid steps a sergeant of police, in an 
exceedingly cleao and shining blouse and even more shin- 
ing Icmg boots. 

« Move on I You have no business standing here 1 " he 
cried to the crowd, before he knew what they were doing 
there. When he came close and saw the dying prisoner, 
be nodded his head approvingly as though he had ex- 
pected Uiat very thing, and turned to the policeman. 

" What is the matter ! " 

The policeman informed him that a party of prisoners 
bad walked past, and that he had fallen down, and the 
officer of the guard left him there. 

" Well, take him to the station. Qet a cab I " 

" A janitor has run to fetch one," said the policeman, 

The clerk began to say something about the heat. 

" That is not your business, is it ? Walk along," ex- 
claimed the sergeant, looking so sternly at the clerk that 
be grew silent. 

"You ou^t to give him some water to drink," said 



Nekhlyddov. The se^eant looked as stonily at Nekhlyii- 
doT, without aaying anything. When a janitor bnm^^ 
some water in a cup, he ord^ed the policeman to give it 
to the prieoner. The policeman raised the man's listless 
bead, and tried to poor the water into his mouth, but the 
prisoner would not take it ; the water streamed down his 
beard, wetting the blouse and the dusty hempen shirt on 
his chest. 

" Four it out on his head ! " commanded the sergeant, 
and the pobceman took off his pancake-ehaped cap, and 
poured out the water on his red curly hair and bare ekuU. 
The prisouer's eyes opened wide, as though frightened, 
but the position of his body did not changa Down Ms 
face trickled dirty streams, but the same sobs escaped 
from his mouth, and his body kept jerking convulsively. 

" What about this one ? Take it," the sergeant ad- 
dressed the policeman, pointing to NekhlyddoVs calx 
" Ho there, come along I " 

" I am hired," gloomily said the driver, without raising 
his eyea. 

"This ia my cab," said Xekhlyiidov, "bat yon may 
take it. I shall pay for it," he added, turning to t^ 

" Don't stand here ! " cried the sergeant. " Move on ! " 

The policeman, some janitors, and the soldier raised 
tiie dying man, carried him to the vehicle, and placed him 
on the seat. He could not hold himself ; his head fell 
back, and his body slipped off the seat. 

" Lay him down," commanded the sergeant. 

" Never mind, your Honour. I will take him down," 
said the policeman, firmly seatii^ himself at the side of 
the dying man and putting his strong right hand under 
his arm. 

Ilie soldier lifted his feet, which were clad in prison 
shoes without 1^-raga, and straightened them out aoder 
the box. 



The sergeant looked about him, and, noticuig on the 
pavement the prisoner's paacake-shaped cap, lifted it and 
pot it on his dirty, flabbily hanging head. ■* March I " he 

The cabman looked back angrily, shook his head, and, 
accompanied "by the soldier, Jowly moved toward the 
police station. Hie policeman, who was sitting with 
the prisoner, kept adjusting the slipping body, with its 
head shaldng in all directions. The soldier, who was 
walking near by, stuck the feet back xa&et the box. 
I7ekhlytidoT waBied behind him. 



Pabsinq by a aentry of the fire-br^ade, the cab with 
the prisoner droye into the yard of the police atatioi and 
stopped before a building. 

In the' yard, firemen, with rolled-up sleerea, were con- 
versing aloud and laughing, while washing a wagon. 
The moment the cab stopped, several policemen aui- 
rounded it, took the lifeless body of the prisoner under 
his arms and by his l^s, and raised him from the squeak- 
ing vehicle, llie policeman who had brought him jumped 
down from the cab, waved his stiffened arm, doffed his 
cap, and made the sign of the cross. The dead man was 
carried tiirough the door up-atairs. Nekhlyiidov followed 
them. In the small dirty room, to which the body was 
carried, Uiere were four cots. Two sick men in cloaks 
were sitting on two of them, — one, a wry-mouthed fellow 
with his neck wrapped up, and the other, a consumptive 
va&a. Two cota were unoccupied. The prisoner was 
placed on one of these. A small man, with sparkling 
eyes and continually moving brows, in nothing bnt his 
underwear and stockings, walked over to the prisoner 
with soft, rapid steps, looked at him, then at Nekhlyildov, 
and burst out laughing. 

Tbis was an insane person who was kept in the wa^ 

"They want to frighten me," be said. "Only, they 
won't succeed." 

Soon after the policemen, who had brought in the body, 
came the sergeant and a surgeon's assistant 

The assistant walked up to the prisoner, touched ttie 



coU. yellow, freckled, stQl aoft, bat deathly pale hand of 
the man, hdA it awhile, and then dropped it It fell 
lifeleedy upon the dead man's abdomen. 

"He is dcHie with," said the assistant, shaking his 
head, bnt, apparently to comjdy witii the rolefi, he poahed 
aside the wet, coarse shirt of the dead man, and, bnuhing 
his curly hair away from his ear, leaned over the pris- 
oner's yellowish, immovable, hi^ breast. Everybody 
was sOent The assistant arose, again shook hlB head, 
and put his finger, now on one, now on Uie other lid of the 
open and storing blue eye& 

" You will not frighten me, you will not frighten m^" 
said the insane man, all the time spitting out in the 
diiectitH) of the asedstant 

" Well J " asked the sergeant 

"Well?" repeated the assistant "He on^ to be 
takes to the dead-house." 

" Be sure it is so I " said the sergeant 

" It is time I should know," said the assistant, for 
soma reason coverii^ the dead man's open breast "I 
shall send for Matvy^y Ivinyoh, and let him take a look. 
Fetr6v, go for him," said the asBistant, walking away 
from the body. 

" Garry him to the dead-house," said ibe sergeant 
* You come to the chancery, and sign a receipt," he added 
to the soldier of the guard, who all Hub time stuck 
closely to the prisoner. 

" Yes, sir," replied the soldier. 

The policemen lifted the dead man and carried him 
down-stairs. Nekhlyiidov wanted to follow thent, bnt 
the insane person sb^ped him. 

" ¥oa are not in the conspiracy, so give me a dga- 
r^te," he said. Kekhlyiidov took out his cigarette-holder, 
and gave him one. The insane man, moving his eye- 
brows, began to speak rapdly and to tell him that they 
tortored Mm with suggestions. 



" The^ Bie all against me, and they torment me thioogh 
theii medinma — " 

** Pardon me " said Nekhlytidov, and, without waitang 
to hear what he had to say, vent oaL He wanted to 
know whither they would taiie the hody. 

The policemen had already cn»Bed tha yard with thair 
burden, and were about to walk down into a basement. 
NekhlyildoT wanted to walk up to them, but the sei^ieant 
stopped hiin. 

" What do you want ? " 

" Nothing," said NekhlyddoT, 

" If nottmig, step aside." 

NekhlyifdoT obeyed and went back to his oab. The 
driver waa dozing. Nekhlyddov woke him, and again 
started foi the r^way station. 

He had not gone one hundred steps, when he came to 
a dray accompanied by a soldier with his gun, on which 
another prisoner, apparently dead, was lying. The pris> 
ooer was on his back, and his shaven heaJi, with its black 
heard, covered by the pancakeHBhaped cap, which had 
slipped down to ha noee, shook and tossed at evety jolt of 
the wagon. The drayman, in stout boots, gnided the horae, 
walking ai, its aida Back of the wagon walked a police- 
man. Nekhlyiidov touched his driver's shoulder. 

" Terrible things they are dcing ! " said the driver, 
stopping his horse. 

KekMyiidov climbed down bom his vehicle, and fol- 
lowed the dray, again past the sentry of the fire-brigade, 
to the yard of the pohce station. The firemen had 
finished washing the wagon, and in their place stood a 
tall, bony fiie-captain, in a visoriess cap. He stuck his 
hands in his pocket and was sternly looking at a fat, 
stout-nected dun stallion, which a fireman was leading 
up and down in front of faim. He was lame on his fore 
leg, and the fire-captain was angrily saying something to 
the veterinary sui^eon, who was standiiig near Imn. 



The seiigeant of pdice was there, toa Upon Dotidiig 
another dead man, he walked over to the dray. 

"Where did 70a pick him up?" be asked, disapprov- 
iogly ahaking hiB head. 

" On the Old Gorb&OTskaya " answered the policeman. 

" A prisoner 1 " asked the fiie-eaptain. 

" Tes, sir. This is the second tcnlaj," said the sei^eant 
<A police. 

"A fine wayl And the heatl" said the fire-captain, 
and, taming to the fireman, who was leading away the 
lame don stallion, he cried : " Put him in the comer Btall 1 
I will teach you, son of a dog, how to maim horses that 
ate worth more than you are, yon rascal I " 

The pohcemen lifted the body, just as they had the one 
before, and carried it to the waiting-room. ITekhlyiidov 
followed them, as though hypnotized. 

"What do you wish?" one of the policemen asked 

He went, without answering, to the place where they 
were carrying the dead man. 

The insane man was sitting od a cot, eagerly smokii^ 
the dgarette which Nekhlyildov had given bim. 

"Ah, you have come back," he said, lai^hing ont load. 
Upon seeing the deed man, he scowled. " Again," he 
eaid. " I am tired of thenL I am not a hoy, am I f " 
he tamed to Kekhlyiidov, with a questioning smile. 

If ekhlyddov was, in the meantime, looking at the dead 
man, around whom nobody was standing, and whose face, 
covered by the cap before, was now pl^ly visible. As 
the first prisoner had been ugly, so this one was onusnally 
handsome in body and face. He was a man in the fnU 
bloom of his strength. In spite of the disfigored, half- 
shaven head, the low, abrupt forehead, wiUi elevatims 
above the black, now lifeless eyes, was very beautiful, and 
so was the small, slightly curved nose above the thin, 
blat^ moast8ch& The h^ lips were drawn back into a 



smile ; a small beard fringed otdj Uie lower part of t^s 
bee, asd on the shaven side of the skull could be seea a 
small, firm, and handsome ear. 

The face bad a calm, serere, and good ex^eaaion. Let 
altme the fact that it was evident from his face what poB> 
sibilities of spiritual life bad been lost in this man, one 
conld see, hj the strong muscles of his well-proportioned 
limbs, what a handsome, strong, agile human aoimal he 
bad been, — in its way a much more perfect animal than 
(hat dnn stallion, whose lameness so angered the fire- 
captain. And jet, he died, and no one pitied him, neither 
as a man, nor even as bd nofortmiately mined beast of 
burden. The only feeling which had been evoked in 
people by his deatii was the feeling of amioyanoe caaeed 
by the necessity of disposing of this rapidly decaying body. 

The doctor, the assistant, and a captain of police entered 
the waitii^-room. The doctor waa a thick-set, stocky 
man, in a China silk frock cotU;, and narrow pantalocms 
of the same material, that fitted closely over his mus- 
cnlar loins. The captain was a stout little man, with a 
globe-shaped red face, which grew rounder still from hia 
habit of filling his cheeks with air and slowly emitting it. 
The doctor sat down od the cot on which the dead man 
lay, and, just as Qie assistant had done, he toacbed the 
buids, listened for the heart-beat, and aroae, adjnstii^ his 

" Th^ are never deader," he said. 

The captain filled his cheeks with air and slowly 
emitted it 

" From what prison ? " he turned to ihe soldier. 

The soldier answered him, and reminded him of tha 
fetters, which were on the dead man. 

'■ I shall order ttiem to be taken off. Thank the L(»d 
there are blacksmiths," said the captain, and, again puffing 
up his cheeks, he went to the door, slowly letting oot 
the air. 



" Why is this so ? " NekhlTiidov tunied to die doctor. 

The doctor looked at him above hia spectaclee. 

" Why is what eo ? Why do they die from Bimstroke ? 
It IB like this: they are locked up all winter, withoat 
motion or li^t, aod suddenly they are let out in the son, 
and on sadt a day as this ; then they walk in such 
crowds, where there is no breeze. And Uie result (^ it is 
a saustooke.'' 

" Why, then, do they send them out ? " 

" Ton ask \i^em ! But who are you, anyway t " 

" I am a private individnaL" 

" Ah ! — My regards to you, I am busy," said the doc- 
tor, and, angrily palling his trouaers in shape, he walked 
over to the cots of the patienta. 

" Well, how goes it with you ? " he turned to the wry- 
mouthed, pale man, with neck all wrapped up. 

The insane man, in the meantime, was sitting cm his 
cot and spitting in the direction of the doctor, after he got 
through with his cigarette. 

Nekhlyiidov went out into the yard, and, past the fire- 
iHTgade'B horses and chickens, and the sentry in a brass 
helmet, walked through the gate, where he seated himself 
in his cab, the driver of which was again asleerp, and had 
himself driTeu to the railway station. 

by Google 

TVV Vni, 

Whbk Kekhlyiidov reached the ststum, the priaonaH 
were already eitting in cars, behind grated vrindowB. On 
the platform stood a nnmber of men who were seeing 
off the prisoners : the soldiers of the gaard did not let 
him walk ap to Uie cars. The ofGcers of t^e gnard were 
very mach disturbed. On the way to the station there 
had died from Bunstroke ttiree men beaides the two which 
Nekhlytldov had seen: one of these had been taken to 
the nearest police station, like the other two, while two 
more fell at the station.^ The officers of the guard were 
not concerned about the five men which they had lost, 
and who might have lived. This did not interest them. 
They were interested only in executing all that the law 
demanded of tiiem under these circamstancea : to deliver 
the dead persons and thdr papers and things where it was 
necessary, and to exclude them from the count of those 
who were to be taken to Nfzhni-N6^orod, — and this was 
quite troublesome, especially in such hot weather. 

It was this which gave the men of the guard so much 
trouble, and it was for this reason that neither Nekh- 
lyildov, nor the others, were pennitted to walk up to the 
cars. Nekhlytidov, however, was permitted to go up, 
because ha bribed an under-officer of the guard. The 
under-officer let Nekhlytidov pass, and only asked him to 

iln the bcftliiiilng of Uie d^ilM five tHrlaonen died In aaa Aaj 
from tbe efCecU of Bonatioke, wblle being taken from tbe Bjitfnki 
Prison to the lUtion of the Ntchni-K4vgorod rmllwiqr. — AvtkoT't 



say what he 'wished to say and walk away aa bood as 
poeaihle, bo that the anpeiior officer should not see him. 

There were eighteen cars in all, and ell of them, except 
the car of the officers, were filled to suffocation with 

Passing hy the windows of the cars, Nekhlytidov lis- 
tened to what was going on within. In all of them could 
be heard the clanking of chains, hustle, and conversation, 
mixed wiUi sraiseless profanity, hut nowhere was a word 
said about the sunstmck companions, which was what 
NekhlytidoT had expected to hear. They were talking 
mainly about their bags, about water to (hink, and about 
the choice of a seat. 

Upon looking inside one window, Kekhlyiidoy eaw in 
the middle of the car, in the passageway, some soldiers 
who were taking ofT the bandcuffs from the prisoners. 
The prisoners extended their hands, and a soldier opened 
the manacles with a key, and took them off. Another 
gathered them up. 

Having walked along the whole txain, Nekhlytldor 
walked up to the women's car. Id the aeoood one ci 
these, he heard the even groans of a woman, interrupted 
by exclamations, " Oh, oh, oh I Help met Ob, tAi, oh! 
Help me I " 

yekhlyifdov went past it, and, following Uie indica- 
ticm of a soldier, went up to a third car. As Kakhlyiidov 
put his head to the window, he was stifled by a hot 
breath, saturated with a dense odour of human exhala- 
tions, and he could clearly hear squeaking feminine voices. 
Perspiring women, red in their faces, were sitting on all 
the benches, dressed in cloaks and jackets, and chattering 
away. NekhlyildoT's face at the grated window attracted 
their attention. Those tbat were nearest grew silent and 
moved up to him. lUslova, in her bodice only and with- 
oat a kerchief, was seated at the opposite vrindow. Neap 
est to him sat white, smiling f edtjsya. 



Upon recognizing Nekhlyddov, she nudged Mtlalova 
and indicated the mndow to bei. 

MtCsloTB Bioae hurriedly, threw the kerchid over her 
black hair, and with an animated, red, perspiring, smiling 
face went op to the window and held on to the iron bars. 

" It is hot," she said, with a smile of delight. 

" Did you get the things ? " 

" I did, thank you." 

" Do you need anything," asked Nekhlyiidov, feeling aa 
though the car were heated inside like a bathroom oven. 

" Thank you, nothing." 

" If we could only get a drink," said Feddsya. 

" Yes, a drink," repeated M^lova. 

" Have you no water there ? " 

" They have put in some, but it has all been used op." 

" Directly," said Nekhlyiidov, " I will ask a scldier. 
We sba'n't see each other before Ntzhm-Nfivgorod." 

" Are you gcong there ? " said Mjslova, as though sot 
knowing it, and casting a joyful glance at Nekhlyiidov. 

" I go with Uie next train." 

MtCslova said nothing, and only a few seconds later 
drew a deep sigh. 

" Tell me, sir, is it true that th^ have killed twelve 
prisoners ? " said an old, rough woman, in a coarse man's 

This was KorabUva. 

" I have not heaid of twelve. I saw two," said Nekfa- 

"They say, twelve. Wont they be punished for it? 
They are devils." 

" Did none of the women get ill ? " asked Nekhlyiidov. 

" The women are tougher," said another, an undersized 
ptisonei, smiling. " Only one has taken it into her head 
to have a baby. You hear her moan," she said, point- 
ing to the next car, from which the groans ware still 



* Ton ask me whether I do not want BometJung 1 " said 
lUalova, trying to keep her lips from a smile of joy. 
" Can't this woman be kept here ? She ia snfTering ao 
macfa. Cant yon tell the authorities ? " 

« Yea, I will" 

"Another thii^. Could she not see Teiia, her hus- 
band ? " she added, indicating smiling FedtSsya witii her 
eyea. " I andeistand he ia traTalling with yon." 

" Mister, no talking allowed," was heard the voice <^ 
. an under«fficer of the guard. 

This was not the one who had given Kekhlyiidov the 
permissioo. Nekhlyiidov stepped aside and went to find 
the officer, in order to intercede for the lying-in woman 
and for Taria, hut he could not find him for a long time, 
nor could he get any answer out of the soldiers of the 
guard, niey were in a great turmoil : some w^e taking 
a priaoner somewhere ; others were running to boy pro- 
vifltoos for themselves, or pladng their things in the cars ; 
others again were attending to a lady who was bavelliog 
with the of&cer of the guard. They all answerad un- 
willingly to Nekhlyiidov'B questions. 

NekUjrddov saw the guard officer aftca* the second helL 

The officer, wiping with his short hand his moustache, 
iriiich ooncealed his mouth, and raising his shoulder, was 
reproaching the sergeant for something. 

" What ia it yon want ? " he asked Kekhlyddov. 

" There is a woman who is in labour pains in the car, 
so I thought she ought to — " 

"Let her be. We shall see then," said the officer, 
walking to his car, and briskly swinging his short arms. 

Jnst then the conductor, with the whistle in his hand, 
passed by. The last bell was rung, the whistle blown, 
and among tJiose who were waiting on the platform and 
in the women's car were heard weeping and lamentations. 
Kekhlytidov was standing with Tar&i on the {QaUorm, 
and watching the oars wi^ the grated windows, and iha 


602 BxstmBBcnoH 

shBTen heads of mea behiDd t^em, pass one aftei another. 
Then the first woman's oar came abreast of them, and 
in tlie window were seen tiie heads of several women in 
kerchiefs and witbont them; then tiie seccnd car, in 
winch MAsIova was. She was standing at tlie window 
widi others and looking at Nekhl^doT, with a ^tiable 
smile on her face. 



Thsre were two hours left liefore the pssaeiiger train, 
on which NeUilyiidoT was to travel, would start. At 
first he had intended to drive down in the meantime to 
his sister's, but now, under the impresaions of the moming, 
be felt BO agitated and cmehed that, upon sitting down 
on a Bofa in the waiting-ioom of the first class, he was 
flnddenly so overcome by sleepiness that he turned on his 
ride, put his hand under his cheek, and immediately f«U 

He was awakened by a waiter in a dress coat, holding 
a napkin. 

" Mister, mister, are you not Prince Neklilyiidov I A 
lady is looking for you." 

iTekhlyildov jumped up, and, rubbing his eyes, recalled 
where he was and all that had happened on that moming. 

In his recollection were the procession of the prisoners, 
the dead men, the cars vrith the grated windows, and the 
women shut up inside, of whom one was in the agony of 
labour, without receiving any aid, and another pitiably 
smiled from behind the iron bars. 

In reality there was something entirely different in 
front of him : a table, covered with bottles, vases, can- 
delabra, and dishes, and agile waiters bustling near it 
In tiie back of the hall, in front of a safe, and behind 
some vases filled with fmit and behind bottles wet« the 
buffet-keeper and the backs of travellers at the counter. 

Just as NekhlyiidOv was changing hia lying position 
for a ritting one, and slowly coming to, he noticed that 
those who were in the room were looking with curiority 



at Bomatbing that was tekiiig place at tha door. He 
looked in that directioii, and saw a procession of people 
oanying a lady in' a chair, her head being loosely covered 
with a shawL The front bearer was a lackey aiid seemed 
familiar to Nekhlyiidov. The one in Uie back was also a 
familiar porter, with galloons on his cap. Bock of the 
chair walked an elegant chambermaid, in apron and curls, 
carrying a bundle, a round object in a leather case, and 
umbrellas. Farther behind walked Prince Kondi^gin in 
a travelling-cap, displaying his thick lips and apt^ectic 
neck, and expanding his chest ; after bim walked Misay, 
Misha, a consin, and diplomatist Osten, whom Nekh- 
lyiidov knew, with his long neck and prominent Adam's 
apple, and an ever jolly expression on his face. While 
walking, he was proving something impressively and, 
apparmtly, jocularly, to smiling Missy. Behind them 
came the doctor, angrily pufOng his cigarette. 

The KorchtEgins were moving from their suburban 
estate to the estate of the prince's sister, which was down 
<m the Nlzhni-N6^orod line. 

The procession of tjie bearers, of the chambermaid, and 
the doctor proceeded to the ladies' room, evoking the 
curiosity and respect of everybody present. The old 
prince sat down at the table, immeduitely called a lackey, 
and b^an to order something to eat and drink. Missy 
and 6sten also stopped in the dining-room and were on 
tiie point of sitting down when they noticed a lady 
of their acquaintance in the door, whom they went up 
to meet, lliis lady was Xatdlya Iv&ioma. 

Natdlya Ivdnovna, accompanied by Agraf^na Fetnivna, 
looked all around ber, as she entered the dining-room. 
She noticed Missy and her brother about the same time. 
She first went up to Missy, nodding her head to Nekh- 
lyiidov. But, having kissed Missy, she at once went ap 
to her brother. 

" At last I have found you," she said. 


BBSUBKBcnoir 606 

yflkhlyildoT arose, greeted Missy, Mfsha, and 6steii, 
and stopped to talk to them. Missy told bim of the 
fin on their estate which oompelled them to go to her 
aonf s. Osten nsed this opportunity to tell a funny aneo- 
dote aboQt the fire. 

NekhlyiidoT was not listening to 68ten, but trnned to 
his sister : " How glad I am that you have oome," he 

" I have been quite awhile here," she said. " Agraf&ia 
Febi$Tna is with me." She pointed to Agraf&ia Petrdvua, 
who wore a hat and a mackintosh, and with gntdous 
dignity was bowing confusedly to NekUyiidoT from a 
distance, not wishing to be in his way. " We have been 
looking for yon ererywltere." 

" I feD asleep in here. How glad I am you have 
come," repeated Kekhlyiidor. " I bad begun to write a 
letter to yoa," he said. 

" Seally 1 " she said, frightened. " About what ? " 

Missy and the gentlemen, noticing that an intimate 
conversation bad b^un between brother and sister, 
walked aside. Nekblyiidov and bis sister sat down 
near the window, on a velvet divan, near somebody's 
things, — a plaid and paper boxes. 

" Yesterday, after I left you, I wanted to come back 
and express my r^rets, but I did not know how he 
would teke it," said Nekblyiidov. " I did not treat your 
husband right, and this worried me," be added. 

" I knew, I was convinced," said his sister, " ^lat you 
did not mean to. Yon know yourself," and tears stood in 
her eyes, and she toudied his arm. The phrase was not 
clear, but he understood her quite well, and was touched 
by what she meant by it. These words meant that in 
addition to her love which bad possession of her, — her 
love for her husband, — bet love for bim, her brother, 
was important and dear to hei, end that every misunder- 
standing with him wss a source of great suffering to her. 



"ThaolE, thank joa. Ah, what I have seen to-day I" 
be Baid, suddenly recaUing the seoood dead prisons. 
"Two ptifloners were killed" 

" How do you mean killed ? " 

" I tell you, killed. They were taken oat thnmgh this 
heat Two of them died from Bonstroke." 

« Impoesible I What ? To-day ? A little while ago ? " 

" Yes, a little while aga I saw their dead bodies." 

"Bat why did they kill them? Who killed them?" 
said NattQya Ivinovna. 

" Those killed them who took them by force," Kekh- 
lyddoT said, with irritatioii, feeling that ^e looked even 
at this with the eyes of her husband. 

" Ah, my Qod ! " said Agnf^na PetnSma, coming op to 

" Yes, we have not the slightest idea of what is done 
with these unfortunates, and yet it ought to be known," 
added Nekhlyiidov, looking at the old prinoe, who, having 
tied a napkin aiound himself, was sitting at the table at 
a small pitchw, and at the same time glancing at NeUi- 

" Nekhlyddov I " he cnei. " Do yoa waot to co(d 
yourself off? It is good for ttie journey !" 

Nekhlyiidov declined, and turned away. 

"What ate you going to do?" proceeded NaUQya 

"Whatever I can. I do not know, but I feel that I 
must do something. And I will do what I can." 

" Yes, yes, I understand diat. Well, and witli theee," 
she said, smiling and indicating the KorcMginB with her 
eyes, " is it all absolutely ended 1 " 

" Absolutely so, and I think that there are no regrets 
on either side." 

" A {dty. I am sorry. I love her. (Jiaiited it is aa 
But why do you want to tie yourself ? " she added, 
timidly. "Why are you leaving?" 



" I am going awsy becsase t must," NekblyiidoT aoid, 
diylj and seriousl;, aa though wishing to inteimpt the 
conveisation, but he at once felt ashamed of his ct^dneas 
to hia aister. " Why can't I tell her eTeiything I think I " 
he thought. " Let Agraf^na PetnSvna hear it, too," he said 
to himself, looking at the old ohambermaid. Agraf^na 
PetttSvna's preeence o^ed him on to lepeat Bis decision to 
hia sister. 

"Are yon speakiDg of my intention to marry Katyit- 
sha ? Ton see, I have determined to do so, bnt she haa 
definitely and firmly refused me," he said, and his voice 
trembled, as it always did whenerer he bought of it. 
" She does not want my sacrifice, and herself sacrificea 
very mnch, for tme in her situation, bat I cannot accept 
that sacrifice, if that ia bnt a whioL And so I am follow- 
ing her np, and will be there where she is, and will do 
all in my power to help her and to alleviate her lot" 

Nat&lya Ivtinovna said nothing. Agraf^a Fetrtfvna 
looked questioningly at NattQys Ivinovna and shook her 
head. Juat then the procession started again from the 
ladies' room. The same handsome lackey, Filfpp, and 
the porter were carrying the princess. She stopped the 
bearers, beckoned to NekblyiidoT to come up to her, and, 
with an expression of pity and pining, gave him her 
white, ring-badecked huid, in terror expecting a firm 

" BpouvaTitabU ! " she said about the heat, " T cant 
stand it. Ce dimat me iue" Having talked awhile 
about the terrors of the Russian climate, and having 
invited him to visit them, she gave a sign to the bearers. 

" Be sore and come," she added, turning her long face 
to him, while being carried away. 

Nekhlyildov went out on the platform. The procession 
of the princess turned to the right, to the cars of the first 
class. Nekhlyiidov with the porter, who was carrying 
bia things, and with Tariis with his bag, went to the lef^ 



" This is my compaoioD," Nekhlyddov said to his Biater. 
pointing to Tan(s, whose biatoiy he had told her before. 

"You don't mean to aay yoa will travel third class," 
said Nat<[lya Iv^novua, wheu Nekhlyddov stopped in 
front of a car of the third class, and the portw with 
tiie thills and Tariie entered it. 

" It is more comfortable for me, and Taftis and I will 
be together," he said. " By the way," he added, " I have 
not yet given the Kuzminskoe land to the peasants, so, in 
case of my death, yonr children will inherit it" 

" Dmitri, stop," said NaUUya Iv^uoma. 

" And if I should give it to them, I mast tell you that 
everythiDg else will be theirs, because there is little 
chance of my marryi^, and if I should, there will be no 
children — so that — " 

« Dmitri, please don't say that," said NatcQya IvtboTna, 
but Nekhlyiidov saw that she was glad to hear that which 
he told her. 

Ahead, in front of the first class, stood a emaU throng 
of people, still looking at the car into which Princess 
Eorch^D had been carried. All the other people had 
already taken tbeii seats. Belated passengers, hurrying, 
clattered on the boards of the platform ; ^e conductors 
slammed the doors and asked the passengers to be seated 
and their friends to leave. 

Nekhlyildov walked into a sunny, hot, and malodoroaa 
car, and immediately stepped ont on tiie brake platform. 
K^^lya Iv^novna stood opposite the car, in her tashion- 
able hat and wrap, by the side of Agraf^na PetnSvua, and 
apparently was trying to find a subject for conversation, 
but was unable to discover any. It was not even posable 
to say, " icrivez" because her brother and she had long 
ago been making fan of this hahitosl phrase of parting 
people. That short conversation about money matters 
and inheritance had at once destroyed all their tender 
relations of brother and sister, — they now felt estranged 



from each other. CouBeqaently, Natdlya IvinoTna was 
glad when the train started, and it wae poesible only to 
Dod, and, vith a sad and kindly face, to say, " Good-bye, 
Bmftri, good-bye 1 " 

The moment the car had left, she b^an to think how 
to tell her husband of her conversation with her brother, 
and her face looked solemn and troubled. 

Although Kekhlyiidov had none but the very kindest 
feelings for his sister, and never concealed onytUng from 
her, be now felt awkward and oppressed in her presoice, 
and wished to get away from her as soon as possible. He 
felt thtO. there was no longer that Nat^ya, who (mce had 
been so near to him, but only the slave of a stranger and 
a disagreeable, swarthy, and hirsute man. He saw this 
because her face lit up with especial animation only 
when he said something which interested her husband, 
— that is, when he spoke about giving away the land to 
the peasants and aboat the inheritance, — and that painad 



Ths heat in the lai^ car of the third class, into which 
the Bon had been ahiuing all day long, and which now 
was filled with people, was so stiSing that Nekhlyiidov 
did not enter the car, but remained on the brake platform. 
Even here it was not possible to breathe, and Nekhlyiidor 
drew a deep breath only when the cars came out of the 
rows of houses, and a fresh breeze b^an to blow. 

" Yes, they have killed them," he repeated the words 
which be had said to hia sister. In his im^ination arose, 
through all the impressions of that day, with especial 
vividness, the handaome face of the second dead prisoner, 
with the smiling expression of his lips, the severe aspect 
of bis forehead, and the small, firm ear beneath the 
shaTSn, livid skulL "The most terrible thing of this 
all is that he has been killed, and nobody knows who it 
is that has killed him. There is no doubt about his 
having been killed. He was led, like all the prisoners, 
by order of Masl&inikov. Masl^nnikov, no doubt, sent 
forth his habitual order, with his stupid flounsh signed a 
paper with a printed beading, and, of course, in no way 
will regard himself as guilty. SttU less can the prison 
doctor, who examined the prisoners, consider himself', to 
be guilty. He accurately executed his duty, s^^ated 
the weak, and in no way could foresee this terriolv beat, ~ 
nor that they would be taken away so late and in such a 
throng. The superintendent? — bat the superintendent 
only executed the order to send oat on such and such a 
day so many enforced labour and deportation convicta, 
men and women. Not can the officer of the guard be 



giiil^, whose dut^ conaiated in receiTing a certain number 
of ptiBoners and delivering the same to snch and sach a 
place. He led the party according to the regulation, and 
he could not foresee tl^At such strong men as those two 
whom N^hlyiidov had seen would not bold out and 
would die. Nobody is guilty, — but the people have been 
killed, and they have been killed by these very men who 
are innocent of their deaths. 

"AU this was done," thought NekhlyildoT, "because 
all these people, governors, superintendents, seigeants, 
policemen, think that there are regulations in tbe world, 
in whidi the relations of man to man are not obligatory. 
If all these people — Masl^nikov, the superintendent, 
the officer of the guard — vere not govemore, superin- 
tendents, and officers, they would have conaidered twenty 
times whether they ought to take out the prisonerB in 
Buch a heat and in such large crowds ; they would fiave 
stopped twenty timoB during the march, in order to take 
out soch men as were weakening and falling HI; they 
would have taken them into the shade, would have given 
them water to drink, would have allowed them to rest, 
and, if a misfortune had happened, would have expressed 
their compassion. They have not done it, and have even 
interfered with others who would have done it, because 
they saw before them, not men and their obli^tions to 
them, but their own service and its demands, which they 
placed higher than the demands of human relations. That 
is where the trouble is," thought Nekhlyildov. " If it is 
possible to acknowledge that anything is more important 
,than tfe feeling of humanity, even for one hour and in 
any one exceptional case, then any crime may be com- 
mitted against men without a f eelii^ of guilt," 

Kekhlyiidov fell to musing, and did not notice how tiie 
weather had in the meantime changed : the sun had dis- 
appeared behind a low, tattered, advance cloud, and from 
the western horizon moved a solid, light gray cloud, which 


612 BxsnRBEcnOH 

Bomewhera lar away was already pouring forth its alanting. 
abandant rain over fields and woods. A damp, rain-fed 
lowze was wafted from the storm-olood. Now and then 
li^tnings crossed the cloud, and the ramble of thondar 
ever miwe frequently mingled with the rumble of the car- 
wheels. The doad came nearer and nearer, and slanting 
drops of lain, driven by tiie wind, began to wet the brake 
plabEom and Nekblyridov's overcoat. He went over to 
the other side, and, inhaling the moist ur and the odour 
of growing com from the thirsty earth, looked at the 
passing gardens, forests, yellowing fields of rye, the still 
green stripe of oats and the black furrows of Uie dark 
green, flowering potato-beds. Everything looked as 
though covered with lacquer ; that which wbs green be~ 
came greener, that which was yeUow grew yellower, and 
that which was black, blacker. 

, " More, more," said Nekhlyddov, rejoicing at the sight 
of fields, gardens, and orchards, which were revivii^ under 
the influence of the beneficent lain. 

The heavy rain did not come down long. The storm- 
cloud was partly exhausted and partly carried beyond. 
and only the last, straight, abundant, and tiny drops fell 
on the damp earth. The sun again peeped out ; every- 
thing sparkled, and in the west there was arched above 
die faorizou a low, bat bright rainbow, with prominent 
vicJet hue, discontinuouB at one end only. 

" What was it I was thinking aboat 7 " Nekhlyildov 
asked himself, when all these dianges in Nature had 
taken place, and the train was passing over a road-bed 
that was raised high above the lower ground. 

" Yes, I was thinking that aU these peo[^, — tiie super- 
intendent, the soldiers of the guard, — th&t all serving 
people, — most of them meek, kindly people, — have 
become bad only through service." 

He recalled Masl&mikov'B indifference, whoi he told 
him of what was goiiig on in the prison, t^e severity trf 



the auperiDtendent, the cruelty of the officer of the guard, 
wheu he did not permit the men to get into the drays, 
sod when he paid no attention to the woman who wae in 
labour in the car. All these people were apparently im- 
mone and impervious to the simplest sense of compaBsion 
only because they served. They, as serving people, were 
impervious to the feeling of homaoity, " aa tins paved 
«arth is to rain," thought Nekhlyiidov, looking at the 
incUne of the embankment which was paved wi^ many- 
coloured stones, over which the rain-water flowed down 
in runlets, without soaking into the earth. " It may be 
necessary to pave the embankments with stones, but it 
is sad to see the earth deprived of vegetation, whereas 
it could have brought forth grain, grass, shrubs, trees, 
like the land which is to be seen above the ravine. It 
is just oo with men," thought Nekhlyiidov. " It may be 
that these governors, superintendents, policemen, are nec- 
essary, bat it is terrible to see people deprived of their 
chief human quality, — of lore and pity for their fellow / 

"The trouble is," thought Nekfalyiidov. "that t^ese 
men accept as law that which is not the law, and do not 
acknowledge as law that which is en eternal, unchange- 
able, inalienable law, written by Qod Himself in the hearts 
of men. It is this which makes it so bard for me to be 
witti these men," thought Nekhlyiidov. "I am simply 
afraid of them. Indeed, they are terrible people, — more 
terrible than robbers. A robber may have pity, — these 
never can ; they are ensured against pity, as these stones 
are against vegetation. It is this which makes them so 
terrible. They say Pi^ach^v and lUzin are terrible. 
These are a thousand times more terrible ! " he continued 
to think. " If a psychol(^cal problem were givoi, — what 
is to be done in order that people of our time, humane 
Christians, simply good people, should commit the most 
atrocious deeds without feeling themselves guilty ? — only 


514 KBsnsREcmoK 

one solution would present itself : it is neceasaiy to do 
that which actually is being done; it is necessary for 
these people to be goTemors, superintendents, ofBcers, 
poUcemen, tiiat is, they must, in the first place, be cod- 
vinced Uutt there is a thing called government service 
where one may treat people as objects, without any human, 
fraternal relation to them, and, in the second, that ihe 
people of this government service must be so interrelated 
tiiat the responsibility for their treatment of people should 
fall on no one separ^ly. Outside of these conditions, it 
is impossible in our day to commit such atrocious deeds 
as those which I have seen to-day. 

" The trouble is that people tJuok that there are con- 
ditions under which one may treat men without love, 
whereas there are no each conditions. Things may be 
treated without love : one may chop wood, make bncks, 
forge iron, without love; but people cannot be treated 
wiUioat love, jast as one cannot handle bees withont 
care. Such is the property of the bees. If they are care- 
lessly handled by a person, they hurt both themselves 
and him. Just so it is with people. This cannot be 
otherwise, because mutual love between men is the fun- 
damental law of human existence. It is true, a man cannot 
make himself love as he can make himself work, but from 
this it does not follow that people may be treated without 
love, especially if sometMng is demanded from them. If 
you feel no love for men, — keep your peace," NekhlyiSdov 
thought, addressing himself. " Busy yourself with your- 
self, with things, only not with men. Just as one can eat 
without harm and profitably only when one is hungry, 
BO one may profitably and harmlessly make use of men 
only as long as one loves them. Permit yourself to treat 
people without love, just as you yesterday treated your 
brother-in-law, and there is no limit to cruelty and besti- 
ality in regard to other people, jast as I have observed 
to-day, and there is no hmit to suffering, as I have dis- 



covered io my own life. Yes, fee, that is so," thoag^t 
Nekhlyiidov. "It is good, it is good!" he repeated to 
faimBcU, experiencing ^e double pleasure of refreebmeDt 
after the sweltering heat, and of having become consciouB 
of the highest degree of deamese in a question which had 
been interesting him for a long time. 



The car, is whic^ Nekhlyrfdov's seat waa, was half- 
filled with people. There were here serv&ntB, artiBana, 
factory hands, batchers, Jews, cl^bs, women, wives of 
labourers, and there were a soldier, and two ladies, — 
one youDg, the other of middle age, with biaceleta on her 
bare wrist, — and a stem-looking gentleman with a cockade 
in his black cap. All these people, having fixed them- 
selves in their seats, were sitting in orderly fashion,, some 
of them cracking pumpkin seeds, some smoking cigarettes, 
while others were carrying on animated conversations 
with their neighbours. 

Tar^, with happy mien, was sitting to the right of the 
aisle, keeping a place for Nekhlyddov, and waa chatting 
away with a muscular man in an unhutt<ated, sloeveless, 
doth coat, sitting opposite him ; Nekhlyddov later learned 
Uiat he was a gardener travelling to tak . a job. Before 
walking np to Tar&, Kekhlyildov stopped in the aisle 
near a respectable-looking old man with a white beard, in 
a nankeen coat, who was conversing with a young woman 
in village attire. At the woman's side sat a seven-year- 
old girl, in a new sleeveless coat, with a braid of almoBt 
white hair. Her feet dangled way above the floor, and 
she cracked seeds all the time. 

Upon noticing Nekhlyildov, the old man poshed aside 
the fold of his coat from the shining bench, on which he 
was sitting, and said, in a kind voice : 

" Please be seated." 

Nekhlyiidov thanked him and took the indicated aeit 



When he bad done ^t, the woman continaed her inter- 
rupted etory. 

She was telling bow hex huaband, from whom she was 
retaming now, bad received her in the city. 

" I was there in Butter-week, and now Gktd has granted 
that I should be there again," she said. " And now, if 
God shall permit it, I shall see him f^ain at Christmas." 

" That is good," said the old man, looking at Nekhlyil- 
doT. " You must watch him, or else a young man, living 
in the city, will soon get spoiled." 

" No, grandfather, mine is not that kind of a man. He 
not only does not do anything foolish, be is like a maiden. 
H^ sends all bis money home, to the last cent And he 
was so glad to see the girl, — I can hardly tell you how 
happy he was," said the woman, smiling. 

The little girl, who was spitting out the shells and 
listening to her mother, looked with quiet, intelligent eyes 
at the faces of the old man and of Nekhlyiidov. 

" If he is clever, so much the better," said the old man. 
" And does he busy himself with this ? " he added, with 
bis eyes indicating a pair, man and wife, apparently factory 
hands, who were sitting on the other side of the aisle. 

The man had put a brandy bottle to his mouth, and, 
throwing his bead back, was taking some swallows from 
it, while bis wife was holding a l»g in ber hand, from 
which the bottle had been taken, and looking fixedly at 
her husband. 

" No, mine neither drinks nor smokes," said the woman, 
the old man's interlocutrice, using the opportonity to 
praise up her husband once more. "The earth brings 
forth few such men as he is. That's the kind of a man he 
is," she said, turning to Nekhlytfdov. 

" Nothing better," repeated the old man, who was watch- 
ing the drinking factory workman. The workman, having 
had bis fill, handed the bottle to his wife. She took it 
and, smiling and ahalring her bead, pnt it to her mouth. 


618 BBsuRBKcnoir 

upon Qotidng Kekhlyddov's and the did man's glaticea, 
the workman turned to them. 

" Ah, sir, yoa are wondering why we are diinkiiig 7 
Whm we work, no one sees us, but when we drink, all 
watch OS. When I earn money, I drink and treat my 
Bpoose, and nobody elae." 

"Yes, yes," said Nekhlyiidov, not knowing what to 
answer. < 

" Is it right, sir ? My spouse is a firm woman I I am 
Batisfied with my spouse, because she knows how to pity. 
Do I say right, M^vra ? " 

" Take it ; I do not want any more," said his wife, giv- 
ing him the bottle. "Don't prattle senselessly," she 

" That's it," ctmtinued the workman, " she is all right, 
but she sqaeaks like an ungreaaed wagon. M^vra, do I 
say right ? " 

Mivra, laughing, with a dmnkeo gestuie waved her 

" You are frisky — " 

" That's it, she is all right, as long as she is all right, 
but when the reins get under her tail, she carries on 
awfully — I am telling the truth. You must excuse me, 
sir. I have drunk some, — well, what is to be done ? " 
said the workman. He put his head into his wife's lap 
and was getting ready to fall asleep. 

Nekblytldov sat awhile with the old man, who told him 
about himself. He said that he was a stove-builder, that 
he had worked tor fifty-three years, patting up an endless 
number of stoves in his lifetime, aiid that he was now 
trying to take a rest, but could not get the time for it 
He bad been in the city, where he had put the boys 
to work, and now he was on his way to the village, to see 
how his people were getting on. After having listened to 
the old man's story, Nekhlyddov arose and went over 
to the place which Tuia had reserved for him. 



" Well, BIT, take a seat I shall take the rack orer 
here," kindly remarked the gardener, who was sitting 
o[^>osite Taria, looking np at Kekhlyddov's face. 

" Thongh it is crowded, no offence is meant," Bmiliog 
Tar^ said, in a chanting voice, lifting np his serenty- 
pound bag like a feather in his powerful buids and carry- 
ing it orer to Uie window. "There is plenty of room 
bete, aod we can stand, or go down under the bench. It 
is qniet tbera Wliat nonsense I am saying 1 " he said, 
beamii^ with good nature and kindness. 

Tar^ said of himself Uiat when he did not drink he 
could not find words, but that liquor gave bim good words, 
and be could express himself well. Indeed, when sober, 
Taris was generally silent ; but when he took some liquor, 
which happened rarely and only on special occasions, he 
became unusually communicative. He then spoke a great 
deal, and he spoke well, with great simplicity, truthfulness, 
and, above everything else, with gentieness, which shone 
in his kindly blue eyes, and with a pleasing smile, which 
did not leave his lips. 

He was in such a state now. NekhlytEdov's arrival tor 
a moment stopped his narrative. But, having found a 
place for his h&g, he sat down in his old place, and put- 
ting his strong working hands on his knees, and looking 
straight into the gardener's eyes, continued hie story. 
He was telling bis new acquaintance all the details ot 
his wife's story, why she was being deported, and why be 
followed her up to Siberia. 

Nekhlyildov had never heard all the details of this 
story, and so be listened with interest. The story had 
reached the point where the poisoning bad been done, 
and the family found out that FedtSsya bad done it. 

" I am telling about my sorrow," said Tasia, turning to 
yekhlyildov, with an expression of friendly intinuu^. 
" I have fallen in with a nice man, and so I am telling 
him my story." 



** Yes, yea," said KekhlyiidoT. 

" So, mj MeBd, the affair was discorerod in Cbw 
mumer. Mother took that very cake and said, ' I ant 
going to the officer.' — My father, who is a wise old man, 
said, ' Wait, old woman I She is a mere child ; she does 
not know herself what she has done, and you ought to 
pity her. She may regret her deed.' — Ho, she would 
not listen to his word& — ' While we are keeping her, she 
will destroy us like cockroadies.' — So she went to the 
officer. He immediately made for oar hoase, and brought 
the constables with him." 

" And bow was it with you ? " asked the gardens. 

"My friend, I was tossing about, with a pain in my 
belly, and vomiting. It turned all my inside out, — it 
was worse than I can tell you. Father at once bitched 
the horses to the wagon, put Fedtisya in it, and took her 
to the village office, and thence to the examining magis- 
trate. And just as she had at first confessed her guilt, bo 
she now told the magistrate everything, — where she gob 
the arsenic, and how she had made &e cake. — ' Why,' 
says he, ' did you do it ? ' — ' Because,' says she, ' I am 
tiled of him. In Siberia,' says she, ' I shall he beUet off 
than with him,' — that's me, you see," Tar^ said, smil- 
ing. — " She confessed everything. Of course, she was 
sent to jail Father came baok alone. And thete came 
working time, and all the women we bad was mother, 
and she was not strong. We wondered whether we oould 
not get her out on hail Father went to see some officer, 
bat nothing came of it ; then father went to see another. 
He saw five men that way, but all in vain. He had jnst 
about given np trying, when he fell in with a clerk. He 
was sleek, — a rare man. — 'Give me,' says he, <a five, 
and I will help you.' — They made a baigain at three 
roubles. My friend, I had to pawn her linen to get the 
money. And so he wrote a document," Tarfe stretched 
oat his arm, as (hough he were speaking of a ebot, " and 



it came oot all at ooce. By that time I was already up 
from bed, and I myself went to town for her. 

" And so, my friend, I came to town. I left my mare 
at a hostelry, took my document, and went to the priffm. 
— ' What do you want ? ' — 'So and so,' says I, ' my wife 
ia locked up here.' — 'Have you a document?' says he. 
— I gave it to him. He looked at it. ' Wait,' saya he. I 
sat down on a bench. The sun was past noon. Comes 
in the chief. • Aie you,' says he, ' Vargushtfv ? ' — * I am.' 
— ' Take her/ says he. — They opened the gate. They 
brought her out in her garb, as is proper. — ' Come, let us 
go.' — ' Are you on foot ? ' — ' No, I have brought the 
horse with me.' — We went to the hostelry ; I paid my 
bill, harnessed the mare, and put what hay there was left 
under tile maL She took her seat, wrapped herself in 
her kerchief, and off we went. She waa silent, and so 
was L As we were getting near the house, she said : ■ la 
mother alive ? ' — ' She is.' — ' Forgive me, Tatia, my 
stupidity. I did not know myself what I was doing.' — 
Bat I said : ' Whatever you may say, you will make very 
little change, because I have forgiven you long ago.' — 
She did not say anotiier word. When we came home, 
she fell down at mother's feet. Says mother : ' What is 
the use recalling the past 7 Do the beat you can. Now,* 
says ahe, ' there is no time, — we have to reap the field. 
Back of Skoi^dnoe,' says she, ' on the manured plot, God 
has given as such a crop of rye that you can't get at it 
with a book ; it is all tangled up and lying flat. It has 
to be reaped. So you go there with Tarib to-morrow, and 
reap it' — And so she went and began to work. It was 
a sight to see her work. We had then three rented 
desyatinas, and God bad given us a rare crop of rye and 
oats. I would cut with the sickle, and she woold bind, 
or we would both cut with the scythe. I am a good 
hand at work, but she is better still at anything she may 
do. She ia a quick worker and young. And she grew bo 



iodnstrions tliat I hod to hold her back. When we came 
to the house, our fingers would be swollen, and our hands 
would smart, so that we ought to have taken a rest, bat 
she would run to the bam, without eating supper, in order 
to get the sheaf-cords ready for the morrow. It was just 

" And was she kind to you ? " asked the gardener. 

" You would not beliere me bow she stack to me, — 
she juat became one soul with me. I would barely think 
of a thing, when she would uuderstaad me. Even my 
mother, who is a cross woman, used to say : ' Fed6sya 
acts as though she were somebody else, — she ia a dif- 
ferent woman.' — Once we were both going for sheaves, 
and we were sitting both together. So I said to her: 
' What made yon do it, Fed^E^a ? ' — 'I just did it,' says 
she, ' because I did not want to live with you. I would 
rather die, thought I, than live with you.' — ' Well, and 
now?' says L — 'And now,' says she, 'you are deep in 
my heart.'" Tar^ stopped and, smiling joyfully, shook 
his head in surprise. " We had returned from the field, 
and I bad gone to soak some hemp; just as I came 
home," he said, after a moment's silence, " behold, a sum* 
moDs : the trial was on. We bad in l^e meantime for- 
gotten that there was to be a trial" 

"This was no other but t^e unclean one," said the 
gardener. " So man would have thought of ruining a 
souL There was once a man in our village — " and the 
gudener began to tell a story, but the train stopped. 
" Here is a station," he said, " I must go and get a 

The conversation was interrupted, and Nekhlytidov 
followed the gardener out of the car, upon the wet planks 
of liie platform. 



Even before coming out of the car, Kekhlyddor had 
noticed Beveral elegant carriages, drawn by Bet« of three 
and of four well-fed horses tinklii^ with their bells. 
When he came out on the wet platform, which looked 
black from the rain, he saw a gathering of people in front 
of the first class. Among them was most prominent a 
tall, stout, lady in a mackintosh, with a hat of expensive 
feathers, and a lank young man with thin legs, in bicycle 
costume, with an immense well-fed dog with an expensive 
collar. Back of them stood lackeys with wraps and um- 
brellas, and a coachman, who had come to meet somebody. 
On all that crowd, from the stout lady to the coachman, 
who with one hand was supporting the skirts of his long 
caftan, lay the seal of quiet self-confidence and super- 
abundance. About this point soon was formed a circle 
of curious men, servilely admiring wealth : they were tixe 
chief of the station, a gendarme, a haggard maid in a 
native costume, with glass beads, always present in the 
summer at the arrival of traiuB, the despatcher, and pas> 
sengers, men and women. 

In the young man with the dog, Nekhlyiidov recog- 
nized a gynmasiast, young Korchdgin. The stout lady 
was the princess's sister, to whose estate the Korch^gins 
were going. The chief conductor, in shining galloons 
and boots, opened the door of the car and held the door, 
in token of respect, while Filfpp and a labourer in a white 
apron carefully carried out the long-faced princess in her 
folding chair. The sisters greeted each other ; there were 
beard French phrases about whether the princess would 



ta«vel in & carriage or in a barouche ; and the pcoceBuon, 
which was ended by the chambermaid with the corls, 
carrying the umbrellas and the box, moved to the door of 
the station. 

Nekhlyildov, who did not wish to meet them, becaose 
he did not wish to bid them farewell again, did not walk 
up as far aa the door, but waited for the procession to 
pass. The princess with her son. Missy, the doctor, and 
the chambermaid went first, while the prince stopped to 
talk to his sister-in-law, and Nekhlyiidov, who did not 
walk up close, caught only broken sentences of their 
conversation, which was in French. One of these phrases, 
as frequently is the case, impressed itself deeply cm 
Nekhlyiidov's, memory, wiUi all its intonations and sounds. 
"Oh, il eat du vrai grand TTumde, du vrai grand monds," 
the prince was saying of some one, in his loud, self-confi- 
dent Toica He passed with his sister-in-law ^ough the 
station door, accompanied t^ the respectful conductors 
and porters. 

Just Uien a throng of workingmen in bast shoes ftod 
diort fur coats, with bags over their shoulders, made their 
appearance on the platform from somewhere around the 
comer of the station. The workingmen with firm, soft 
stejMi walked up to the first car and wanted to enter, hut 
were driven off by the conductor. They did not stop, 
bat, hastening, and stepping on each other's feet, went to 
the next car, and, catching with their hags in the corners 
and doors of the car, were making their way in, when 
a conductor standing in the door of the station noticed 
th^ intention and angrily called out to them. The 
workingmen hastily retreated, and with the same soft 
steps went on to the next car, the one Kekhlyiidov was 
in. Again a conductor stopped them. They stopped, 
intending to move on, but Kekhlyiidov told them that 
there were unoccupied seats in the car, and that they 
should go in. They did so, and Kekhlyiidov went in 



aJbcn themr The workiiigmen were on the point of seat- 
ing tbemselves, bnt the gentleman with the cockade and 
the two ladies, taking their attempt to Beat themselves 
in this car as a personal affront, resolutely opposed them 
and began to drive them out. The workingmen, — there 
were about twenty of them, — both old and young men, 
with tired, sunburnt, lean faces, catching with their 
bags against the benches, walls, and doors, apparently 
feeling themselves absolutely guilty, passed on through 
the car, evidently ready to walk to the end of the world, 
and to sit down anywhere they should be permitted to, 
even on nails. 

" Where are you going, devils ? Sit down," cried 
another conductor, who came from the opposite direction. 

" Voilii encore des nourelles," said the younger of the 
two ladies, quite convinced that she would attract Nekb- 
lyiidoVs attention with her good French. 

The lady with the bracelets kept snif^ng and frown- 
ing, saying something about the pleasure of sitting in 
the same car with stinking peasants. 

The workingmen, experiencing joy and peace, such as 
people experience who have passed a great peril.'stopped 
and began to seat themselves, with a motion of their 
shoulders throwing down the heavy bags from their 
shoulders and pushing them under the benches. 

The gardener who had been speaking with Tar^ went 
back to his seat, which was not the one he had occupied, 
and so, near Tards and opposite him, three places were 
free. Three workiugmen sat down on these seats, but 
when Nekhlyiidov came up to them, the sight of his fine 
clothes BO confused them that they got up ; Nekhlyiidov 
asked them to keep their seats, and himself sat down on 
the ann of the bench, near the aisle. 

One of two workingmen, a man of about fifty ^ears 
of age, in dismay and fright looked at the younger man. 
IDiey were very mudi surprised and bafSed to see a 



gentleman give up hia seat to them, inatead of calling 
them names and driving t^em away, as gentlemeo gen- 
erally do. They were even afraid lest something bad 
diould come from it. Seeing, however, that there was 
no trickery in it, and that Nekhlyildov conversed in a 
ample manner with TartU, they quieted down, told 
a youngster to sit down on a bag, and insisted on Nekh- 
lydclov's taking the seat. At fitat the elderly working- 
mao, who wBB seated opposite Nekblyiidov, pressed 
himself in the comer, and carefully drew back his feet, 
which were clad in bast ahoes, in order not to push the 
gentleman, but later he entered into such a friendly chat 
with Nekhlyiidov and Tar^ that he even struck Nekb- 
ly^dov's knee with the back of his band, whenever he 
wished to attract his attention to some particular point 
in his story. He was telling abont all his affairs, and 
about his work in the peat-bc^, from which tbey were 
now returning, having worked there for two months and 
a half. They were taking home about ten rouble^ each, 
as part of tiie wages had been given them when they 
were hired. 

Their work, as he told it, was done in water which 
stood knee-deep, and lasted from daybreak until night, 
with two hours intermission at dinner. 

" Those wh6 are not used to it naturally find it hard," he 
said, " but if you are used to it, it is not bad. If only 
the grub were good. At first it was bad. But the work- 
ingmen objected, and then the grub was better, and it 
was easier to work." 

Then he told how he had been working out for twenty- 
eight years, and how he gave his earoings, first to Mb 
faUier, then to his elder brother, and now to his nephew, 
who was in charge of the farm, while he himself dpent, 
out of the fifty or sirty roubles which he earned & year, 
two or three roubles on foolishness, -— on tobacco and 



" I, siDfol man, sometimes take a drink of brandy, when 
work etops," he added, smiling a guilty smile. 

He also told how the women looked after things at 
home ; how the contractor had treated them before their 
'joaroey to half a bucket; how one had died; and how 
tbey were taking one sick man home. The sick man, of 
whom he spoke, was sitting in the same car, in a ccmier. 
He was a young boy, grayish pale in his face, with blue 
lipe. He was apparently suffering with the ague. 

Nekhlyiidov went up to him, but the boy looked with 
such a stem, suffering glance at him, that Nekhlyiidov 
did not trouble him with questions, but only advised an 
elder man to buy quinine, and wrote out the name of the 
medicine on a piece of paper for him. He wanted to give 
him money, but the old workingman Baid that it was not 
necessary, that he would give his. 

" As much as I have travelled, I have not seen anch , 
gentlemen. He not only did not kick me, but even gave 
me his Beat. Apparently there are all kinds of gentle- 
men," he conclad^, addressing Tarite. 

" Yes, it is a new, a different and a new, world," 
thought Nekhlyiidov, looking at these drawn, muscular 
limbs, these coarse, home-made garments, and these sun- 
burnt, kindly, and exhausted faces, and feeling himself 
surrounded on aU sides by entirely new men, vrith their 
serious interests, joys, and sufferings of a real, busy, and 
human life. 

" Here it is, k vrm grand monde" Uiought Nekhlyiidov, 
recalling the phrase which had been used by Prince 
Korch^gin, and all tiiat empty, luxurious world of the 
Korch^gine, with their petty, miserable interests. And 
he experienced the sensation of a traveller who haa dis- 
covered a new, unknown, and beautiful world.